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However, phagocytosis may not play a role in the uptake of nanoscale particles because of the small size of such particles The microvasculature of healthy tissue varies by tissue type, but in most tissues including the heart, brain, and lung, there are tight intercellular junctions less than 10 nm. Therefore, tumors within these tissue types can be selectively targeted by creating drug delivery nanostructures greater than the intercellular gap of the healthy tissue but smaller than the pores found within the tumor vasculature.

Through precise control of the drug carrier architecture, the release of the drug can be tuned to achieve a desired kinetic profile. Three of the most common kinetic profiles are zero order, first order, and Higuchi; these are depicted in figure 1 and expressed mathematically in the following equations. The delivery of most drugs is accomplished through oral administration or by injection and follows firstorder kinetics. The ideal release profile for most drugs would follow a steady release rate so that the drug levels in the body remain constant while the drug is being administered.

More recent transdermal drug delivery mechanisms follow the Higuchi model As shown subsequently, nanostructured polymeric and silica nanoparticles are being developed as drug carriers which achieve near zeroorder kinetics. Various nanoscale architectures can be realized including solid spheres, hollow spheres, tubes, porous particles, solid particles, and branched structures. To achieve such nanostructures, different fabrication methods are used depending on the type of material. The methods used for nanoscale assembly include molecular self-assembly 30 , bio aggregation 31 , nanomani- pulation 32 , photochemical patterning 33 , molecular imprinting 33 , layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition 34 35 , and vapor deposition With current liposome technologies it is not difficult to transfect a cell for purposes of gene therapy, but the therapeutic gene may be degraded if it is not able to traffic out of the endosome.

To enhance the efficacy of gene therapy, synthetic pH-sensitive histidylated oligolysine can be added to a drug-liposome complex to aid in escaping from the endosome This protocol was shown to improve the transfection efficiency in prostate and pancreatic cancer cell lines by 39 mfold, and elevated the expression of the transgene in a human prostate cancer xenograft model in athymic nude mice without increasing toxicity. Monoclonal antibodies are good targeting vehicles for nanoparticles but other bio conjugates are being tested with varying degrees of success.

Nucleic acid ligands called aptamers that mimic antibodies are potential replacements because they can be designed to bind to practically any antigen in an in vitro system. The aptamers are generated by evolutionary methods in vitro, and the molecules with high affinity are used for targeting antigens in vivo. This strategy has been applied to directing PEG-coated nanoparticles to home in on prostate-specific membrane antigen in prostate cancer cells. The aptamer conjugated particles were shown to have a fold increase in binding versus the control particles, and a large increase in uptake of drugencapsulated particles There are numerous examples of similar type targeting of nanoparticles 5 13 39 40 41 , and this area of research promises to provide important weapons in the arsenal for developing a cure for cancer.

One of the ultimate goals of nanotechnology is to create medically useful nanodevices that can function inside the body. It is envisioned that nanodevices will be hybrids of biologic molecules and synthetic polymers that can enter cells and the organelles to interact directly with DNA and proteins Additionally, nanomedicine will have an impact on the key challenges in cancer therapy: localized drug delivery and specific targeting. Among the newly developed nanomedicine and nanodevices such as quantum dots, nanowires, nanotubes, nanocantilevers, and nanopores, nanoshells and nanoparticles are the most promising applications for various cancer treatments.

The gold nanoshell-antibody complex can be used to ablate breast cancer cells. Nanoshells 43 have a core of silica and a metal outer layer. They can preferentially concentrate in cancer lesion sites through enhanced permeation retention. A nearinfrared laser illuminates the tissue, and the light will be absorbed by the nanoshells to generate an intense heat that destroys only the cancer cells without damaging the surrounding healthy cells Nanoparticles have already been used for targeted drug delivery, which enables much earlier detection 45 and immediate treatment of cancer.

Nanoparticles attached to chemotherapeutic drugs allow them to traverse the blood-brain barrier for brain tumor treatment In January , a nanoparticle-based drug called Abraxane paclitaxel protein- bound particles, Abraxis Oncology was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for breast cancer treatment. Abraxane uses nanoscaled particles of the natural protein albumin that can be delivered in the body without the use of solvents.

