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Blood Stained Fields. The Battle of East Lothian. Decisive Battles of the English Civil War. Crown, Covenant and Cromwell. The Civil Wars in Scotland The English Civil War Cromwell hath the Honour, but Major-General Lambert's Campaigns in the North Cumberland's Culloden Army Warships of the Anglo-Dutch Wars The Jacobite Rebellion A Far-Flung Gamble.
Havana The Battle of Killiecrankie Armies of the East India Company Ireland Cromwell's Protestant Crusade. British Cavalry in the Midth Century. Artillery in the English Civil War. Band 1. Band 2. The Battles of Newbury. After , other factors were taken into account, the force delivered was reduced to about 1, lbf; the decapitation of Eva Dugan during a botched hanging in led the state of Arizona to switch to the gas chamber as its primary execution method, on the grounds that it was believed more humane.
One of the more recent decapitations as a result of the long drop occurred when Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti was hanged in Iraq in The de facto head of Scotland's government during most of the conflict of the s and 50s known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms , he was a major figure in the Covenanter movement that fought for the maintenance of the Presbyterian religion against the Stuart monarchy's attempts to impose episcopacy , he is remembered as the principal opponent of the royalist general James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose.
Argyll was said to be of above average height, but slight in build, he had reddish hair, which darkened in life — among the Highlanders he was called "red Argyll" — and a pronounced squint. Contemporaries said he had a charming and persuasive manner, although early in life he developed a habit of abruptly leaving the room if a conversation took a turn he did not like. Clarendon said that "his wit was pregnant, his humour gay and pleasant, except when he liked not the company or the argument".
On the outbreak of the religious dispute between the king and Scotland in , Lord Lorne's support was eagerly sought by Charles I , he was made a privy councillor in In , the king summoned him, together with the earls of Traquair and Roxburgh, to London , but he refused to be won over, warned Charles against his despotic ecclesiastical policy, showed great hostility towards William Laud.
Argyll, who inherited the title at the death of his father in had no preference for Presbyterianism, but now took the side of the Covenanters in defence of national religion and liberties. Argyll continued to attend the meetings of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland after its dissolution by the Marquess of Hamilton , when Episcopacy was abolished.
In , he sent a statement to Laud, subsequently to the king, defending the General Assembly's action. Argyll seized Hamilton's castle of Brodick in Arran.
After the pacification of Berwick-upon-Tweed , he carried a motion, in opposition to James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, by which the estates secured to themselves the election of the lords of the articles , nominated by the king; this was a fundamental change to the Scottish constitution, whereby the management of public affairs was entrusted to a representative body and withdrawn from the control of the crown.
An attempt by the king to deprive Argyll of his office as justiciary of Argyll failed, on the prorogation of the parliament by Charles, in May , Argyll moved that it should continue its sittings and that the government and safety of the kingdom should be secured by a committee of the estates, of which he was the guiding spirit. In June, he was trusted with a Commission of fire and sword against the royalists in Atholl and Angus, after succeeding in entrapping John Murray, 1st Earl of Atholl , he carried out with completeness and cruelty.
It was on this occasion. By this time, the personal dislike and difference in opinion between Montrose and Argyll led to an open breach; the former arranged that on the occasion of Charles's approaching visit to Scotland, Argyll would be accused of high treason in the parliament. The plot, was disclosed, Montrose, among others, was imprisoned.
First edition. Wikiquote has quotations related to: James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose. Robert Murray, and the fact that the Fife nobles with whom he had spent much of his time during his St. During a time when blood spilled endlessly, Montrose met a gruesome death by hanging , followed by beheading and quartering. Hamilton set off on a task for which he had little liking.
Accordingly, when the king arrived, he found himself deprived of every remnant of influence and authority, it only remained for Charles to make a series of concessions. He transferred control over judicial and political appointments to the parliament, created Argyll a marquess in , returned home, having, in Clarendon's words, made a perfect deed of gift of that kingdom. Meanwhile, there was an unsuccessful attempt to kidnap Argyll and Lanark , known as The Incident.
