Willard R. The Central Anatolian salt project : A preliminary report on the and surveys, Anatolia Antiqua, Tome 14, : Erhat, A. Erkut, S. Farber, W. Geller, ed. Finlay, N. Gender and personhood, Mesolithic Britain and Ireland: new approaches C. Conneller and G. Warren eds. Forcada, M. Salting Babies. Foster, B. Fowler, W. Frandsen, P. Frazer, J. Mehmet H. Freud, S. Totem and Taboo, trans. Kegan Paul, Routledge. Thomas Publisher. Garwood, P. Gennep, A. The Rites of Passage, trans. Vizedom and G. Caffee Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Goldberg, H. Goodman, A. Gran, M. Postnatal care: a cross-cultural and historical perspective, Arch Womens Ment Health, 13 : Granger, B. Grey, M. Hamilton, R. Hertz, R. Death and the Right Hand, trans. Rodney and Claudia Needham, Routledge.
Hoffner, H. Ivanow, W. İnan, A. Jastrow, M. Johansen, U. Kemp, B. Khan, K. WHO systematic review of causes of maternal deaths, Lancet, : Kitzinger, S. Women as mothers. Fontana Books, London. Lawn, J. E, Cousens, S. Lawson, J. Li, X. Liamputtong, P. Traditional beliefs about pregnancy and child birth among women from Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand. Lichty, E. Demons and Population Control, Expedition, 13 2 : Luschnig, C. MacCormack, C. Malinowski, B. Mcgeorge, P. Michel, C. Kangal, ed. Modi, J.
Neusner, J. Birthing in prehistory, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 23 : Oppenheim, A. Biggs, ed. Ottaviani, G. Parker, R. Pinch, G. Piperata, B. Potts, D. Reiner, E. Rolleston, J. Meek, then of Meadville Theological Seminary. All through the years Breasted was proud of pointing out that, with the exception of Mercer, all of the first members of the Dictionary staff were Ph.
Later changes in the composition of the CAD staff in this period were the appointment of F. Dougherty, Ira M. Price, and Mrs. Maude A.
Stuneck as part-time non-resident collaborators. The mechanical process of collecting dictionary materials was described in full in the two Breasted reports mentioned earlier. Briefly this was the process: Each cuneiform document, which might be as short as three lines or as long as several hundred lines, was provided with a transliteration and translation and divided into a series of sections containing up to about fifty words apiece. Student members of the staff received the subdivided text and transferred it by typewriter to a master card especially prepared for manifolding purposes.
Special type shuttles were cut by the Hammond Typewriter Company providing all the signs and diacritically marked letters needed for the full transliteration of the cuneiform. The cuneiform transliteration was typed on the left side of the card and the corresponding translation on the right.
The copyists then handed over their typed cards to a resident Assyriologist for careful proofreading in order to avoid clerical errors in copying. After this proofreading, each master card was reproduced about fifty times on a duplicator. At this point the process of collecting materials was transferred to Assyriological workers for parsing. The parser took each section, now available in about fifty copies, and underscored the first word in the section on the first card, the second word on the second card, and so on to the end of the section.
At the same time the word underscored was entered by hand in the blank space in the upper left corner of the card. This key word insured the filing of the card in its proper place in the alphabetical files. Finally the parser checked off the proper space on a grammatical diagram at the bottom of each card, indicating the morphological classification of the word. The process of filing cards in Dictionary files was normally performed by student help.
The process of collecting materials for the Dictionary went ahead full speed in the first half of the period under the direction of Luckenbill. His report of June 28, , lists , cards in the Dictionary files, including not only the individual word entries, but also all the various proper names. The work on the Dictionary slowed down considerably in the second half of the period owing mainly to Luckenbill's other responsibilities, such as the publication of his books and articles and the Acting Directorship of the Oriental Institute which he was asked to assume during Breasted's frequent absences from Chicago on trips to the Near East.
Luckenbill died suddenly on June 25, First, the staff was enlarged to include, in addition to Chiera and Geers, the following persons: Arno Poebel, who was brought to Chicago in as professor of Sumerology; T. Jacobsen, I. Gelb, and Arnold Walther, who became assistants on the Dictionary in , , and , respectively; and Richard T. Hallock, a student at the University of Chicago, who began work as a part-time assistant in From the end of on, the supervision of the Dictionary was divided between Chiera, who held the official title of "Managing and Scientific Editor," and Poebel, who held the title of "Scientific Editor.