Biodegradable polymer nanoparticles, typically consisting of polylactic acid PLA , polyglycolic acid PGA , or a copolymer of PLA and PGA, are being investigated for the delivery of proteins and genes 48 49 , vaccines 50 51 and anticancer drugs 52 13 Dendrimers , a unique class of polymers, are highly branched macromolecules whose size and shape can be precisely controlled 54 Dendrimers are fabricated from monomers using either convergent or divergent step-growth polymerization.

Two representations of polyamidoamine-based Dendrimers are shown in figure 2. The well-defined structure, monodispersity of size, surface functionalization capability, and stability are properties of dendrimers that make them attractive drug carrier candidates. Drug molecules can be incorporated into dendrimers via either complexation or encapsulation as shown in figure 3. Dendrimers are being investigated for both drug and gene delivery 56 57 , as carriers for penicillin 58 59 , and for use in anticancer therapy 60 Dendrimers used in drug delivery studies typically incorporate one or more of the following polymers: polyamidoamine PAMAM 62 63 , melamine 64 , poly L-glutamic acid PG 65 , polyethyleneimine PEI 65 , poly propylene imine 66 , and poly ethylene glycol PEG Chitin and chitosan have also been incorporated with dendrimers The most commonly investigated siliconbased materials for drug delivery are porous silicon and silica, or silicon dioxide.

Architectures include calcified nanopores, platinum- containing nanopores, porous nanoparticles, and nanoneedles 69 The density and diameter of the nanopores can be accurately controlled to achieve a constant drug delivery rate through the pores. Porous hollow silica nanoparticles PHSNP are fabricated in a suspension containing sacrificial nanoscale templates such as calcium carbonate Silica precursors, such as sodium silicate, are added into the suspension, which is then dried and calcinated creating a core of the template material coated with a porous silica shell.

The template material is then dissolved in a wet etch bath, leaving behind the porous silica shell. Creation of drug carriers involves the mixing of the PHSNPs with the drug molecule and subsequently drying the mixture to coalesce the drug molecules to the surface of the silica nanoparticles Through controlling the pore size and the particle diameter, the release kinetics approach near zeroorder, where the release behavior of conventional silica nanoparticles is compared with that of porous hollow silica nanoparticles. As shown, the porous hollow nanoparticles exhibit a much more desirable gradual release Examples of therapies being investigated for use with silicon-based delivery systems include porous silicon embedded with platinum as an antitumor agent 73 , calcified porous silicon designed as an artificial growth factor 74 , silicon nanopores for antibody delivery 70 75 and porous silica nanoparticles containing antibiotics 71 , enzymes 76 and DNA Typical fabrication methods involve templating of the thin metal shell around a core material such as a silica nanoparticle.

Typical metals include gold, silver, platinum, and palladium. When linked to or embedded within polymeric drug carriers, metal nanoparticles can be used as thermal release triggers when irradiated with infrared light or excited by an alternating magnetic field Bimolecular conjugation methods of metals include bifunctional linkages, lipophilic interaction, silanization, electrostatic attraction, and nanobead interactions For example, the most widely used and effective drug, the common aspirin, is only about 0.

Many of the globular proteins, such as hemoglobin, are 5 nm in diameter, and natural proteins of similar size may be used as a therapeutic.

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Double-stranded DNA in the nucleus is about 2. Medicinal and structural chemists have been creating and manipulating nanometer and sub nanometer sized components of drugs for decades, and will continue to do so into the foreseeable future. The difference is that they will now be joined by a wide variety of scientists from a number of disciplines normally not involved in drug research. What are the requirements for an effective and safe cancer drug 85? There must be an adequate drug concentration in the body to allow for an effective dose at the tumor site.

The drug must have a high differential toxicity toward the tumor or a favorable therapeutic window. Research in nanomedicine will be addressing all these points, and a few examples in the drug development arena will be given below. Monoclonal antibodies will be an essential component of the new wave of cancer treatments developed through nanotechnologies.

