Park A general model for multivariate analysis by Jeremy D. Finn Advances in atomic spectroscopy. A History of Mathematical Notation. Science Fiction Roman by Philip K. Barton Die Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft 2. An Annotated Bibliography by Marvin W. From microbiology to management by Brook I. Raghunathan Abi, was nun? Peirce by Don D. Bg7 and Enterprise Linuxa. II by G. Hogan Group representations and special functions by A. Wawrzynczyk Kishons beste Familiengeschichten. Fields: Huckster comedians by Wes D.
Readers by Adria F. Swete General relativity and gravitation Vol. Fin del Tercer Reich by Earl F. Gibson Group representations and special functions by Wawrzynczyk A. Stirling Problem book in relativity and gravitation by L. Sorensen Gauging U. Buschow Stochastic methods in economics and finance by Malliaris A. Introduction to the theory of normal metals by A.
Lim Representation theory and special functions by van der Jeugt. Science and Civilisation in China, Vol. Schott Fundamentalism. NET 2. Challinor Globalized Supply Chains and U. Ed Finite element modeling for stress analysis by Robert D. Systems by C. It raised them out of the sands of the desert;. In the unfoldment of the race, the time arrived when a new brancha larger humanity, was demanded.
It was the natural outgrowth and demand of the times. The Jews resisted the spirit of the times. Their utter ruin, as a nation, was the result; nor can they ever come into harmonious and happy relations with the times and with humanity, until they recognize, practically, the brotherhood and equality of the whole human family. There are indications that that day is not far distant. The commercial spirit of the race is sure to lift them above all narrowness or littleness. The growth of the commercial spirit is governed by the same laws as all other growth.
In its crude state, it is intensely selfish, but it grows continually toward universal ends. The human family is one, and all its tribes and races are its members, its faculties. The good of each is the good of all. That which we would hoard will corrode and curse us. There are few things more striking, in the history of human industry, than the fact that the cotton manufacture of India, so perfect in its kind, remained so long stationary. Not only did the Indians themselves remain without any. It has been said, by a highly philosophical writer, that civilization originated where the paths of two tribes first crossed each other.
When a tribe or nation becomes separated from the rest, growth ceases. In the vast extent of Asia, there was room for each tribe or nation to dwell by itself, developing each its own specialty. When the fullness of time came, tribe after tribe migrated into the peninsula of Europe.
Migration with the sun, from east to west, seems always to improve the race. In Europe, isolation was impossible. Owing to this cause alone, it is probable that permanent stagnation could not exist. The same wisdom that directs man's progress, prepared the continents for his use. Europe is so connected with Asia as to render migration easy. The accidental migration of a single tribe was not sufficient for the purpose. Shut in by the comparatively narrow confines of Europe, these tribes and peoples have been, for more than two thousand years, fighting with and learning from each other.
Europe was destined to evolve a new humanity.
Author's collection A reconstructed Minoan vessel, now in the Maritime Museum in Chania, Crete, showing the sail footed with a boom, a distinctive feature of many Minoan ships. A craft with a crew of 30 rowers a standard complement for the time could have carried 15 to 20 marines without becoming unstable and would have reached some 25m in length. Strawson Differential equations: A modeling approach by Courtney Brown Group representations and special functions by A. Blake Microsurgical anatomy Vertabral Artery. Four other cables are shown, probably sheets or braces. Even when the region fell under the sway of the Assyrians, Tyre was left in a condition of semi-autonomy since it provided both access to trade and a navy. Brewer Elements of partial differential equations by Ian N.
As between Europe and Asia the centre of activity in the reciprocal action of one upon the other was the shores of the Mediterranean, so in the same action between exclusively European forces, the greatest development is toward central Europ6. After America began to exercise a perceptible influence, the centre of activity became western central Europe. Since the opening of our Pacific trade with Asia; the United States began to.
VII assume this central position. It is no mere accident that turns the eyes of the whole world toward this continent, with an instinctive faith that it is here all the problems of the future are to be solved. With Europe on the one side, pouring in all the fruits of all past labor and suffering, and Asia on the other from the original fountains of human progress familiarizing us with the simpler instincts of childhood. On the one side, intellectsight; on the other, instinct-feeling.