This became necessary when it was found that the task of preparing manuscripts for typing and manifolding considerably distracted the resident staff from its main task, namely the production of Dictionary cards. Producing manuscripts for typing might have been relatively easy with good text editions, as in the case of old Babylonian letters or El-Amarna texts; it was difficult and time-consuming with texts which first had to be put together from sources scattered in different text editions, and then retranslated and annotated, as in the case of epics and legends and most of the so-called "religious" texts.
To ease the situation, Chiera conceived a plan whereby production of manuscripts was to be assigned to non-resident scholars, limiting the production of Dictionary cards to the resident Dictionary staff. With the help of F. Geers and T. Jacobsen, all the cuneiform sources which by had not yet been taken in by the Dictionary were broken up into categories, and a list of scholars all over the world who could provide the CAD with manuscripts containing transliterations, translations, and notes for certain categories of texts was made.
An honorarium was established in payment for the manuscripts, with variations dependent on the size of the assignment and the difficulties attending the preparation of the manuscripts for certain categories of texts. The outside time limit for the completion of the assignments was set at two years. The scholars preparing the manuscripts retained full rights of publication in whatever place and form they might choose, and the CAD obligated itself to give credit for the completed work in its final publication. This obligation is now fulfilled on the following pages.
Chiera's plan was put into effect immediately, and some forty Assyriologists were approached with the request that they take over individual assignments for the CAD. Dougherty, Erich Ebeling, Cyril J. Maynard, Bruno Meissner, Ellen W. Moore, Otto E. Stuneck, and Franz Steinmetzer. Scholars who were asked to take over an assignment, but who found it impossible, for one reason or another, to accept were Hans Bauer, Viktor Christian, Edouard Dhorme, Hans Ehelolf, Bedich Hrozn:y, F.
Thompson, F. Weidner, Maurus Witzel, and Heinrich Zimmern. In later years the following scholars accepted and fully or partially fulfilled their Dictionary assignments: Georges Dossin, Wilhelm Eilers, Rudolf Scholtz, and Wolfram von Soden. With so many foreign scholars collaborating with the Chicago staff, the CAD undertaking acquired for the first time a truly international character. For a list of non-resident scholars collaborating on the CAD, their assignments, and the relative degree of fulfillment of their assignments, see below.
Breasted Hall in memory of the first director of the Oriental Institute. At the same time the old hectograph was replaced by a much more efficient mimeograph machine for duplicating Dictionary cards. Dubberstein, S. Feigin, Alexander Heidel, S. Kramer, Ernest R. Lacheman, and Robert L. Besides these more or less full-time workers, the Dictionary employed the part-time services of George C. Cameron, Arthur Piepkorn, Ira M. Price, and Alfred Schmitz. During this period the secretarial and clerical staff was supervised by Mrs.
Rodriguez and Mrs. Erna S. The process of collecting materials was the same as in the previous years; every occurrence of a word, no matter how common, was collected and filed. Some changes were made in the Dictionary cards; the designations on the grammatical diagram at the bottom of the card were omitted, and also, occasionally, was the translation of the text.
The process of collecting materials went on as before, but under Poebel's leadership a much greater emphasis was placed on grammatical investigations, often only very indirectly connected with the main Dictionary work. In the second half of the thirties some important changes took place in the composition of the resident staff. Thorkild Jacobsen came back from the field expeditions in Iraq in and A. Sachs was added to the staff in On the other hand, the staff sustained serious losses when some members left Chicago to accept positions elsewhere, and others, while staying in Chicago, transferred their interests to areas outside the Dictionary.
This retrenchment of the Chicago staff, caused partly by financial conditions, and the fact that a number of outside collaborators had not fulfilled their assignments to the CAD, were the two main reasons for the slowing down of the progress of the CAD. The progress in collecting materials for the Dictionary in the thirties can be summarized by the following figures: , cards collected by June 4, , , cards by March 2, , , cards by October 25, , and 1,, cards by June 1, The outbreak of the Second World War and the subsequent call of several members of the staff to military service brought the work on the Dictionary to a virtual standstill.