They are being used as imaging vehicles, for drug targeting, as drug carriers, and as the drug itself. There are 9 or more FDA-approved antibodies approved for clinical use in cancer 86 87 88 , and many more are being evaluated in clinical trials.

References and Further Reading

The mechanism of action of the antibodies includes receptor ligand binding competition; interference with receptor function; antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytoxicity; complement-dependent cellular cytoxicity; or, perhaps, a combination of the above. This activity can also be combined with toxins directed at the cancer cell to produce an even more efficacious drug. One of the holy grails of drug research is to be able to rationally design and produce effective smallmolecule inhibitors of protein function 89 90 91 92 93 94 Development of many drugs will be the result of application of nanotechnologies that have been in place for many years.

For example, nuclear magnetic resonance and x-ray crystal structures of target proteins and their ligands or substrates are being used as the template for rational design of new drugs. The target may be enzymes or receptor—ligand proteins. Inhibitors of enzymatic activity are, in general, easier to design than blockers of protein— protein interactions. In many patients, administration of the drug results in what appears to be complete remission, but Gleevec-resistant leukemia often returns through mutations in the active site.

By careful study of the mutations and the structure of the kinase, new small molecular inhibitors were designed that could block the mutant strains and appear to be more efficacious than the original drug 98 99 The two drugs are reported to work synergistically, which will, hopefully, result in a complete cure of chronic myeloid leukemia. Drugs derived from nucleic acids are beginning to make an impact on the nanomedicine scene. Antisense technology exploits the use of oligonucleotides in the range of 15 to 20 nucleotides to block the function of an RNA target.

This technology has made rapid progress after experiencing initial difficulties in showing efficacy for in vivo models of disease. Ongoing clinical trials using antisense drugs include prostate, breast, pancreatic, lung, colorectal, melanoma, and brain cancers.

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A novel approach for this technology is to use oligonucleotides for sensitizing tumor cells to chemotherapy. The oligonucleotides are being combined with Nano liposomes to target and deliver the nucleic acids to the cancer cells and block production of the alpha folate receptor. This block was shown to decrease cell survival of breast cancer cell lines, and sensitized a cell line by 5-fold to doxorubicin.

This is a good example of how nanotechnologies can be used to increase the effectiveness of existing drugs, facilitating the use of lower dosages to decrease toxicity. The siRNAs are small doublestranded molecules of about 21 nucleotides in length that result in specific degradation of mRNAs containing the complementary sequence. This specificity makes siRNAs attractive candidates as nanodrugs for blocking the expression of wayward genes in cancer, but their application can be hindered by instability in the blood and poor uptake into the target cells.

To overcome these problems, siRNA has been complexed with nanoparticles containing a homing sequence that directs the complex to the tumor site A fascinating approach for eradicating tumors is through the application of cancer immunotherapy or vaccines It is thought that the body can eliminate small tumors by an appropriate immune response, but at some point a malignant cancer is able to evade the response by developing mechanisms that blind the host to its presence.

If methods can be found to activate the immune system against these tumors, the body should be able to destroy the cancer, and all forms of cancer might be susceptible to this type of immunotherapy. Tumor antigens by themselves are not very immunogenic and require some type of adjuvant to boost the immune response against the cancer. A new vaccine design has been developed that couples the antigens to solid-core nanobeads For effectiveness, the beads have to be of narrowly defined size 40 nm to 50 nm , which allows them to localize to dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes. Conjugation of the antigens to the nanobeads induced responses that were 2 to 10 fold higher than other bead sizes, and higher than currently used immunizing adjuvants were tested.

A single dose of the antigen-coated beads protected mice from tumors in 2 different model challenges, and was even able to cause rapid clearance of established tumors. This is a good example of how nanotechnologies may provide a major breakthrough in cancer therapy and the effectiveness of vaccines in general.