Argyll was instrumental in this crisis in keeping the national party faithful to what was to him evidently the common cause, in accomplishing the alliance with the Long Parliament in In January , he accompanied the Scottish army into England as a member of the Committee of Both Kingdoms and in command of a troop of horse, but was soon compelled, in March, to return to suppress Royalists in the Scottish Civil War and to defend his own territories, he forced Huntly to retreat in April.
In July, he advanced to abet the Irish troops now landed in Argyll, which were fighting in conjunction with Montrose, who had put himself at the head of the Royalist forces in Scotland. Neither general succeeded in obtaining an advantage over the other, or in engaging in battle. Argyll returned to Edinburgh , threw up his commission, retired to Inveraray Castle. Montrose unexpectedly followed him in December, compelling him to flee to Roseneath , devastating his territories.
On 2 February , while following Montrose northwards, Argyll was surprised by him at Inverlochy. He witnessed, from his barge on the lake to which he had retired after falling from his horse, a fearful slaughter of his troops, which included 1, of the Campbells. He arrived at E. Hanged, drawn and quartered To be hanged and quartered was from a statutory penalty in England for men convicted of high treason , although the ritual was first recorded during the reign of King Henry III. A convicted traitor was fastened to a hurdle, or wooden panel, drawn by horse to the place of execution, where he was hanged, disembowelled and quartered; the traitor's remains were displayed in prominent places across the country, such as London Bridge.
For reasons of public decency, women convicted of high treason were instead burned at the stake ; the severity of the sentence was measured against the seriousness of the crime. As an attack on the monarch's authority, high treason was considered a deplorable act demanding the most extreme form of punishment.
Although some convicts had their sentences modified and suffered a less ignominious end, over a period of several hundred years many men found guilty of high treason were subjected to the law's ultimate sanction, they included many English Catholic priests executed during the Elizabethan era, several of the regicides involved in the execution of Charles I. Although the Act of Parliament defining high treason remains on the United Kingdom's statute books, during a long period of 19th-century legal reform the sentence of hanging and quartering was changed to drawing, hanging until dead, posthumous beheading and quartering, before being abolished in England in The death penalty for treason was abolished in During the High Middle Ages those in England guilty of treason were punished in a variety of ways, including drawing and hanging.
In the 13th century other, more brutal penalties were introduced, such as disembowelling, burning and quartering; the 13th-century English chronicler Matthew Paris described how in "a certain man at arms, a man of some education" attempted to kill King Henry III. His account records in gruesome detail how the would-be assassin was executed: "dragged asunder beheaded, his body divided into three parts, he was sent by William de Marisco, an outlaw who some years earlier had killed a man under royal protection before fleeing to Lundy Island.
De Marisco was captured in and on Henry's order dragged from Westminster to the Tower of London to be executed. There he was hanged from a gibbet until dead, his corpse was disembowelled, his entrails burned, his body quartered and the parts distributed to cities across the country. The punishment is more recorded during Edward I's reign; the Welsh Prince Dafydd ap Gruffydd became the first nobleman in England and Wales to be hanged and quartered after he turned against the king and proclaimed himself Prince of Wales and Lord of Snowdon.
Dafydd's rebellion infuriated Edward so much. Therefore, following his capture and trial in , for his betrayal he was drawn by horse to his place of execution. For killing English nobles he was hanged alive. For killing those nobles at Easter he was eviscerated and his entrails burned. For conspiring to kill the king in various parts of the realm, his body was quartered and the parts sent across the country.
A similar fate was suffered by the Scottish leader Sir William Wallace. Captured and tried in , he was forced to wear a crown of laurel leaves and was drawn to Smithfield , where he was hanged and beheaded. His entrails were burned and his corpse quartered, his head was set on London Bridge and the quarters sent to Newcastle, Berwick and Perth. These and other executions, such as those of Andrew Harclay, 1st Earl of Carlisle , Hugh Despenser the Younger , which each occurred during King Edward II's reign, happened when acts of treason in England, their punishments, were not defined in common law.
Treason was based on an allegiance to the sovereign from all subjects aged 14 or over and it remained for the king and his judges to determine whether that allegiance had been broken. Edward III's justices had offered somewhat over-zealous interpretations of what activities constituted treason , "calling felonies treasons and afforcing indictments by talk of accroachment of the royal power", prompting parliamentary demands to clarify the law. Edward therefore introduced the Treason Act It was enacted at a time in English history when a monarch's right to rule was indisputable and was therefore written principally to protect the throne and sovereign.
