source site Inevitably some mistakes were made, hence the photograph used in the new landscape signage on Windsor Street, featuring residents paddling around in the flooded suburb in the s. Besides the localised frequent incidences of flooding, the loss of natural drains and creeks in favour of concrete culverts also had a far-reaching impact on the ecology of the land. The vegetation found in creeks, drains and other natural catchment systems slows down the process of soakaway, feeding nutrients into the landscape and holding sediments back from water channels downstream.
Slowing the water down also mitigates erosion. The loss of these creeks in and around many cities also resulted in the loss of the native flora and fauna that once thrived in the natural environment. The city of Unley authorities resolved to address these issues. Consequently Oxigen Landscape Architects and environmental consultants were commissioned to redesign and reconstruct Windsor Street over a fiveyear period up to To reduce the flood risk it was decided that a new main arterial creek bed running along Windsor Street should carry most of the increased water volume during incidences of heavy rainfall.
A new 8 metre wide margin of pathway and planting was introduced to redress the ecological balance of the route Fig. Research revealed that around species of plants once thrived in the city of Unley, of those are now extinct and a further are regarded as rare or threatened with extinction. Many of the newly planted 20, plants and trees along the Windsor Street trail were grown from seeds and cuttings Fig.
The implementation of this native garden, stretching almost 1 kilometre in length, required a re-learning curve to be followed over five years with regard to horticultural techniques responsive to local climate and place. The trail was constructed using the site topsoil with minimum replenishment. A thick layer of mulch provided the desired level of water retention in the beds.
The mulch was created by chipping the trees that were required to be removed from various locations along the trail. The irrigation system that was installed to initially establish the huge planting scheme has now been removed to allow adaptation to the climate. The notes on the site plan Fig. Recycled stone was specified for bridge and wall construction.
Paving materials vary from exposed aggregate concrete to timber baulks, gravel and even sawdust on some of the informal paths, providing access to view the plant species at close quarters. The interpretive signage is designed to create local interest in the native plants and their historical uses by the indigenous people of the region Fig. The vast array of natural materials and planting throughout the trail next page creates a safe haven for the native fauna returning to the restored landscape. In order to fulfil this aspiration Claude Cormier was inspired to reverse traditional thinking on tree planting in the city.
Throughout Montreal, and similar urban landscapes, introducing new trees into a pedestrianised zone traditionally involved the construction of a soil filled tree-pit, perhaps with an irrigation tube to feed water to the root ball. Survival of. The radical new function of the steel grate is not to roughly cover a tree pit, but to support pedestrians perambulating above the forest floor. The permeable platform allows rainwater to flow naturally into the soil Fig. In this environment, not only trees, but other flora can thrive Fig. The holistic, organic nature of the solution attracts birds and insects into the balanced site ecology accelerating seasonal growth cycles.
The revised methodology: forestation before footpath, may contribute to the decline of the lesser spotted, stilleto heeled, human female. As if to restore the glamorous credentials of the cultural and artistic Quartier des Spectacles this unique green promenade is punctuated by star-shaped benches providing respite for the office weary walkers of Montreal Figs. In a Montreal neighbourhood Fig. Infra-red modelling of inner cities demonstrates a significant contribution to reducing the heat island effect by replacing dark, heat sink pavements and asphalt surfacing with energy absorbing canopy cover.
When good ideas are implemented they may appear to be obviously brilliant in hindsight. The notion that trees might thrive better if they are placed in an environment in which they might fare well is one such example of this phenomenon Fig. Parc Hydro-Quebec demonstrates that a major catalyst for change can come from a single instance of inspired design innovation.
When the ideas are combined with a genuine political will to change, then the ecological path to improving the health of a city no longer has to be made from concrete. In the population was estimated at 3 billion; a threefold increase in a period of less than one hundred years.
The phenomenon of the super-metropolis, with populations counted in tens of millions is already a reality. The design teams responsible for the Bosco Verticale Vertical Forest have turned their attention to the dilemmas discussed at the Shanghai Expo. From this debate a project has emerged that uses biodiversity as the primary, guiding principle of design. The design. In planning space for an expanding human population to live and work, this school of thought considers that humanity cannot be indefinitely sustained if animal, bird and plant life is excluded.
