Reduplication: Doubling in Morphology

Reduplicative Words
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grupoavigase.com/includes/119/6037-sexo-casero-colombiano.php In MR, phonological and morphological reduplication are repair mechanisms. Syntactic reduplication calls twice for some unit. Most models of reduplication treat the repetition mechanism as separate from other aspects of reduplication. BRCT seems to be the one model that can look for correlations between aspects of reduplicant form.

Especially within GTT, there is a prediction that different morphological categories of reduplicants will exhibit correlations between shape and segmentism, which appears to be the case for Lushootseed Urbanczyk, Given that there is a body of research that eschews BRCT, there is a minor void in proposing what can replace it. In MDT, all reduplication is compounding followed by truncation. Interestingly, this makes predictions about what operations are available to languages—if the primary mechanism to achieve partial reduplication is compounding followed by truncation, then there are predictions about whether or not these operations occur in the same language.

A question arises as to why they might not all co-occur.

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For example, Salish languages have extremely rich and diverse patterns of reduplication, yet do not have productive compounding or truncation. Finally, because the basic mechanism is semantic duplication in MDT, the same range of patterns should be found for synonymy compounding as reduplication, which so far are unattested. To summarize, the range of patterns found in reduplication has lead to a great many insights in terms of how morphology and phonology interact.

As can be seen, there is often a close tie between the formal mechanism of how reduplication occurs, along with various mechanisms that derive the shape and segmental content of reduplicants. As we push the boundaries of what the theories predict, we are also able to look for new patterns that support or refute certain theoretical assumptions about the nature of reduplication.

Ultimately, reduplication is repetition. How that repetition occurs and what form that takes has been at the core of developing a wide range of models that has shed light on our understanding of the interaction of phonology and morphology, as well as the nature of morphological operations.

Broselow, E. A theory of internal reduplication. Linguistic Review , 3 , 25— Find this resource:. Downing, L. Canonical forms in prosodic morphology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Frampton, J. Distributed reduplication. Inkelas, S. Reduplication: Doubling in morphology. Cambridge, U. Marantz, A. Re reduplication. Linguistic Inquiry , 13 , — McCarthy, J. Reduplication in harmonic serialism.

Morphology , 22 , — Prosodic morphology Unpublished manuscript. Faithfulness and identity in prosodic morphology. Kager, H. Zonneveld Eds. Moravcsik, E. Reduplicative constructions. Greenberg Ed. Mutaka, N. Syllable and morpheme integrity in Kinande reduplication. Phonology , 7 , 73— Raimy, E. The phonology and morphology of reduplication. Studies in generative grammar: Vol. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Saba Kirchner, J. Minimal reduplication Doctoral dissertation. Saperstein, A.

A word-and-paradigm approach to reduplication Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University. Steriade, D. Reduplication and syllable transfer in Sanskrit and elsewhere.

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Phonology , 5 , 73— Wilbur, R. The phonology of reduplication Doctoral dissertation. University of Illinois. Yip, M. Reduplication with fixed melodic material. Broderick Ed. Alderete, J. Reduplication and fixed segmentism, Linguistic Inquiry , 30 , — Reduplication in Hawaiian: Variations on a theme of minimal word. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory , 33 , 1— Aronoff, M. Head operations and strata in reduplication: A linear treatment. Yearbook of Morphology , 1 , 1— Bates, D. Lushootseed dictionary.

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Seattle: University of Washington Press. Beckman, J. Positional faithfulness. Outstanding dissertations in linguistics. New York: Garland Publishing. Benua, L. Phonological relations between words. Outstanding Dissertations in Linguistics. Blevins, J. Mokilese reduplication. Linguistic Inquiry , 27 3 , — Bloomfield, L. Caballero, G. Morphology , 16 2 , — Carrier-Duncan, J. Some problems with prosodic accounts of reduplication.

Oerle Eds. Clements, G.

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The problem of transfer in nonlinear phonology. Cornell Working Papers in Linguistics , 7 , 38— Verbal reduplication in three Bantu languages. Morphological and prosodic constraints on Kinande verbal reduplication. Phonology , 17 , 1— Gafos, A. A-templatic reduplication.

Linguistic Inquiry , 29 , — Ghomeshi, J. Contrastive focus reduplication in English The Salad-Salad paper.

What's Up? – Reduplication

Natural Language and Linguistic Theory , 22 2 , — Goldsmith, J. Autosegmental phonology Doctoral dissertation. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Halle, M.

Reduplication: Doubling in Morphology

Distributed morphology and the pieces of inflection. Keyser Eds. Hansson, G. Theoretical and typological issues in consonant harmony Doctoral dissertation. University of California, Berkeley. Harrison, S. Reduplication in Micronesian languages. Oceanic Linguistics , 22 , — Mokilese reference grammar. Hayes, B. Reduplication and syllabification in Ilokano. Lingua , 77 , — Hendricks, S. Reduplication without template constraints: A case study in bare-consonant reduplication Doctoral dissertation.