Cancer immunotherapy may provide a relatively benign, nonchemotherapeutic method of destroying tumors. Another promising and, perhaps, complementary approach is the thermal ablation method of tumor destruction. Treatment of solid tumors with hyperthermia has been an option for some time , but has some drawbacks.

For deep, underlying tumors, the energy source can harm the intervening and surrounding healthy tissue even when focused beam are used. To overcome this problem methods have been developed to selectively heat the tumors using near-infrared—absorbing gold nanoparticles called nanoshells Nanoshells, in this case, are composed of a silica core surrounded by a thin gold metal shell, and will absorb energy heat up when exposed to the appropriate wavelength of light.

The near-infrared characteristics were chosen because absorption by tissues is minimal and penetration of the light is optimal at this wavelength. The nanoshells were injected into mice, and the nanoparticles were simply allowed to accumulate in implanted tumors. The tumors are then illuminated with a near infrared diode laser to heat the tumor and cause cellular destruction. By this protocol all the tumors were ablated, and the mice remained tumor-free for many months.

Although not used in these studies, the efficacy of the procedure could be improved by attachment of tumor homing or -targeting molecules to the Nano shells for increasing concentration at the site of heating. In appropriate settings, thermal ablation methods could be used to replace surgical resection of tumors, and targeted therapies and immunotherapy as a substitute for toxic chemotherapy. SUMMARY If the incidence of deaths from cancer had dropped as much as heart disease, cancer would be approaching the status of a rare disease.

Instead, overall cancer mortality has changed little during the last decade, while deaths from heart disease have plummeted almost by half. Although cancer may be more complex than cardiovascular disease, it is not inconceivable that lifestyle changes smoking cessation and new drugs developed from Nano technological and other medical advances could create the same laudable statistic for cancer as heart disease in the next decade.

Nano technological studies are not new. In essence, all drug molecules can be considered as Nano engineered structures. What is new is the inclusion of a number of other Nano- based approaches to medicinal studies. For example, the antibodyconjugated nanosized liposomes demonstrate significant improvement over conventional, lessdirected drug delivery protocols. Monoclonal antibodies and vaccines directed against tumors have been extensively studied, while antisense oligonucleotides and siRNAs are more recent additions to the nanomedicine repertoire.

Tumor destruction via the use of nanoshells for thermal ablation is also being examined and shows promise as a nonsurgical method for tumor removal. Precise knowledge of the normal and cancer genome is at hand, and the structure and function of all genes are now within grasp of the medicinal chemist and drug developers. This will allow the creation of nontoxic, targeted small-molecule drugs for use in the oncology clinic. Due to the complexity of cancers, a combination of approaches will likely be needed for the effective elimination of all tumor cells. Nature, : International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium, Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome.

Nature : Barrett JC et al. Laser captures micro dissection, microarrays and the precise definition of a cancer cell. Expert Rev. Sahoo SK et al.

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Develop rejection-free tissues and organs for transplantation. Douglas M. Therefore, clinical protocols for first-in-human studies with novel treatments frequently specify staggered product dosing and sufficient monitoring after the initial product administration, before subsequent trial participants are dosed with the new therapy. The more that is discovered about how to optimize gene delivery vectors, the closer this field gets to delivering wide-scale solutions to modern medicine. AAV is considered a powerful vector in targeting the liver for treating hematological diseases. As the drug carrier penetrates further into the lung, additional shedding will allow the encapsulated drug to be released. Naturally occurring singleton residues in AAV capsid impact vector performance and illustrate structural constraints.

Nanotech approaches to drug delivery and imaging. Drug Discov. Today, 8: Vasir JK et al. Nanosystems in drug targeting: opportunities and challenges. Nanoscience, 1: Kipp JE The role of solid nanoparticle technology in the parenteral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. Rabinow BE Nanosuspensions in drug delivery. Horn D and Rieger J Organic nanoparticles in theaqueous phase-theory, experiment, and use. Torchilin VP Recent advances with liposomes as pharmaceutical carriers.