Jacobsen went to Europe, visited a number of European dictionary projects, then talked to several leading Assyriologists, there and in this country, and upon his return to Chicago presented his views on the future of the CAD in a lengthy memorandum full of constructive ideas. In I.
Gelb, after his return from military service, presented another memorandum entitled "The Future of the Assyrian Dictionary," worked out in consultation with Thorkild Jacobsen, F. Geers, and A. Gelb's memorandum was accepted as the basic plan for the Dictionary and, after having served one year as acting Editor, he was appointed Editor-in-Charge of the CAD project. The task of implementing the plan began in Its success depended on a number of factors, chief among them the availability of staff to do the Dictionary work, and strict adherence to the time schedules.
The new plan was reported by Gelb in a short note entitled "Reorganization of the Chicago Akkadian Dictionary" and published in Orientalia n. XVIII f. Here are its main points: "The basic requirement in the planning was that the Dictionary be completed and ready for publication within a ten-year period. The task was to be started in October , when it was planned to have the staff completely gathered at Chicago, and it was to be finished by the end of The planning of the work involved the division of all the materials which should be included in the final Dictionary into two groups: a the 'musts' and b the 'others.
These are the texts in which every word is parsed individually. The group of 'others' includes such materials as the mathematical and astrological texts, in which only the important technical terms are gathered for the Dictionary. Tentatively we visualize the completed article to include the following: Guide word with etymology and digest of discussions; selected occurrences with translations and references; notes with discussions of semantic development, technical terminology, etc.
XXI f. By the only full-time members of the pre-war Dictionary staff remaining at Chicago were F. Geers, I. Gelb, A. Heidel, and R. In addition, two Chicago scholars, namely Thorkild Jacobsen and S. Feigin, were able to devote part of their time to the work on the CAD. The former, occupied with duties connected with his position as Director of the Institute, helped in matters of Sumerian, and the latter, occupant of a chair for Judaic studies, helped in matters of Hebrew. Within two years, the CAD was fortunate in securing the services of the following outside scholars: B.
Landsberger, of the Universities of Leipzig and Ankara successively, A. Salonen of the University of Helsinki, and J. Laessoe, a graduate student, of the University of Copenhagen. During the next two years Salonen and Laessoe left Chicago, and in their places came J. Kupper from Belgium, for two years, and Jussi Aro, a graduate student of the University of Helsinki, for one year. We were also able to avail ourselves of the part-time services of Professor Hans G. Giterbock and of two graduate students at the University of Chicago, Mrs. Rivkah Harris and William H.
Professor S. Feigin died in In the years and the following persons joined the Chicago Dictionary staff on a full-time basis: Miss Erica Reiner from France, and Michael B. Rowton from England. In addition, two scholars contributed part of their time to the work on the Dictionary: Kemal Balkan from Turkey, for two years, and Giorgio Castellino from Italy, for one year. In Geers retired from the University, but continued to offer his valuable services to the CAD on a part-time basis, and from on Heidel was completely occupied with a task outside the Dictionary.
The secretarial and clerical work in this period was under the supervision of Miss Loretta Miller Davidson and Miss Arletta Lambert Smith , successively. In contrast to the early thirties, only a few non-resident scholars were requested to provide the CAD with manuscripts of certain categories of texts in the post World War II years. Among those who helped with their assignments were E.
Falkenstein, and A. Leo Oppenheim. The last count of the cards in the Dictionary files was taken on June 1, , when we reached the total of 1,, cards, each card representing one occurrence, following the process of parsing Dictionary materials described above. After that date an innovation in collecting materials by the process of excerpting materials, rather than of parsing, made an exact count of dictionary cards impossible. While for certain groups of texts the old process of parsing continued, it was found more expedient to excerpt other groups of texts directly from scattered text publications or, whenever possible, from publications containing a comprehensive treatment of certain groups of texts.