University of Arizona. Bare-consonant reduplication without prosodic templates: Expressive reduplication in Semai. Journal of East Asian Linguistics , 10 , — Horwood, G. Anti-faithfulness and subtractive morphology. Rutgers Optimality Archive. The dual theory of reduplication. Linguistics , 46 , — Prosodic minimality in Japanese. Ziolkowski, M. Deaton Eds. Chicago: Chicago Linguistics Society. Keane, E.

Echo words in Tamil Doctoral dissertation. Oxford University.

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Kennedy, R. Evidence for morphoprosodic alignment in reduplication. Linguistic Inquiry , 39 4 , — Kiparsky, P. The phonology of reduplication Unpublished manuscript. Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Lee, S. Multiple exponence in non-inflectional morphology Doctoral dissertation. University of Victoria, British Columbia. Lichtenberk, F. A grammar of Manam. A prosodic theory of non-concatenative morphology. Linguistic Inquiry , 12 , — Quantitative transfer in reduplicative and templatic morphology. In Linguistic Society of Korea Ed. Seoul: Hanshin Publishing. Foot and word in prosodic morphology: The Arabic broken plural.

The emergence of the unmarked: Optimality in prosodic morphology. Faithfulness and reduplicative identity. Beckman, L. Urbanczyk Eds. Mester, A. Studies in tier structure Doctoral dissertation. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Nelson, N. Asymmetric anchoring Doctoral dissertation. Rutgers University. Nevins, A. Overwriting does not optimize in nonconcatenative morphology. Linguistic Inquiry , 36 , — Odden, D. Ordered reduplication in Kihehe. Linguistic Inquiry , 16 , — Prince, A. Optimality Theory: Constraint interaction in generative grammar.

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Patterns of reduplication in Yoruba. Inkelas Eds. Studies in generative grammar, Vol. Rose, S. A typology of consonant agreement as correspondence. Language , 80 , — University of California at Santa Cruz. Spaelti, P. Dimensions of variation in multi-pattern reduplication Doctoral dissertation. University of California, Santa Cruz. Stonham, J. Nuuchahnulth double reduplication and Stratal Optimality Theory. Canadian Journal of Linguistics , 52 , — Struijke, C.

New York: Routledge. As well as presenting the authors' pioneering work, this book also provides a much-needed overview of reduplication, the study of which has become one of the most contentious areas in modern phonological theory. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Evidence for morphological doubling 3. Morphologically conditioned phonology in reduplication : the daughters 4. Morphologically conditioned phonology in reduplication : the mother node 5. Morphologically driven opacity in reduplication 6. Case studies 7. Final issues. Notes Formerly CIP.

Includes bibliographical references p. View online Borrow Buy Freely available Show 0 more links Set up My libraries How do I set up "My libraries"? La Trobe University Library. Borchardt Library, Melbourne Bundoora Campus. Monash University Library. The author concludes that the one unique feature of reduplication, the feature which leads diverse morphological processes to be grouped together under the title reduplication, is the resemblance of the added material to the stem being reduplicated. Lin examined reduplication in Chengdu, a southwestern Mandarin dialect spoken in Sichuan Province, China.

He posits that Chengdu has four common patterns of reduplication, AA, ABB, AAB, and AABB and concluded that stem-internal and - external reduplicants are subject to different alignment constraints, leading to the different reduplicant sizes. Rubino contends that reduplication is a widely used morphological device in a substantial number of languages spanning in the globe that consists of systematic repetition of phonological material within a word for semantic or grammatical purposes while Niepokuj qtd in Carpio considers reduplication as a special case of affixation and therefore assumes reduplication to develop in the same way as affixes do, i.

She considers full reduplication as equivalent to the composition of two lexical items an idea supported by Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca and then echoed by Huttar and Huttar that reduplication means the repeating of all or part of a word more than a single segment , the result still being a phonological word, with its pitch and stress pattern.

This is opposed to iteration, the repeating of a word, each word having its independent phonological and semantic qualities. Studies on reduplication in Bantu languages won a fertile ground and much was discussed in that area of contention. Odden explained that Bantu languages have provided a rich empirical domain for investigation in reduplication and the latter often interacts in sometimes unexpected ways with other aspects of the phonology. In Bantu languages, the common word formation processes are affixation the agglutinative natures of the languages , borrowing due to contact between Bantu and beyond , compounding specifically of nouns and reduplication Contini-Morava qtd in Amani, n.

Hyman believes that traditional Bantu grammars thus often include sections showing that verbs, nouns, adjectives, numerals and even pronouns and demonstratives can be reduplicated with specific semantic effects. To some extent, Kinyarwanda and Swahili fall in this category. Amani n. Using Optimality theory, Mecha focuses on Ekegusii morphological reduplication and contends that little is known on the constraints that determine the shape, the positioning of the reduplicant in relation to the base, the mechanisms of copying and the size of the reduplicated forms in Ekegusii.

They conclude that morphological reduplication serves a morphological purpose while phonological reduplication serves a phonological purpose generally entailing a single replicated segment rather than the larger chunks of morphological reduplication. Lexical reduplication, according to him, consists of stems which are already reduplicated while grammatical reduplication affects the stem.