On September 28th the Swedish Professor, Hans Rosling, lecturing on the subject of global health discussed the paradox that, only by raising the living standards of the poorest and increasing child survival rates can population growth be checked. Bosco Verticale Milan comprises two high density tower blocks rising to 80 and metres elevation respectively. The verticality of the development is a deliberate policy to reduce urban expansion. Each of the towers provides housing equivalent to an urban sprawl of up to 50, square metres. The completed housing development will contain large and medium size trees, small size trees, 11, ground cover plants and 5, shrubs.
This green densification is equivalent to one hectare of forest. The tree, shrub and plant selection and location are the result of a two year period of collaborative research between the architects and a team of botanists. The orientation and considered placement provides the best prospects for the various tree and plant species to thrive throughout the changing seasons. By creating a diverse green shroud for the buildings, the new microclimate will differ greatly from the polluted heat island urban experience. These biological air conditioning benefits are graphically illustrated in Fig.
A home for flora is inevitably a home for fauna, including beetles, spiders, butterflies, finches, doves, and perhaps even kestrels. The source of this circle of life is, of course, the water required to sustain it. A network of pipe work, pumps, sensors and tanks attempts to balance the needs of all the inhabitants of the forest using every last drop of grey water available for collection and re-distribution Fig.
By acting as a mountainous, man made haven and accumulation of biodiversity, the vertical forest will create a beacon for wild birds to move through the urban landscape from park to pond creating corridors of local migration. Historically, when the Italian people migrated from the country to the cities to work in the new industries or commerce, they took with them a part of the countryside. Apartment windows and balconies were festooned with growing boxes for the tomatoes and herbs required as fresh ingredients for the tradition of home cooking so highly valued by all Italians.
Vines are still cultivated on the roofs of four storey city apartment blocks. In Bosco Verticale this vital connection between city residents and nature is enjoying a long overdue renaissance. The old wisdoms brought to bear in the philosophy, and the experience of realising this project may well provide compound benefits for the cities of the future.
This occurrence resulted in the clearance of a half-acre plot of land near the corner of Gough and Fulton streets and its subsequent, meanwhile use as a parking lot. The residence provides a dignified home and respite centre for formerly homeless San Franciscans. It may not have been the Loma Prieta earthquake that created the straitened circumstances of any of the residents, as the trauma of finding oneself living on the streets can be the result of many and varied individual experiences.
Such traumas are not easily reconciled, and can often depend on whether nature or nurture is the primary cause of the plight of the individuals who hover on the threshold of uncertainty. However, there can be no doubt that the caring environment to be found within the confines of the.
At the heart of the community is the central courtyard providing a protective, outdoor enclave for pavement weary people. The courtyard is connected via large, sliding, fenestrated doors with the multi-purpose community room Fig. The courtyard has a southerly orientation and is populated by fan palms, giant chain ferns, Japanese painted ferns, western sword ferns and wood sorrel, all of which are durable, low-maintenance and capable of enduring both extreme exposure to sunlight and deep shade Fig.
Ironically, the conditions endured by the plants are not unlike those previously experienced by the Richardson apartments residents. The man-made oasis for the weary travellers at the centre of the facility is complimented by the roof garden and external works detailed in Fig. The landscaped areas were designed by Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture.
Within the internal courtyard, permeable paving feeds precipitation into a stormwater retention sub-surface gravel layer. The overflow from this system, and other paved areas irrigates the sandy soils providing a nurturing bed for the palm trees and ferns Figs. The cantilevers and spatial arrangements of the furniture facilitate full accessibility for all residents including those of impaired mobility and the wheelchair bound Figs.
To the perimeter of the apartment block a programme of external works was undertaken to improve the aesthetic of the public realm and reduce stormwater run-off. Similar consideration is provided to the neighbourhood cyclists who benefit from the new bike stands installed in the generously proportioned parking bays Fig.
On Fulton Street, rain gardens planted with fortnight lily are watered from pavement run-off and permeable setts adjacent to the kerbside Fig. The healing power of plants, in the medicinal sense, has been exploited by mankind for hundreds of years, however, the therapeutic benefits to be gained from tending and nurturing plants has often been overlooked. On the roof of the Richardson Apartments, residents are provided with the opportunity to indulge in vegetable gardening in the raised beds that surround the seating area at the northerly, Fulton Street end, of the building.