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Introduction

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A DNA method for rationally assembling nanoparticles into macroscopic materials. Nature, Atomic force microscopy imaging and pulling of nucleic acids, Curr. Cui D Our ambition drives us to deliver medical treatments that deliver real change to improve lives wherever they are needed in the world. Exelixis is a commercially successful, oncology-focused biotechnology company that strives to accelerate the discovery, development and commercialization of new medicines for difficult-to-treat cancers.

The combined strengths of pharmaceuticals and diagnostics under one roof have made Roche the leader in personalised healthcare — a strategy that aims to fit the right treatment to each patient in the best way possible.

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FibroGen, Inc. Fresenius Kabi is a global healthcare company that specializes in lifesaving medicines and technologies for infusion, transfusion and clinical nutrition.

Drug Discovery And Development Process

The products and services are used to help care for critically and chronically ill patients. Databases on disease biomarkers, signaling and metabolic pathways and transcription factors. Software for multi-omics data analysis and personalized drug target identification, and prediction of biological activities of drug-like compounds. Genmab is a publicly traded, international biotechnology company specializing in the creation and development of differentiated antibody therapeutics for cancer treatment. Genmab has a strong clinical and pre-clinical product pipeline of proprietary and partnered product candidates.

GSK is focused on maximizing patient survival through transformational medicines. Our goal is to achieve a sustainable flow of new treatments based on a diversified portfolio of investigational medicines utilizing modalities such as small molecules, antibodies, antibody drug conjugates and cells, either alone or in combination. Please visit us at stand for more information. Guardant Health is a leading precision oncology company focused on helping conquer cancer globally through use of its proprietary blood tests, vast data sets and advanced analytics.

HalioDx is an immuno-oncology diagnostic company providing physicians with Immune-based diagnostic solutions to guide cancer care.

Treatment of cancer by using Nanoparticles as a Drug Delivery

HalioDx is also executing biomarker studies and companion diagnostic assay development in partnership with biopharma. Halozyme is a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on developing and commercializing novel cancer therapies that target the tumor microenvironment. Halozyme also has value-driving partnerships with leading pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies for our ENHANZE drug delivery technology. Helsinn, a Swiss pharmaceutical group with a robust portfolio of marketed cancer care products and development pipeline is strongly committed to improving the everyday lives of patients.

At IBM Watson Health, we are working to support those fighting against cancer by helping to improve the ability of healthcare professionals to transform care through knowledge. Illumina is a leading developer, manufacturer, and marketer of life science tools and integrated systems for large-scale analysis of genetic variation and function. Our customers include a broad range of academic, government, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and other leading institutions around the globe.

For further details please visit. ImaginAb Inc. ImaginAb engineers antibody fragments called minibodies that maintain the exquisite specificity of full-length antibodies while remaining inert in the body. Used with widely available PET scan technology, these novel minibodies illuminate high-value molecular targets, providing physicians with a whole-body picture. Incyte is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development, and commercialization of novel medicines to meet serious unmet medical needs in in oncology and inflammation and autoimmunity.

A leading player in the fight against cancer, Institut Curie, brings together an internationally-renowned Research Center and an advanced Hospital Group that provides car for all types of cancer. Private foundation. Ipsen is a global biopharmaceutical company dedicated to improving lives through innovative medicines in Oncology, Neuroscience and Rare Diseases. Today, Ipsen in Oncology is among the top 14 oncology companies in the world. Our clinical development group has more than two decades of oncology experience, and can bring you the capabilities, resources and global footprint of IQVIA, along with an infrastructure, pricing, and SOPs that provide flexibility and transparency.

We are more than 30, people working hard to prevent, treat, cure and stop some of the most devastating and complex diseases of our time. Jiahui International Hospital, a collaboration with Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, has the first international cancer center of its kind in Shanghai, China offering comprehensive, evidence-based care for Chinese and international patients.

Kaiku Health is a platform for digital health interventions in cancer care. It provides patient-reported outcome monitoring and intelligent symptom tracking helping cancer clinics to provide optimised care through timely symptom management and to improve workflow. Kaiku Health is used in routine care by over 60 clinics and hospitals and provides modules for over 25 different cancer types and all cancer treatments, including immunotherapy.