In verbs, it is very productive with verbs of movement or sound to show repetition, iterativity or intensity hence concluding that reduplication is done by either repeating the first syllable or the whole stem. However, Kinyarwanda and Swahili reduplication compared have not attracted attention of many researchers. To bridge this gap, we have carried out this study comparing two Bantu languages with special interest in reduplication as phenomenon of copying a part or the whole of the same word. The researchers take into consideration Singha et al. The researchers mainly compare the two languages basing on various words used in each.

Thus, comparative approach is involved as the two languages are compared at the level of word formation process. The corpuses are the dictionaries and books written in both languages as collected from Library of the University of Rwanda, College of Education. The researchers select the books that may contain reduplicates in both languages.

For the most, Synchronic approach serves as a tool in this study. The reason is that "One can approach all different aspects of language, such as grammar, Semantics, Syntax and Phonology etc. Brief description of Kinyarwanda and Swahili Kinyarwanda and Swahili are described as two elements of Bantu Languages.

In addition, nouns found within the language can be divided into a number of classes, made identifiable by their prefixes. According to Habyarimana , Kinyarwanda is regarded as the first language for most Rwandans, and an official national language but not everybody is able to conduct a natural conversation in it. The feeling of lack of proficiency in this language leads most Kinyarwanda speakers to mix all the languages they can speak.

Reduplication: Doubling in Morphology

Kinyarwanda speech community includes members who have acquired this language from different areas and under different circumstances. There is a claim that some have learnt it as their L1 inside the country and in favorable conditions which allow them to feel integrated into their language speech community, while others who were political refugees in foreign countries have acquired it under difficult circumstances, in refugee camps where they were also required to learn other languages for survival, which prevented them from freely using their mother tongue.

Rwigamba et al. In the scientific literature, this language is sometimes referred to as rwanda. The authors adds that Kinyarwanda could mean etymologically the thing of Rwanda, the thing that belongs to Rwanda. Since the morpheme -nya- means" belonging to", the meaning is quite close to what J. Dubois and al. Kinyarwanda means more than just the language since the language refers to the Rwandan culture, the habits and customs of the country.

Elsewhere, there are various accounts on how Swahili and Kinyarwanda are not far distant languages. Surabhi explains well how linguist Malcolm Guthrie, in his research work entitled Comparative Bantu, examined Bantu languages and came up 5. From his research, Swahili is proven to be a Bantu language that shares the same proto language with the other Bantu languages [without excluding Kinyarwanda]. Hence, comparing it with Kinyarwanda is bringing a building stone in the area of studies on African languages, Bantu languages in particular.

Habyarimana accounts that Swahili language dates from the contacts of Arabian traders with the inhabitants of the east coast of Africa over many centuries. Under Arab influence, Swahili originated as a lingua franca used by several closely related Bantu-speaking tribal groups. People who speak Swahili as their sole mother tongue are usually referred to as Waswahili, but this name refers to their language only and does not denote any particular ethnic or tribal unit. Swahili is widely used as a lingua franca in: 1 Tanzania, where it is the language of administration and primary education; 2 Kenya, where it is, after English, the main language for these purposes; 3 Congo Kinshasa [now Democratic Republic of Congo], where a form of Swahili is one of the four languages of administration, the main language for this purpose being French; and 4 Uganda, where the main language is again English.

It is mainly found in Muslim communities in which Swahili was introduced for religious and commercial purposes hence a lingua franca language Surabhi, Swahili is characteristically Bantu in its grammar, and it has a large vocabulary of word roots traceable to a common Bantu stock. Swahili nouns are divided into classes on the basis of their singular and plural prefixes; prefixes are also used to bring verbs, adjectives, and demonstrative and possessive forms into agreement with the subject of a sentence.

Swahili-hub has it that the most common believed theory that support Swahili as a Bantu language says that Swahili was in existence as a Bantu language even before the coming of the Arabs. The Swahilis people were then known as Wangozi and their language was known as Kingozi. These people interacted with different foreigners though this did not change their language or their identity. This view groups the Swahili with all the other African languages and mostly of Bantu origin.

They argue that as much Swahili has a lot of borrowed words from other languages, more so Arabic is not reason enough to disqualify it as a Bantu language. Regarding its morphology, there are a lot of similarities to other Bantu languages. For example, when constructing a syllable just like in all other Bantu languages there are seven structures i. Bantu languages have nouns that are grouped into different categories known as noun classes.

These divisions are based on grammatical agreement in a sentence brought about by subject noun agreement; Swahili has noun classes which also rely on subject noun agreement. Kinyarwanda and Swahili cannot be excluded as they have five vowels a, e, i, o, u each just like many other Bantu languages qualifies it to be a Bantu language. We presented words that are concerned with reduplication in both Kinyarwanda and Swahili languages.

Not only nouns and verbs have been the main foci as they are categories that best embody repetition in part or whole of a word stem in the two languages, but also other categories of words have been discussed including adjectives and adverbs. As for Kinyarwanda words, the researchers drew them from Coupez et al. The words 6. Then we list some of Kinyarwanda nouns of the same kind. Further, Swahili verbs formed by infinitive markers followed by whole stem reduplication are presented.