The positive and negative batteries joined on the American continent, America will be the great reconciler, bringing all forms of humanity together. It was not possible that manufactures could have advanced beyond the condition in which they existed in India before the eighteenth century. In the order of evolution, the human mind had. Historians seem to be utterly bewildered by the dense cloud of superstition that settled over Europe during the middle ages.
Hardly any attempt is made to assign to the so-called dark ages their true place in the evolution of the race. It seems to me they were a necessary prelude to usher in the intellectual progress of the past four hundred years. Action and reaction-positive and negative-male and female; the same fundamental principle is at the bottom of the ideas expressed by all these terms.
The principle is universal. We are always swinging from an extreme in one direction toward an extreme in the opposite direction. In the middle ages, the human mind swung to the greatest extreme in the direction of the supernatural. That movement was necessary to give effective power to the present movement toward the natural.
Humboldt seems to intimate that the contest between knowledge and belief commenced early in the Christian era. In one sense, it is a great deal older than that; in another, it is not much older than the twelfth century. The establishment of the inquisition in the early part of the thirteenth century shows that the present movement had then commenced.
To the philosophical thinker, the establishment of the inquisition is the best possible evidence of the intense yearning after truth, which was then fermenting in the unconscious instincts of the European mind. The very same motive which originated the inquisition gave birth to free schools, which were established in connection with the monasteries in the middle ages. The free school system is yet young, but is the greatest power in modern society, while the inquisition is dead.
All the motive forces of the mind have this double action, a knowledge of which would prevent much lamentation and regret over the misfortunes of humanity. In the childhood of the race even now it is so among children , this dual action was mistaken for a conflict of opposing and independent forces.
The Greek mythology, which is a faithful poetical record of this mistake, has not yet lost its influence on the human mind. Childhood never loses its fascination; it will continue to charm. In the order of intellectual evolution, the idea of beauty precedes the idea of use. That is the reason why art so early reached perfection.
Dress, as ornament to the person, is the first of the fine arts. Dress was first used as ornament to the person; no other idea was attached to it. That was the germ from which sprang the arts and architecture of Greece. Use is higher than beauty, or, rather, it is the highest form of beauty. Art is prophecy of something better. Painting and sculpture were revived in Italy three hundred years before the Renaissance and general revival of learning in the sixteenth century.
The movement in that century began with the discoveries of Copernicus, in astronomy, and the establishment of English colonies in North America. The mental horizon began to expand in all directions; yet the light, to most eyes, was very uncertain. In , books of astronomy and geometry were destroyed in England as magical. In was published George Buchanan's celebrated treatise on the principles of government, in which he inculcates the doctrine that governments exist for the sake of the governed.
As late as years afterward, the work was burnt at Oxford, along with the works of Milton; nor did it cease to be generally condemned by the governing classes, in both Church and State, until about the time of the American Revolution. Until this development in government was, in some degree, realized, no great and general expansion of industrial art was possible. It required two centuries for the doctrine, as to the responsibility and duty of governments to the governed, to be generally recognized and admitted.
It will probably require as long for them to learn how this duty and responsibility can be most intelligently discharged. The success of the American Revolution derived its main importance from the fact that it marked the progress of the human mind into a new and higher plane of development than it had before reached. The permanent, peaceful establishment of the Constitution of the United States was the first successful attempt in the history of the race to establish authority on a large scale, either in Church or State, upon a foundation purely and simply rational.
The deep significance and far-reaching importance of such a fact are beyond all calculation. No matter what irregularities may take place in the practical working of our government, so long as the fact remains, it will be the landmark of a new departure. Reason may be defined as the blended aroma of all the faculties and powers of the human mind.
All that we know as growth, or unfoldment, is in the direction of the supreme dominion of reason in everything. In the fifteenth century, the intellectual movement was made manifest in many directions, by useful inventions, such as watches, the art of. IX printing, painting in oil colors, delf-warc, and the manufacture of glass; by geographical discoveries, such as America by Columbus, the coast of Guinea, and the Cape de Verd Islands by the Portuguese.
