Her last wish is that Victor and Elizabeth may someday marry I After mourning his mother's death, Frankenstein goes up to the University of Ingolstadt without his friend Clerval. There he meets a professor of science, Krempe, who berates him for wasting his time on Agrippa and Paracelsus and suggests a more modern course of reading.
Frankenstein is little impressed with his appearance or manner, though, and has little interest in the mundane work of modern scientists as compared with the fantastic dreams of the alchemists. Upon meeting another professor, however—Waldman—his attitude toward modern chemistry changes, and he begins to study with ardor, rapdily progressing in his knowledge.
Still filled with the grandiose dreams of the alchemists, Frankenstein devotes himself to study day and night, neglecting his family and friends. After two years of uninterrupted labor, he has discovered the secret which he has sought: the principle of life I He imagines creating a new race of beings which will hail him as their creator. On a November night, he succeeds in bringing life to lifeless matter I But when the eyes of his creature open, he is terrified by its appearance, and runs from it in horror.
Fatigued from days of constant labor, he falls asleep and has a nightmare: he embraces Elizabeth, only to watch her turn into his dead mother, with worms crawling about her. He is suddenly awakened by the Creature standing over his bed; he then runs out of the room into the streets of Ingolstadt. There he encounters Clerval I , and the two return to Frankenstein's lodging, where Frankenstein is relieved to see the Creature has disappeared.
But he falls into a fever, with only Clerval to nurse him back to health.
After months of raving he comes to his senses, and he and Clerval set out on a walking tour of the area to calm his mind I The two return to Ingolstadt to find a letter from Frankenstein's father announcing the strangling death of Victor's brother, William I They travel to Geneva, where a search for William's murderer is in progress. Outside the city, Victor spots his creation and is certain that the Creature is responsible for his brother's death, even though a beloved family servant, Justine Moritz, has been accused of the killing, having been found with the locket William wore the night of his death.
Frankenstein and Elizabeth are convinced of Justine's innocence, but at her trial I:7 , Frankenstein, afraid of being thought mad, does not tell his story, and she is found guilty and executed. Her death and William's weigh heavily on Frankenstein, who blames himself as their true murderer. Frankenstein sets out to scale Mont Blanc II:2 , and on a plain of ice he is approached by the Creature, who tells his own story. The Creature's first encounter with humans comes as he enters a hut, causing its inhabitant to flee in terror II —the same terror he inspires in the residents of a village he enters, and after fleeing angry villagers he takes refuge in a "hovel" that allows him to see into an adjoining cottage.
From there he silently watches the impoverished and despondent De Lacey family, consisting of the blind father, his son Felix, and his daughter Agatha; impressed with their "gentle manners," he secretly provides the family with firewood II There he discovers the use of language, and learns the rudiments of this "godlike science" II by listening to their conversations. Moreover, , the year Asimov began writing his future history, was the year of the Soviet-Nazi Pact, and he has recalled how he was caught up in the events unfolding in Europe.
He was certainly aware both of some of its slogans and of its power to arouse allegiance among intellectuals and crucially alter the tempo of world history. However, awareness is one thing, understanding another. Indeed he takes this brand of Marxism to its logical end; human actions and the history they create become as predictable as physical events in nature. Everything in the universe is predetermined.
Hence, it is absolutely imperative that the Plan be kept secret. No psychologist is permitted on the First Foundation. Seldon "worked with mobs, populations of whole planets, and only blind mobs who do not possess any foreknowledge of the results of their actions They are described as "the fanatic hordes," "the featureless The masses must be governed by a higher authority; they are not fit to rule themselves. A few will be free; the rest will be under the thumb of those who can understand the Plan.
The First Speaker and clearly Asimov himself, along with many other SF writers such as Robert Heinlein envisions a society organized not according to the principles of equality but according to a hierarchy of merit. It is a society similar to the one urged by Saint-Simon, the French utopian thinker; he also argued for a society governed by savants mathematicians, chemists, engineers, painters, writers, etc.
Que sera, sera. It implies and evokes a certain passivity. It is, in essence, a frame of adjustment which cautions man to submit to the inevitable. At its worst, this attitude encourages a slavish submission to circumstances. They are nondescript pawns, unable to take their destiny into their own hands.
There is no fear or pity to evoke a tragic catharsis. Instead there is complacency. The Foundation Trilogy ends on a note of one-upmanship. After all that has happened, history is still on its course and Hari Seldon wins again.
This needs to be emphasized because at least one influential critic, Donald Wollheim, juxtaposes the "Foundation" novels with certain tenets of Marxism and argues that the validity of the "underlying concept" and the strengths of the novels lie in their deviation from Marxism. To take Marxism first, Marx and Engels never claimed for their theories the status of "exact science. In reality there is always an approximation.