The new law offered a narrower definition of treason than had existed before and split the old feudal offence into two classes. Petty treason referred to the killing of a master by his servant, a husband by his wife, or a prelate by his clergyman. Men guilty of petty treason were hanged, whereas women were burned. High treason was the most egregious offence. Attempts to undermine the king's authority were viewed with as much seriousness as if the accused had attacked him which itself would be an assault on his status as sovereign and a direct threat to his right to govern; as this might undermine the state, retribution was considered an absolute necessity and the crime deserving of the ultimate punishment.
The practical difference between the two offences therefore was in the consequence of being convicted; the Act declared that a person ha. Covenanters The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland , to a lesser extent that of England and of Ireland , during the 17th century. Presbyterian denominations tracing their history to the Covenanters and incorporating the name continue the ideas and traditions in Scotland and internationally, they derived their name from the word covenant meaning a band, legal document or agreement, with particular reference to the Covenant between God and the Israelites in the Old Testament.
The Covenanters are so named for the series of bands or covenants by which the adherents bound themselves to maintain the Presbyterian doctrine and polity as the sole form of religion of their country; the first "godly band" of the Lords of the Congregation and their followers is dated December Based on the Scots Confession of Faith of , this document denounced the Pope and the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church in no measured terms, it was adopted by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland , signed by King James VI and his household, enjoined on persons of all ranks and classes, was subscribed to again in and In , Scotland was in a state of turmoil.
King Charles I and William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury , met with a reverse in their efforts to impose a new liturgy on the Scots; the new liturgy had been devised by a panel of Scottish bishops, including Archbishop Spottiswoode of St. Andrews , but a riot against its use was orchestrated in St Giles' Cathedral , ostensibly started by Jenny Geddes.
Fearing further measures on the part of the king, it occurred to Archibald Johnston to revive the Negative Confession of in a form suited to the times. Together with the cooperation of Alexander Henderson , this National Covenant was finalized in early Additional matter intended to suit the document to the special circumstances of the time was added a recital of the acts of parliament against "superstitious and papistical rites" and an elaborate oath to maintain the reformed religion; the Covenant was adopted and signed by a large gathering in the kirkyard of Greyfriars Kirk in Edinburgh , on 28 February , after which copies were sent throughout the country for signing.
The subscribers engaged by oath to maintain religion in the form that it existed in , to reject all innovations introduced since that time, while professing loyalty to the king. It did not reject episcopacy but in effect undermined it; the year marked an apex of events for the Covenanters, for it was the time of broad confrontations with the established church supported by the monarchy.
Confrontations occurred in several parts of Scotland, such as the one with the Bishops of Aberdeen by a high level assembly of Covenanters staging their operations from Muchalls Castle ; the General Assembly of was composed of ardent Covenanters, in the Covenant was adopted by the Scottish parliament, its subscription being made a requirement for all citizens.
Before this date, the Covenanters were referred to as Supplicants, but from about this time the former designation began to prevail; the Covenanters raised an army to resist Charles I's religious reforms, defeated him in the Bishops' Wars. For the following ten years of civil war in Britain, the Covenanters were the de facto government of Scotland. In , they sent an army to Ulster in Ireland to protect the Scottish settlers there from the Irish Catholic rebels who had attacked them in the Irish Rebellion of ; the Scottish army remained in Ireland until the end of the civil wars, but was confined to its garrison around Carrickfergus after its defeat at the Battle of Benburb in A further Covenanter military intervention began in ; the leaders of the English Parliament , worsted in the English Civil War, implored the aid of the Scots, promised on condition that the Scottish system of church government would be adopted in England.
Following considerable debate, a document called the Solemn Covenant was drawn up; this was in effect a treaty between England and Scotland which called for the preservation of the reformed religion in Scotland and the reformation of religion in England and Ireland "according to the word of God and the example of the best reformed churches", the extirpation of popery and prelacy. It did not explicitly mention Presbyterianism and included some ambiguous formulations that left the door open to Independency.