Algebra first began to be. In these movements we discover the germ of all that has been done since. It may be here remarked that in all intellectual movements of the race one of its earliest manifestations is in astronomical research. Naturally the grand mystery of the visible heavens first rivits the attention of the roused and hungry intellect. Astronomical observations began at Babylon B. As I before remarked. Geographical discoveries were pushed forward with great vigor. People began to doubt everything that was not capable of demonstration.
When men doubt they must reason, because the soul hungers for the positive; therefore doubt is essential to growth. This fermentation in the European mind produced an immense augmentation of activity. It also caused great suffering; but this is the order of nature. The power of the human mind is in proportion to its capacity for suffering. The seventeenth century showed intellectual development far exceeding any previous century in the history of the race. It seemed as if the human mind had, for the first time, been freed from bondage, and disported itself in its new-found liberty.
In poetry, philosophy, and science, the seventeenth century has names that will, probably for a long time to come, be ranked the very first in each department. There is no better evidence of growing power than the boldness with which individual sovereignty was asserted and maintained. This attitude of the human mind was an indispensable preliminary to success in those inventions through which the forces of nature have been harnessed to the car of human industry. In the order of evolution, there is an inseparable connection between this mastery over nature and a consciousness of the possession of sovereign attributes.
Both are the legitimate result of a high degree of development. The one is self-knowledge, the other a knowledge of external nature. All true growth is from within outward, because man possesses, in the constitution of his own mind, all the elements of infinite progress.
This is because he is the offspring of the infinite. Even in the earliest infancy of the race, when man manifested little, if anything, more than blind instinct, we can read his future. He grew toward the truth as a plant toward the sunlight. The earliest instincts of the mind express themselves. Instinct is feeling, intellect is sight.
From the earliest records of the race, this idea that man is the offspring of the Infinite-of the Deity has been struggling up toward human consciousness. This has appeared, sometimes in a refined form, as when the Germanic tribes called the Deity the Allfather; at others, in a gross form, as when Apollo is represented as overshadowing the mother of Pythagoras, and countless other stories of carnal intercourse between the gods and the daughters of men.
Every one of these myths has its root in the blind, but yet infallible instinct that we are the children of DeitySons of God. In one case in history this truth seems to have revealed itself with an intensity so dazzling as to have bewildered the whole civilized world. This seems to me to have been the central idea that animated the founder of Christianity. It is the key that will unlock many mysteries. In one form or another it ran through everything He said. Of course, He was misunderstood, and still is. There are still vague ideas floating through men's minds of the fatherhood of God, but at the same time we are positively taught that we are the creation, not the offspring, of Deity.
This idea that man is not the creation, but the offspring of the Deity, is intensely revolutionary. It goes to the root of the matter. If it were possible for the human mind to comprehend it fully, without first growing up to it, it would pluck society up by the roots; but Divine wisdom has so ordered that men shall often realize a truth in practice before it rises fully into their consciousness-we feel a truth before we see it.
All that is called modern progress is the fruit of this truth, which is thus gradually preparing the way for its full revelation. It will be seen that during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the human mind began to approach this great truth from the side of the intellect. Several writers in the sixteenth century claimed for the individual conscience the absolute right of final appeal; but it was left for Descartes, in the early part of the seventeenth century, to build around it a consistent compact system of philosophy.
The whole truth Descartes, probably, did not see; his discoveries were not, therefore, the less valuable, but more so. He does not infer the individual power and its absolute right from its Divine origin, but he proves its possession of that power and this right by a system of reasoning at once lucid, comprehensive and convincing. XI This is the same truth, in a different form, that was announced by Jesus more than sixteen hundred years before. It is because the individual soul is a child of Deity, that it possesses this attribute of sovereignty.
It is only in the light of the intellectual progress of the present age-perhaps, future ages-that the true grandeur of the great truth that inspired and consumed the Man of Nazareth can be understood. He found none who could understand Him; the ages alone can interprete Him. Not only is this the true key to what is called Christianity, it is the key to the future as well as the past.