The green sedum roof bordering the planting beds further enhances the symbiotic nurturing environment for both the plants and their carers Fig. Throughout the integrated design of the residence the twin requirements of privacy and social interaction are equally considered. This is illustrated at ground floor where translucent scrim applied to the glazing affords courtyard views from the inside whilst maintaining the privacy of the consulting rooms Figs.
The courtyard stairwell, which is semi-enclosed by native grapevine trellises, provides the chance to greet passing neighbours Fig. Each individual studio apartment has a bathroom and a kitchenette, whilst laundry rooms and lounges are communal. The apartments are named in honour of Drs. The Richardsons are renowned for their mission to empower African Americans through dialogue and literature.
The Sustainable Landscapes project is an initiative in the state of South Australia.
In the Landscape Architecture firm, oxigen, were commissioned by the Land Management Corporation to develop the landscape master plan for a housing development on a 15 hectare site adjacent to the. River Torrens. The Lochiel Park site, eight kilometres north east of Adelaide, was planned as a green village to provide new homes. The Land Management Corporation and Oxigen recognised that if their goals were to be achieved, they would require a holistic approach, enabling integration of the dwellings and their inhabitants into the natural environment.
Lochiel Park, in stark contrast to previous neighbouring developments provides a significant amount of public open space over two thirds of the 15 hectares around the residential allotments; graphically illustrated in Fig. This approach would no doubt have met with the approval of the grazier, and owner of Sections and on the River Torrens, Charles James Fox Campbell after whom the city of Campbelltown is named. In excess of , new plantings were required, with selection adhering to the South Australian guidelines.
Particular attention was paid to the provision and conservation of habitat for local native fauna such as small birds, butterflies, bats, lizards and frogs. Oxigen also worked in partnership with civil and hydrological engineers to capture the storm water runoff from acres of land above Lochiel Park; filtering it through the sites northern and southern wetlands Fig. These systems are a key component in the early establishment of the sites open spaces and gardens until they become more self reliant in a balanced ecology.
To compliment the green elements a minimal intervention approach was required for the public realm infrastructure. Expansive estate roads were eschewed in favour of single carriageways designed for personal and service vehicles. Similarly pedestrian routes are formed using pavers made from clay found on site, recycled exposed aggregate concrete and recycled timber hardwood decking Figs.
The axial nature of the pedestrian routes, in particular connecting the Lochend house community facility with the centre of the development, provides a contrast with the informality of the urban forest and the wetland zones. Walking along a quiet residential street in Venice, California one might be forgiven for taking a long lingering look at the surprising views on offer in the sunny suburban landscape. The city of Venice has a deserved reputation for street art, particularly along the seashore promenade of Venice Boulevard. However more gentile views may be enjoyed in the quieter neighbourhoods One such site for sore eyes is the remarkable landscape surrounding the Smith-Clementi residence.
The original house built in occupied only square feet of the lot. In the renovation of the house by the architect owners Frank Clementi and Julie Smith Clementi added a second floor. In the purchase of an adjoining second lot prompted an extensive reconfiguration of the public and private areas surrounding the extended home.
The project seamlessly created connections between indoor and outdoor living space. The large covered and uncovered patio spaces blur the lines between landscape and architecture until the abundant decorative and productive garden space finally absorbs. In stark contrast, the California modern, light filled additions to the rear are playfully linked to the raw-wood rustic picket fence by the abstract, vertical timber sun screening fabricated from 12 x 4 Douglas fir posts Figs.
The crowning glory of the garden, and focal point for many of the views is the year old Magnolia Grande Flora tree. This specimen provides shade for the large plaza Fig. The magnificent magnolia also provided the inspiration for the muted colour scheme evident on the lower painted elements of the buildings facade. Shades of olive also reflect the verdant nature of the vegetable growing in the garden. The collage of imagery on the next pages Figs. Mindful of the presence of local Native American tribes, Pierre Le Moyne took particular note of the position of a totem decorated with bloody animals.