Even the process of excerpting materials varied from one group of texts to another. Certain groups of texts, such as Old Akkadian, were excerpted so carefully that practically every occurrence was entered on cards. Other groups, such as the more recent Nuzi volumes, were excerpted on a rather eclectic basis. For still other groups of texts, such as the mathematical texts, only the glossaries published in the respective works by Thureau-Dangin, and Neugebauer and Sachs were cut up and filed under the individual entries.
As a result of mixed procedures in collecting materials, either by parsing or by excerpting, and of excerpting one or as many as ten and even more entries on one card, it is impossible to evaluate the present number of entries in the Dictionary files which could be added to the 1,, cards counted on June 1, If I were to allow myself a rough estimate, I should judge that there are between 1,, and 1,, entries in the files.
In October a complete inventory of all the materials which remained to be excerpted was made and it was found that the task would require work units. A work unit represented the number of cards one full-time worker could produce in one month. Counting five workers devoting themselves fully to the work, the job of collecting materials could have been completed in less than three years from , that is by With four full-time workers we thought that the task could have been completed by about By a new estimate revealed that we had a little more than over nine-tenths of all the materials in our files.
Thus in spite of our strenuous efforts, we found that the realities did not correspond with our planning. Simultaneously with the task of collecting occurrences of words, the CAD went ahead with the task of collecting auxiliary materials. The digest of discussions of words scattered in Assyriological literature, begun in earlier years by several scholars, including Gelb and Price, was brought to a conclusion by Salonen, Laessoe, and Miss Reiner. In dozens of cases, instead of excerpting discussions, sections containing individual discussions of words were cut out from books bought for the purpose, then pasted on cards, and filed under the appropriate entries.
The work on Semitic etymologies, begun by Sachs, was concluded by Salonen. The bibliography of cuneiform sources was from the very beginning the concern of Gelb. This bibliography, containing some 20, cards, is divided into two parts. One part lists all the Assyriological publications, books and periodicals, with reference to the topic classifications, such as Royal, Old Akkadian, Sargon, and the other part lists all the cuneiform texts by topic classification with reference to the publications.
Beginning in October, , and all through the period under discussion here, regular meetings of the Dictionary staff were held once a week on Friday afternoon, although under the pressure of time these meetings were sometimes reduced to two a month. The meetings were devoted first to the organization of work and then to the discussion of specific Assyriological or general lexical and grammatical topics. Following the decision of the senior members of the Oriental Institute, approved by the central administration of the University of Chicago, Gelb was sent to Europe in the summer of to discuss with European scholars the question of the Akkadian dictionaries, specifically the relationship between the Chicago undertaking and the old Meissner Akkadian dictionary project, which was being revived by the West German academies after World War II under the direction of A.
Falkenstein and W. At the meeting in Marburg with these two and other German scholars it was agreed that the American and German dictionary projects should be linked together in one international undertaking, the results of which should be published in about seven years in the form of one large dictionary in several volumes prepared by the Chicago staff and a one-volume handy dictionary written by the German scholars.
During the period of preparation of the manuscripts, it was planned to exchange materials with the aim of achieving integration to the fullest extent: Chicago was to have the privilege of incorporating the results attained by German Assyriologists, and the German group was to have the right to make full use of the Chicago files and materials.
Union Academique Internationale, Compte rendu de la vingt-cinquieme session annuelle du Comite du 19 et 23 juin Brussels, p. Side by side with the work on the Dictionary proper two auxiliary undertakings were being realized in the form of publication of two series called Materialien zum sumerischen Lexikon MSL and Materials for the Assyrian Dictionary MAD. The former, initiated in and revived in with volume II, is directed by B. The latter, published since , is written and edited by I. Until now eight volumes of MSL and three of MAD have been published, but many more volumes in both series are planned.
In for the first time the serious work of planning articles and the publication of the Dictionary began. Questions of dictionary-making were explored from purely scientific and theoretical as well as from practical points of view, in the light of previous experience with Akkadian and Semitic dictionaries, as well as from the point of view of general lexicography.