It is the keystone, without which, no system of philosophy, no matter how ingeniously elaborated, can stand. All social science, all statesmanship, must have this truth for their foundation and guide, consciously or unconsciously, or they will fail. All modern progress is in this direction-the dignity of the individual and the brotherhood of the race. These ideas began to produce fruit in the eighteenth century, which commenced with the war of the Spanish succession and ended amidst the wars of the French Revolution, with liberty organized and established on the American continent.
About the middle of the eighteenth century began those discoveries and inventions which have transformed civilized society, so that men now live and see and learn as much in' one year as formerly in a lifetime. This is the vision seen by the Hebrew seer when he wrote, " In the latter days men will run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased. There is now a universal commerce of ideas, which is the best part-the essence of all commerce.
I have already tried to illustrate the manner in which the affections unfold themselves in the progress of the race. It was fit that the law of universal love, the natural complement of the brotherhood of the race, should have been announced to the world, at the time that nearly all the nations in the then known world had been welded together under one empire; forced into a recognition of mutual dependence and equality. It was then a religious sentiment.
It was also fit that in the eighteenth century, when. De Quincy affirms that no progress has been made in political economy since ; and interested or superficial politicians and writers, try to confuse public opinion by assert. It is true that since , or about that time, the progress made has been less, and a great deal less striking, than during the previous fifty years. Still there has been much practical, and some abstract progress all the time. Even Mr. Cary, notwithstanding the extraordinary use he has made of his acquirements in advocating the most extreme protective system, has made very material additions to our knowledge of political economy, and successfully refuted some theories that had been generally accepted.
The great and leading object of Mr. Smith's work is to show that man possesses, in the constitution of his own nature and in the circumstances of his external situation, ample provision to insure the progressive augmentation of the national wealth; and he demonstrates that the most effectual means of advancing a people to greatness is, to allow every man, as long as he observes the rules of justice, to pursue his own interest in his own way, and to bring his industry and his capital into the freest competition with those of his fellow-citizens.
He shows that all legislative restraints on the perfect freedom of industry and exchanges are, in reality, subversive of the great purpose which they are really, or ostensibly, intended to promote. With regard to the short-sighted selfishness, whose maxim seems to have been that other men's loss is our gain, he expresses himself in a tone of honest indignation. By such maxims as these, nations have been taught that their interests consisted in beggaring all their neighbors. Each nation has been made to look with an invidious eye upon the prosperity of all the nations with which it trades, and to consider their gain as its own loss.
Commerce, which ought naturally to be among nations as among individuals, a bond of union and friendship, has become the most fertile source of discord and animosity. But the mean rapacity, the monopolizing spirit of merchants and manufacturers, who neither are, nor ought to be, the rulers of mankind, though it cannot perhaps be corrected, may very easily be prevented from disturbing the tranquility of anybody but themselves. The above passage shows the largeness, but also marks the limitations, of Mr.
Smith's genius. Merchants are not always to remain the mean, short-sighted, selfish, degraded creatures they once were. When the true interests of commerce are understood by the merchant, it enlarges and liberalizes the mind as nothing else can. About the time Mr. Smith's book was published, cotton began to at. XIII tract attention, in connection with the newly-invented machinery for spinning and weaving. Tile importation of cotton cloth from India was the immediate cause of the efforts made to improve existing methods of manufacturing.
It was evident that competition with India, by the old methods, was impossible. At first an attempt was made to exclude India calicoes by act of Parliament, but that was impossible. Happily, the time was ripe for great inventions. Europe had so far evolved a new and advanced humanity, that all that was required was to feel the necessity for action. It is an immense benefit to the whole human race to have this free competition. It is a violation of the laws of nature to enact laws to place imbecility on a par with natural force.
As to protecting the people of England against the people of Hindoostan, when the true sources of power are understood, it is supremely ludicrous. The true way to protect people is to cultivate them, and make them strong to protect themselves. Whatever government can do in this direction is legitimate. Rightly considered, this is the whole duty of government. There is everywhere an instinct that prompts men to expect and demand help from government which is the depository of the collective forces of society.