Gilead Sciences, Inc. Gilead is headquartered in San Francisco, California. Kite, a Gilead Company, is a biopharmaceutical company based in Santa Monica. Kite is engaged in the development of innovative cancer immunotherapies. The company is focused on chimeric antigen receptor and T cell receptor engineered cell therapies.

Leica Biosystems is a global leader in cancer diagnostics with the most comprehensive portfolio from biopsy to diagnosis. We are committed to delivering Accuracy, Quality and Workflow Efficiencies to help advance diagnostic confidence. Lilly is a global healthcare leader that unites caring with discovery to create medicines that make life better for people around the world. We were founded in by a man committed to creating high-quality medicines that meet real needs, and today we remain true to that mission.

Linical is a mid-size, global, full-service CRO with 1, clinical research professionals worldwide. Linical has successfully designed, managed and reported on 58 oncology studies in the last 5 years. Loxo Oncology, Inc. Our pipeline is focused on purpose-built medicines designed to selectively and potently inhibit oncogenic drivers of cancer.

We believe that this approach, combined with tumor genomic testing to identify appropriate patients, will allow us to develop medicines that deliver on the promise of precision medicine. Since its foundation, medac specialises in the treatment of haematological, oncological, urological and autoimmune diseases. Besides an established product portfolio, medac is dedicated to the refining of existing and the development of new therapeutic products providing patients with individualised treatments.

We develop advanced imaging solutions for oncology drug development and cancer patient care. Medscape is the leading global destination for physicians and healthcare professionals, offering the latest medical news and expert perspectives; essential point-of-care drug and disease information; and relevant professional education and CME. Menarini Silicon Biosystems develops innovative technologies for single-cell analysis. Merck, a vibrant science and technology company, operates across healthcare, life science and performance materials.

Around 51, employees work to make a positive difference to millions of people's lives every day by creating more joyful and sustainable ways to live. From advancing gene editing technologies and discovering unique ways to treat the most challenging diseases to enabling the intelligence of devices -Merck is everywhere. Molecular Oncology Master is a 1 year online program based on a multidisciplinary approach of tumor disease.

Today, MSD continues to be at the forefront of research to deliver innovative health solutions and advance the prevention and treatment of diseases around the world. Having participated in hundreds of immunotherapy and other biomarker development trials, NeoGenomics has a unique offering to the global oncology arena. Novartis Oncology is a global leader in improving outcomes for patients. We seek to transform cancer care through distinctive scientific and clinical strategies focused on developing targeted, immuno-oncology and combination therapies to create more effective options for patients.

Nutricia pioneers nutritional solutions that help people live longer, more joyful and healthier lives. Building on more than a century of nutritional research and innovation, Nutricia continues to transform lives through the power of nutrition. OncoDNA is a private, oncology-focused healthcare technology company that combines advanced, comprehensive solutions of all clinically relevant cancer biomarkers DNA, RNA and protein profiles from both solid and liquid biopsies.

An educational platform offering free, interactive ways for HCPs to stay up-to-date in oncology. These expert-led, CME-accredited programmes provide global-level and local recommendations to implement cutting-edge knowledge into clinical practice. Most cancer patients have multiple driver mutations in their tumor and each one is linked to multiple drugs. We help physicians with our AI technology and decision support programs to prioritize between therapeutical options at the point of care.

We make robots for biologists. Come meet your new robot today! OSE Immunotherapeutics is a French clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on developing and partnering innovative immunotherapies in immuno-oncology and autoimmune diseases. Patient care is at our heart: our goal is to ensure everyone, no matter where, has the opportunity to maintain normality, retain their hair and self-confidence. We are developing an innovative portfolio of regulated tissue-based and non-invasive liquid biopsy genomic products for laboratories worldwide.