The first articles which were written were those on awlu incomplete and Jatiru. As the basis for transliteration and transcription of Akkadian, two pamphlets by Gelb were accepted, namely Memorandum on Transliteration and Transcription of Cuneiform, submitted to the 21st International Congress of Orientalists, Paris 27 pages, mimeographed; Chicago, and Second Memorandum on Transliteration and Transcription of Cuneiform, submitted to the st Meeting of the American Oriental Society, Philadelphia 4 pages, mimeographed; Chicago, In working on the sample Dictionary articles, it was soon found that in checking the full context, discussions, etymologies, and references, the original publications had to be consulted.
The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (CAD ) Volume 11, N, part 1, xxiii + , , , $ The preparation of this volume of the Assyrian Dictionary was made possible in part by a INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER: 1––14–7 A tablets in the collections of the. Oriental Institute, University of. Chicago. A- tablet nian Field Plans in the British. Museum (= Studia Pohl: Series. Maior 11 ).
In order to make them easily available to the workers, all the important publications of cuneiform texts, Semitic dictionaries, and Assyriological periodicals were moved from the Oriental Institute Library to the main Dictionary room. While the planning and the supervision of the work on the CAD was done from the beginning of this period by I. Gelb in consultation with the senior members of the Dictionary staff, namely T.
Jacobsen, B. Landsberger, and A. Oppenheim, as well as with Carl H. In and the Dictionary work was concentrated on two goals, the writing of articles on Akkadian words beginning with the letter H and the preparation by I. The choice of the letter H for the first volume to be published was based on the consideration that this letter represented roughly the average in its number of Dictionary cards in our files in contrast to, e. The SOP, completed in April, , was sent out to other Assyriologists with a request for comments and criticisms.
The discussion of the Dictionary plans took place at two meetings of the International Congress of Orientalists in Cambridge, England, in the summer of Toward the end of , the Dictionary was ready to enter its final phase, that of publication. Several basic assumptions had been involved in Gelb's planning of the work of writing articles: that the articles be written by the junior members of the staff, supervised by the senior members; that the junior members be trained in linguistic analysis and strive for a presentation of data on an objective and descriptive basis, rather than through what has variously been called here, in Chicago, the "depth approach," "the high semantic approach," and the "Maximalitat;" and, finally, that the number of resident junior workers be increased considerably with the help of international bodies, Union Academique Internationale and UNESCO, both of which had already been approached on the matter and had offered full support to the plan.
On all these points there were strong disagreements among the senior members of the Chicago staff. Tired of the administrative work and of the dissension, Gelb resigned as Editor-in-Charge of the Dictionary at the end of The original plan called for the selection of one senior member as editor of each volume from year to year. The staff available in for Dictionary work consisted of the three senior members, Jacobsen, Landsberger, and Oppenheim, and three junior members, Miss Reiner and Messrs. Hallock and Rowton. Gelb went on a leave of absence for one year, which was prolonged indefinitely due to his inability or unwillingness to adjust to the new spirit prevailing in the Dictionary.
On January 29, , Professor F.
Geers died at the age of seventy after a long and faithful service of more than thirty years to the cause of the Dictionary. What the Dictionary owes him cannot be gathered from the published preliminary reports, nor from the title pages of the Dictionary volumes. He was a quiet and unassuming scholar, ever helpful to students and professors alike, never seeking credit or recognition. His great contributions lie in the thousands and thousands of cards in the files of the Dictionary. Several changes in the senior staff have taken place in the years since Hallock was editorial secretary of the Dictionary volumes in the years ; Miss Reiner was co-opted as associate editor of individual volumes from on.
In Thorkild Jacobsen resigned from the Editorial Board and from the Dictionary because of disagreements with the policies of the Editorial Board. In he moved to Harvard University. Miss Reiner was appointed to the Editorial Board in In the years from to the present a number of younger scholars, both American and foreign, worked on the Dictionary, either full time or part time. Listed in approximately chronological order, they are: Mrs.
Rivkah Harris, Father W. Moran, Ronald Sweet England , Mrs. Leichty, A. Kirk Grayson Canada , John A. Brinkman, Robert D. Biggs, and Aaron Shaffer Canada. The editorial and clerical work was first under the supervision of Miss Elizabeth Bowman, who was responsible in large measure for establishing the style and the typographical layout of the articles.