It transpired that the cypress pole marked the hunting ground boundary observed between the Houma and the Bayou Goula tribes. The bluff, in conjunction with a man made levee, provides protection from flooding for the modern city of Baton Rouge and a population in excess of , that now resides in the greater metropolitan area. The humid sub-tropical climate produces approximately 55 inches of rainfall annually, making it the fifth wettest city in the United States. In addition, Baton Rouge is. It may be coincidence, however its seems appropriate that the headquarters of one of the nations oldest and largest outdoor signage companies, Lamar Advertising, can be found in Baton Rouge, the city named after one of the earliest posted signs in the landscape.
Eco-landscape advertising sites now include considered material selection with recycling, weight reduction and the elimination of VOCs as a priority. Low energy light fittings, and the use of site-specific renewable energy sources are either currently employed or undergoing testing and monitoring regimes. Founded in , this forward looking company has now turned its attention to the renewal of its Baton Rouge s headquarters building and the integration of the work space into an improved, landscape Figs. Renovation and adaptive re-use of the whole facility was chosen as an ecologically superior strategy to that of demolition and subsequent new-build.
This strategy looked to conserve resources and reduce costs. Crucial to the strategy was the need to address the significant site flooding issues caused primarily by insufficient drainage infrastructure serving the hard landscaped areas, and, in particular, the parking lot. This was achieved by the retrofitting of a storm water bio-detention system. The key components of the system were, firstly, the re-orientation of the parking pattern and the introduction of a series of bioswales to capture the storm water.
Secondly, a large detention basin, including a sand filtration element was installed. This facility increases capacity to cope with extreme rainfall events and to improve the quality of the water run out of the site Figs. The design team following the brief from the client resolved to create a healthy, less stressful workplace by bringing people into closer contact with the natural environment.
In this case the objective was achieved by thinking inside the box. A section of roof was removed from the building to create a light filled atrium open to the elements. The sides of the box were glazed with panels of differing degrees of opacity, blurring the boundaries between indoor and outdoor, mitigating solar gain, and flooding the workplace with natural light. A corner of the new green roof was angled upward to bring light into a central meeting room one level below. The technical issue of coping with hurricane level rainfall was addressed by ensuring that recycled glass skylights would also act as storm water channels Figs.
A second floor conference room and balcony located above the courtyard benefits from proximity to the live oak canopy Figs. The courtyard and building is now protected by a large earthwork berm which provides a sound barrier from the adjacent road and privacy for the courtyard. Planting the berm with native grasses and wildflowers goes some way to restoring the balance of nature Fig. The founder of modern Singapore, Thomas Stamford Raffles was no stranger to the world of plants.
The tradition of research into plants and seeds from all over Indonesia, was largely established on the site by Professor Caspar Georg Carl Reinwardt and continues to this day. The treaty made with Hussein, Shah of Jahore, would transform the largely uninhabited island at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula into one of the world most successful trading cities. The Republic of Singapore Lion City is today an independent city-state with a population exceeding 5 million ethnically diverse people. Overlooking the Straits of Singapore to the south of the island Fig.
Bay South, the first of three distinct gardens to be commissioned by the National Parks Board of Singapore was master-planned by UK based landscape architecture firm Grant Associates to provide a showcase for tropical horticulture in a sustainable modern architectural setting. Following the International Design Competition, Grant Associates collaborated with other British designers to deliver the Bay South project including Wilkinson Eyre architects ; Atelier Ten environmental design consultants ; Atelier One structural engineers ; Land design Studio museum and visitor centre designers and Thomas Matthews communication designers.
The master plan Fig. The natural element is provided by the horticultural gardens. Technology is manifested in the light and sound shows stimulating the visitor experience in and around the stunning architectural structures, event spaces and restaurants Figs. These elements are set in a beguiling forest and lake landscape and are all informed by the considered ecosystem design for this sensitive site detailed in Fig.
Located on the edge of the Marine channel, the climate controlled glazed domes biomes are perhaps the pieces de resistance of South Bay Fig. The larger of the two is the Flower Dome Figs. These conditions replicate the cool-dry climate of Mediterranean and semi-arid subtropical regions. The plants displayed include species endangered by climate change and loss of habitat brought about by human activity. The educational value of this attraction is enhanced by the changing colourful displays of the flower fields subject to seasonal change and demonstrating the traditional use of flowers in festival activity.