Our industry-leading portfolio of innovative cancer medicines and biosimilars spans over 20 indications. Pfizer is striving to change the trajectory of cancer. PharmaMar is a biopharmaceutical company, focused on oncology and committed to research and development which takes inspiration from the sea to discover molecules with antitumor activity. Its commitment to patients and to research has made it one of the world leaders in the discovery of antitumor drugs of marine origin. Pharmadab is an innovative pharmaceutical company that has been present on the Slovenian market since Our field of expertise is creams and ointments for relieving various skin problems.

Philips OncoSignal quantifies activity of tumor-driving signaling pathways by measuring mRNA levels regulated by the transcription factor. Reported quantitative pathway activity scores help to identify aberrant activity and allow sample comparison. Oncology is one of our priorities, with programs focusing particularly on targeted therapies, biotherapies and immuno-oncology. We work in therapeutic areas of high unmet medical need, including hemato-oncology and dermato-oncology. Founded in , Pivotal is a leading full-services European CRO offering services to the healthcare industry.

We take on the immense challenges for supporting cutting-edge clinical development programmes in Oncology and Haemato-Oncology areas. With our multiplexing platform, we are able to offer highly sensitive results with low sample volumes, which help saving time and labor.

PPD is a leading global contract research organization providing comprehensive drug development, laboratory and lifecycle management services with operational excellence, scientific expertise and innovative technologies to meet client's needs. Precision for Medicine, Oncology and Rare Disease is the first comprehensive, fully-integrated CRO devoted to oncology and rare disease innovation.

With over experts in 30 offices worldwide, Precision offers novel clinical trial designs, operational and medical experts, and advanced biomarker solutions for pharma and biotech innovators. Our full suite of clinical and translational services, worldwide footprint and deep scientific expertise enable us to run the most complex clinical trials. Rakuten Medical, Inc. Rakuten Medical is conducting a phase 3 study in patients with recurrent head and neck cancer. Sanofi Genzyme focuses on developing specialty treatments for debilitating diseases that are often difficult to diagnose and treat, providing hope to patients and their families.

Seattle Genetics, an emerging multi-product, global biotechnology company, develops and commercializes transformative cancer-targeting therapies. The company is headquartered in the US, with European and International operations located in Switzerland. Servier is an international pharmaceutical company governed by a non-profit foundation, with its headquarters in France. With a strong presence in countries and a turnover of 4.

We believe in building a sustainable global healthcare system. The most advanced project is a proprietary platform of active cellular immunotherapy based on dendritic cells. Springer Healthcare education is a medical education provider that works in collaboration with a global network of scientific experts and societies to support healthcare professionals to make measurable change in their own clinical practice.

Takeda is a patient-focused, innovation-driven global pharmaceutical company that builds on a distinguished year history. Our mission is to strive towards better health and a brighter future for people worldwide through leading innovation in medicine. We are dedicated to improving the oncology experience and have a passionate commitment to unconditional care, which puts science for patients first. Thermo Fisher Scientific is the world leader in serving science.

Our mission is to enable our customers to make the world healthier, cleaner and safer. We support precision oncology progress and implementation through innovative technologies and service through our Thermo Scientific, Applied Biosystems, Invitrogen, Gibco and Ion Torrent brands. We offer a suite of next generation sequencing tests for genomic profiling of solid and hematological tumors including liquid biopsy and immuno oncology applications.

Stem Cell Banking In Support of Drug Discovery

TRIO is a not-for-profit academic clinical research organization specialized in oncology. Their unique model offers the full spectrum of services coupled with strong scientific leadership bridging translational science with operations. Univadis Oncology, provided by Aptus Health, is a digital platform with dedicated resources for oncologists and trainees, aimed to continually helping them stay current with the latest national and international clinical research and breakthroughs. Varian, headquartered in Palo Alto, California, is a leader in developing and delivering cancer care solutions and is focused on creating a world without fear of cancer.

Vygon is a Company developing and manufacturing medical devices, distributed around the world. In the Oncology field, our portfolio includes a Closed System Transfer Device, Qimono, designed to protect healthcare workers from contamination risks when handling cytotoxic drugs, and offering a universal connection to comply with Vascular Access good practices.