She was succeeded in later years by Mrs. Marie-Anne Honeywell, and Mrs. Jane Rosenthal. The work on the Dictionary consisted of two main parts, the collection of materials and the publication of the Dictionary. The collection of materials, especially of the newly published sources, went on as before, but on a much more reduced scale than in any previous period.
The main effort of the CAD was concentrated on the publication of the volumes. Already in the first planning stage of the publication of the Dictionary , it had become clear that with the limited staff available to the Dictionary it would be very difficult, if not impossible, to write the whole Dictionary at one and the same time and to make it ready for publication in one big effort at a certain time in the not-too-distant future.
This realization was supported by the experience of other great dictionary undertakings, such as the Latin Thesaurus and the Egyptian dictionary, all of which had been published piecemeal. As a consequence, it was decided to publish the Dictionary volume by volume, one each year, rather than the whole Dictionary at one certain time in the faraway and indefinite future. The present plan is to publish the Dictionary in twenty volumes, each containing words beginning with a certain letter. The reasons for beginning with the letter H were stated previously. The original plan called for the continuation with the letters G, E, D, B, and A, and thereafter to follow the sequence of the alphabet beginning with the letter I cf.
CAD H p. However, several factors of expediency, etc. The procedure used in preparing the manuscripts of the individual volumes, although varying in detail from volume to volume, generally followed a certain sequence. The first step entailed the writing of articles by the junior members and the editor assigned to a particular volume. Normally the junior members prepared most of the articles, while the editor of a volume wrote the more difficult or the longer articles.
The next step was for the editor to collect all the articles, rewrite and re-edit the individual articles according to need, and prepare a complete manuscript. In these two stages both the junior members and the editor prepared their articles and manuscripts in continuous consultation with the senior Assyriologists at Chicago. According to the official policy established by the Editorial Board, the manuscript of a volume, once completed, was to be submitted to the Board for approval. The members of the Board individually were supposed to read the whole manuscript and to note their criticisms, corrections, and improvements.
If accepted as ready to be printed by the vote of the majority of the Board, the manuscript would go back to the editor of a volume, who would then revise the manuscript in accordance with the suggestions and corrections of the Board, and send the revised manuscript to the printers. In actual practice, the responsibility placed upon the individual members of the Editorial Board to read and to evaluate the manuscripts submitted to them by the editors of volumes was fulfilled in a manner varying greatly from person to person and volume to volume.
The manuscripts of some earlier volumes were studied carefully by some members of the Board. In other cases, only parts of the manuscript were read carefully. With later volumes, the efforts of the Board in fulfilling their obligations became less and less. It is rather difficult to evaluate the respective contributions of the staff, both junior and senior, in the process of preparation of the articles and manuscripts.
The first drafts of the articles were composed by several junior members, including Miss Erica Reiner, Michael B. Rowton, Mrs. Rivkah Harris, Father William L. Kirk Grayson, and Erle V. While the original plan called for alternating editors of individual volumes, from the very beginning of the publication period A. Oppenheim has acted as the editor of the volumes, assisted since by Miss Reiner in her capacity as the associate editor of the volumes.
On the editors of the volumes fell the main burden of the preparation of the manuscript and the responsibility for its quality. Richard T. Hallock served as editorial secretary of the first two volumes. The helpful assistance of W. Aro, F. Kocher, W. Lambert, A. Sachs, and E. Brinkman in checking the references is acknowledged in the prefaces to the published volumes. The contributions of the members of the Editorial Board consisted mainly of their being available at all times for consultation on difficult problems, and of their reading of the manuscripts. Landsberger contributed freely from his great store of knowledge on all kinds of lexical questions, as well as on matters of comparative Semitic, mainly semantic in character.
Jacobsen was the main guide on all Sumerian matters and helped greatly in smoothing out details of English translations. Gelb helped mainly with grammatical problems. The lemmata entries have been listed in the published Dictionary strictly by words, not by roots, and in the order of the Latin, not West Semitic alphabet, thus reverting to the arrangement of the CAD as conceived in the early twenties. The original files of the Dictionary listed words in the order of the Latin alphabet.
Then, in the late thirties, the files were reorganized by A. Walther, under instructions from A. Poebel, so that that words were listed by roots and in the order of the Semitic alphabet.