The Flower Dome can accommodate up to 1, people and includes a 2, square metres indoor event space. Food and drink facilities within the conditioned space totals 1, square metres. It is estimated that approximately a quarter of a million species from every continent, with the exception of Antarctica will eventually be housed in the two domes providing a world class botanical facility. The Cloud Dome covers 0. These conditions replicate those of Tropical Montane regions with an elevation between 1, to 3, metres above sea level.
Constructed inside the dome is a 35 metre tall manmade mountain, complete with waterfall and a vertical plantable surface area of 3, square metres Fig. In total 6, square metres of planting space is available in the Cloud Dome. The inspiration for the exhibit is cited as mount Kinabalu in Sabah, Malaysia and the high elevation areas found in tropical South America. To facilitate energy efficient cooling technologies for the two biomes, the design team employed site-specific energy modelling studies.
The strategies that emerged from the study were implemented as follows. Solar Gain was mitigated by the use of spectrally selective glass and light sensitive shading. Selective Cooling of only the occupied zones. Chilled water pipes embedded in the concrete ground slabs promote thermal stratification where cool air settles at the lower occupied zones and warm air rises and collects to be ventilated at the higher levels.
Dehumidification of the untreated air with lithium chloride prior to cooling allows energy savings are made by not cooling moisture laden air. On site generation of electrical power reduces reliance on the electrical grid for cooling the conservatories with chilled water. Waste is also captured to regenerate the liquid desiccant. This is achieved through the use of a Combined Heat Power biomass steam turbine.
Biomass is generated mainly from the horticultural waste produced as a by-product of the gardening activity. The overall energy consumption for the two biomes would not exceed those of a comparable commercial building in Singapore for a hour cooling period.
There is no standard template, only a fresh, customized creation. Our extensive knowledge of the Mediterranean flora ensures beautiful and sustainable planting combinations that are easily maintained at a relatively low cost. What could we learn. Established in , we are dedicated to quality craftsmanship and excellent service. In , Stephen Forbes argued to the Peoria Scientific Association that no species could be studied in isolation.
Symbolism and religion are reflected in the layout of the Indian garden. The Chinese Garden, Figs. The Colonial Garden focuses on the trade between east and west in plants, spices and seeds, fuelling the empire builders and their trade routes. Secret Life of Trees : function and evolution World of Palms: diversity, ecology and man-made uses.
Understorey: forest floor root zones and plant species. Fruits and Flowers: form, function and cultivation. Discovery Garden: Plant evolution relative to the planet. Web of Life: Interrelationship; rainforest flora and fauna, food chains, keystone species Fig.
Bay South was constructed on reclaimed land, devoid of natural features. This reality presented the greatest challenge for Grant Associates; that of providing an immediate sense of scale and dimension to a garden site initially devoid of mature trees. Designed as an integral part of the site eco-system, the vertical gardens, Supertrees variably contain photovoltaic installations to harvest solar energy, rainwater harvesting and warm air exhaust risers from the cooled conservatories.
Varying in height from 25 to 50 metres, a total of 18 Supertrees provide a vertical habitat for over species of bromeliads, orchids, ferns and tropical flowering climbers. The plants selected for these towering trunks include the Tillandsia stricta from Brazil, Tillandsia fasciculate from Panama, Cattleya maxima from Ecuador, and Pseudorhipsalis, a native of Costa Rica. The selection for each tree is colour co-ordinated. The Supertrees provide a home for , hardy lightweight plants not commonly found in Singapore but suited to the climate.
The tree canopies provide clusters of shade in the day and spectacular illuminated, landmark beacons by night. The 50 metre. The aquatic theme and connectivity for Bay South was further enhanced by the construction of Dragonfly Lake, Bridge and boardwalks connecting the city to the gardens. The aquatic gardens and filter beds are an integral element of the sites water quality management. The South East Asian Rainforest is represented by native species planted in an area entitled Fragile Forest; this area also contains the nature themed Tadpole Play Area.
Completing this remarkable facility is an Events Lawn capable of hosting outdoor concerts and other events. The capacity of this space is estimated to be in excess of The aerial photograph Fig. Law Olmsted was born in and began the construction of Central Park with his design partner Calvert Vaux in This commission was followed by numerous projects, with Olmsted being credited with the design and construction of at least one hundred municipal parks in North America.