It was subscribed to by many in both kingdoms and in Ireland, was approved by the English Parliament, with some slight modifications by the Westminster Assembly of Divines ; this agreement meant that the Covenanters sent another army south to England to fight on the Parliamentarian side in the First English Civil War. The Scottish armies in England were instrumental in bringing about the victory of the English Parliament over the king.
In turn, this sparked the outbreak of civil war in Scotland in —47, as Scottish Royalist opponents of the Covenanters took up arms against them. Royalism was most common among Scottish Roman Catholics and Episcopalians , who were opposed to the Covenanters' imposition of their religious settlement on the country; the Covenanters' enemies, led by James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose and aided by an Irish expeditionary force and Highland clans led by Alasdair Mac Col. After a brief legal career, Buchan began his writing career and his political and diplomatic careers, serving as a private secretary to the administrator of various colonies in southern Africa, he wrote propaganda for the British war effort during World War I.
He was elected Member of Parliament for the Combined Scottish Universities in , but he spent most of his time on his writing career, notably writing The Thirty-Nine Steps and other adventure fiction.
Bennett , appointed Buchan to replace the Earl of Bessborough as Governor General of Canada, for which purpose Buchan was raised to the peerage, he occupied the post until his death in Buchan was enthusiastic about literacy and the development of Canadian culture, he received a state funeral in Canada before his ashes were returned to the United Kingdom. He was brought up in Kirkcaldy and spent many summer holidays with his maternal grandparents in Broughton in the Scottish Borders.
There he developed a love for walking and for the local scenery and wildlife, both of which are featured in his novels; the protagonist in several of his books is Sir Edward Leithen , whose name is borrowed from the Leithen Water , a tributary of the River Tweed. Buchan attended Hutchesons' Grammar School and was awarded a scholarship to the University of Glasgow at age 17, where he studied classics, wrote poetry, became a published author, he moved on to study Literae Humaniores at Brasenose College, Oxford with a junior William Hulme scholarship in , where his friends included Hilaire Belloc , Raymond Asquith , Aubrey Herbert.
Buchan won the Newdigate Prize for poetry the following year. Buchan had his first portrait painted in by a young Sholto Johnstone Douglas at around the time of his graduation from Oxford. Buchan entered into a career in diplomacy and government after graduating from Oxford, becoming in the private secretary to Alfred Milner , the High Commissioner for Southern Africa , Governor of Cape Colony , colonial administrator of Transvaal and the Orange Free State , putting Buchan in what came to be known as Milner's Kindergarten.
Buchan read for and was called to the bar in the same year, though he did not practise as a lawyer , on 15 July married Susan Charlotte Grosvenor—daughter of Norman Grosvenor and a cousin of the Duke of Westminster. Together and his wife had four children, John and Alastair, two of whom would spend most of their lives in Canada. In , Buchan wrote Prester John , the first of his adventure novels, set in South Africa , the following year he suffered from duodenal ulcers, a condition that afflicted one of his fictional characters. At the same time, Buchan ventured into the political arena, was adopted as Unionist candidate in March for the Borders seat of Peebles and Selkirk.
The novel featured Buchan's oft used hero, Richard Hannay , whose character was based on Edmund Ironside , a friend of Buchan from his days in South Africa. A sequel, came the following year. On arrival he received a field-commission as a second lieutenant in the Intelligence Corps. Recognised for his abilities, Buchan was appointed as the Director of Information in , under Lord Beaverbrook—which Buchan said was "the toughest job I took on"—and assisted Charles Masterman in publishing a monthly magazine detailing the history of the war, the first edition appearing in February It was difficult for him, given his close connections to many of Britain's military leaders, to be critical of the British Army's conduct during the conflict.
Following the close of the war, Buchan turned his attention to writing on historical subjects, along with his usual thrillers and novels. By the mids, he was living in Elsfield and had become president of the Scottish Historical Society and a trustee of the National Library of Scotland , he maintained ties with various universities.
Robert Graves , who lived in nearby Islip , mentioned his being recommended by Buchan for a lecturing position at the newly founded Cairo University. Politically, he was of. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Most Honourable. In McCorristine, S. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Mortality and its Timings.