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This is partly due to the fact that their action clashes with the simultaneous action of other laws, but partly due to their nature as cancepts. Its power to control rests on the ability of the elite who guard the Plan to calculate all the possible variations, to keep the Plan secret from the rest of humanity, and to intervene, if necessary, to keep the Plan operational.
Man is seen merely as an object of history rather than, dialectically, as a subject and object in the making of history. For Marxists, however, history is neither determinable nor determined by a set of abstract equations. History is people acting. Moreover, people come to understand historical "laws" because in their action they simultaneously change history—each other and their social institutions—and are changed by it.
Marx came to the conclusion that "the logic of history was thoroughly objective and communicable. History therefore culminated not in the intellectual contemplation of the past, but in a deliberate shaping of the future. For Marx and Engels, the choices people make about their lives, their morals, their praxis creative action and their knowledge of their particular situation—all of these are included in the "laws" of social development. Marx believed that capitalism would be replaced by socialism because it not only had fatal economic limitations but also because those limitations would lead the great mass of humanity—not merely an elite—to adopt his theory as a guide to action.
Marx did not relieve men of moral responsibility: "Underlying the whole of his work, providing the ethical impulse that guided his hopes and his studies, was a vision and theory of human freedom, of man as master of himself, of nature and of history. Marx disagrees. His optimism is based on a rejection of this cyclical view of history. History sometimes may, but as a rule does not—and certainly does not have to—repeat itself.
This rejection may help explain why some critics acquainted with Marxism are so exasperated by what they see as the essentially conservative nature of much contemporary SF.
For example, Franz Rottensteiner charges that "present day science fiction, far from being the literature of change, is as a rule very conservative in its method as well as content. For Marxists, however, technological change inevitably leads to changes in consciousness. The Reign of the Genre Genre has significant impact on how series or standalones are written and received.
This has become an expectation amongst readers, and likely started due to the significant amount of world-building necessary for these genres. On the other hand, most contemporary, realistic and literary novels are standalone. Genre is an important consideration both when writing and getting published. But what do you do if you really want to write a standalone fantasy, or a contemporary series?
In other words, do the same as you would to get any novel published, but be prepared to work even harder. When looking for a publisher, your best bet is those that have already published a series or standalone in the same genre as yours. It's good to get into the habit of taking note of who published a certain novel and checking their website. Kyla examines the publishing considerations crucial for every writer on their road to print.
Image credit: Zhao! It may not seem so, but looking at Australian bookstores, there's an approximate ratio of standalones and books that are part of a series being published. Many believe that the market is flooded with series. Publishers are being more cautious, wanting to see how the first book performs before committing. However, series are a high-risk, high-gain product.
One of the rising methods around this is for writers to submit a manuscript that can standalone or be extended into a series. Why do publishers ask for series? Sometimes writers submit a manuscript and a publisher accepts but wants a sequel or two. If a manuscript is strong enough and aimed at the right audience to secure the sales of following novels, the publisher may choose to request this of the author. Publishers are very select when it comes to asking for a series. Sales often diminish as a few readers lose interest in the story or get distracted after each new release.
They need to be hooked on the first book and carried through. This can also happen with standalones if you build a big name for yourself as an author. The first book of a series almost always sells the most copies.
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This is important for marketing, as the author's name is their brand. Have you ever bought a book because you recalled reading another by the same author? Authors, such as John Green, have written enough successful standalones that their name is as well-known as some series writers. Building an audience to an author of standalones only requires a handful of great novels. To build up your author brand with standalones you need to consecutively write great novels — just as any series writer would need to.
Readers can lose interest in a story that goes on for too long or has too big a gap between releases. Publishing bottom-line More than anything, what's important is the quality of the writing and the story. From the business perspective, a bad series won't sell better than a few good standalones. If the first or second novel in a series is unpopular, the sales of the next are lost. Focus on making Book One the best it can possibly be.
The more professionally you present Book One, the more likely a publisher will buy into the idea of Books Two, Three etc. One of the most important considerations for every writer: does your story need a sequel? Can you and your story hold out? To write a series, you need to be dedicated to the whole story, including all of the characters, the worlds, the plot, the voice, the mood and even tone.
Make sure you know how to write and stay positive, and have the determination to maintain healthy writing habits. Writing fatigue affects all writers and is caused by long periods of time with little rest. This results in writer's block, poor quality prose and difficulty noticing mistakes. To write a long piece of work such as a series requires good stamina, recognising when you need rest and acting on that. Writing a series is like when a dinner guest becomes a roommate. Writing the first book is like having a dinner party with exciting and stimulating guests, carefully planned menu, atmosphere — but the guests get to go home.
And you get to put your feet up and relax. Writing a series, the guests stay permanently. You have to think of exciting things for them to do, vary the menu, invite different guests for them to play with. Part of this includes knowing the characters and elements of your current story well enough to see the future story potential. Flesh out a basic outline for a sequel or whole series, run your ideas past some other writing friends.