Olmsted was influenced by the layout of early parks in Great Britain, however, his sedate promenade and picnic philosophy would be transformed by American park. The city park authorities adapted the space to the varied requirements of young and old by lapsing the rigid rules originally laid down by Olmsted. Beginning with the construction of a new field house and sports field, the structure on Kent Avenue combines community space with yard and storage areas for the maintenance of Bushwick and other parks. The field house roof is surfaced with a combination of hard and soft landscaping designed to capture and store rainwater for site irrigation Figs.
In addition to the field house photovoltaic canopy, the ecocredentials of the new park facility are reinforced by the installation of ground source heat pump loops. This ensures that the parks multi-use building is efficiently heated and cooled via the radiant concrete slabs. Despite these attributes Bushwick Inlet Park is more likely to be defined by its relationship with the East River.
When Breukelen, one of the first Dutch settlements in the west of Long Island, was conquered and claimed for the British Crown in , it would eventually become one of the original six towns of Kings County; the influential monarch being King Charles II. Just over a century later, in , the first major battle of the American Revolutionary War was fought in Kings County. The acknowledged defeat for General George Washington at the hands of the British, ended in a tactical retreat across the East River, which effectively enabled the Continental Army to live and fight another day.
The hard fought political and economic independence of the U. With the completion of rail links and the Brooklyn Bridge in the s the East river became one of the busiest tidal channels in the world. Inevitably the channel became heavily polluted in the century that followed.
In the 21st century the demise of industrial and heavy marine traffic on the East River has resulted in a progressive ecological recovery. Bushwick Inlet Park plays its part in that recovery through considered design of the areas progressing down to the shoreline. The section Fig. Olmsted may have relented and given a cursory nod of approval to this separation in the tradition of the channels he cut through Central Park to hide the cross-park traffic below the sight lines of the park users.
The stormwater drainage concept for the site, illustrated on the plan Fig. Filtered stormwater not used for irrigation is stored below the sports field and run-off as required into a pool planted with native upland species chosen to attract and sustain the birdlife visiting the park.
A newly constructed weir Figs. The Sydney suburb of Pyrmont has a long historic connection to the salty water lapping its peninsula, however the European name relates to the discovery of a mineral water spring apparently reminiscent of the one at Bad Pyrmont near Hanover, Germany. Tall fescue will use inches of irrigation per growing season, providing that a deep root system has been established, and substantial subsoil moisture exists.
Gas powered mowers and two-cycle engines aerators, blowers, and string trimmers are noisy and smelly. This makes grass more vulnerable to disease and pests. A landscape with a diversity of perennials, shrubs, and trees, means that if an undesirable pest attacks a particular plant, it will be limited in food supply because of the variety.
If the pest attacks your turf, and you have tons of it, the pest will have a huge food supply and better able to multiply unchecked. Plant diversity also attracts beneficial insects, which will work on your behalf to keep pest-insects in check. By committing to a water-wise community of plants, you can set a trend in your neighborhood to use natural resources wisely.
Ecoscape designed, plant-diverse front yard. No turf here! Ill-maintained turf can be an eye-sore. Turf reduction could actually lower your stress level! Adapted arid-tolerant plants and native cultivars thrive in the changing climate conditions of Colorado droughts, water restrictions, etc… , turf — not so much.
Year to year, season to season, invest in plants that are hardy and well-suited to our region. Xeriscape areas benefit from mulch, made out of natural materials, such as straw, leaves, wood chips, and even paper in some cases. These items in turn will break down and create an excellent food source for the microbes living in your soil. Feed the soil, and it will feed your plants. Xeric plants can be colorful, smell wonderful, and have many interesting shapes and textures.
Winter interest in the garden can be found when plants take on a frosty mantle. Come out and see a honeybee mobile observation hive, try award winning honey, eat ample appetizers, and enjoy libations and live music! Tickets for the event at Highland Avenue, Boulder are available here. You can make a tax deductible donation by buzzing on over to the People and Pollinator Action Network website. Ever look at something and be instantly triggered into anger or annoyance?
Canada thistle provokes that for a lot of people. Actually it was probably unintentionally invited. Thistle tends to inhabit environments that need rest and rejuvenation, like overused and depleted agricultural and rangelands. It sneaks into areas of disturbed soil, gardens, roadsides, mismanaged playground and sports fields, marshes, and even wet grasslands.
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