Assuredly this feeling, which is universal, should not be disregarded. The demand must be answered, either in an intelligent and effective way, or in a way that will corrupt both the people and the government. There is but one way in which government can effectually aid the people without doing more injury than good, viz. But it should be very different from what is now called education. In the first place, it should be in accordance with the laws and order of nature; in the next place, it should be universal. No plant in the garden of society should be permitted to be without cultivation.
What are the laws and order of nature? The object of true education is to strengthen every faculty. Knowledge of principles is the nutrition of the mind. The process of assimilating truth is precisely analagous to, that of chylification in the animal system. A dogma is to the mind what an indigestible substance is to the digestive functions. Not only does it afford no nutrition, but it weakens and deranges the functions. Nature teaches by example. Everything should be taught in the school, as nearly as possible, in the same way as it is used in practical life.
The universe is the natural educator of man. The school should be a miniature universe. No question here as to the comparative value of classical and scientific education. All departments hold equal dignity, and the individual follows his attractions. Practical science, practical mechanics, practical agriculture are all taught in the laboratory, the workshop, and the field. This would be a university indeed-something worthy of the name. I db not know whether the art of war should find a place.
Such a system as this would at once put the sceptre into the hands of labor. Such things as bounties, monopolies, or any other kind of protection, would be remembered as the most childish of follies. Diversification of industry is one of the necessary results of growth, as the natural phenomena of growth is branching. To bring about this much-desired result, we should promote growth.
Social growth is but the aggregate of individual growth. There is no end at which the protectionist professes to aim that can be reached in any other way so well as this. I do not believe, with some free traders, that governments should do nothing. It is one of the uses of social organism, and by no meahs the least important, that the aggregate, collective powers of society should be used for the promotion of its own welfare. The great danger to be feared from government interference is that it may weaken, instead of strengthening the people.
Any kind of assistance that may be rendered, with the single exception of assistance to grow, that is, culture, education, will surely tend -to make the people less self-reliant, and, consequently, less strong. Communism, socialism, internationalism, they have, of late, become terrible words. They strike the public ear of Europe like a fire-bell in the night. Let us not try to persuade ourselves that our Republican form of government, and our abundant and cheap land, will always save us from the responsibility that now hangs about the neck of Europe.
Neither the selfish expedients of accumulated wealth, nor the ignorant denunciations of accumulated superstition, will be able to dispose of these questions that are now demanding a solution. The influence of real education on the human mind is very little understood. Knowledge of principles, each one of which is the key to a new world, is to the mind what wholesome, stimulating food is to the body; while what is commonly called learning, instead of strengthening the mind, enervates it. The former produces health, strength, sanity; the latter, intoxication and disease.
The mind becomes strong in proportion as it comes near to causes. Technical education is indispensable. I would not underestimate it; but it is certainly more important to have something worth expressing than to know how to express it. Compared with the object to be accomplished, the largest amount at present expended for educational purposes is utterly insignificant.
Why should not the mechanical arts and agriculture be taught by experiment, as well as chemistry; and why should not chemistry be taught in a system of experiments, vastly more extensive and enterprising than at present? We profess to understand something about chemistry. In fact, a large part of. XV what is called science is the merest empiricism. Let the sciences be taught in their practical application to the duties of life. I have some doubts as to whether they should ever be taught in any other way, but I suppose a place must be allowed for students, whose vocation is the closet, for it is a fundamental principle of the system that all forms of humanity, and every peculiarity of taste or attraction, shall have ample provision for its full development.
Humanity is one, and each individual an essential atom. In the earliest ages, when the masses of mankind had not yet emerged from what might be called animalism, there were individuals of great genius, who are still regarded as standards of excellence. These were a beneficent provision of nature, intended to teach mankind their own possibilities. From a similar provision of nature, we sometimes find in an individual a single faculty developed to a degree of perfection that, in our present stage of progress, seems nothing less than miraculous.
Everybody has either seen or heard of persons wholly uneducated, who could solve any problem in mathematics, or answer any question in arithmetic instantly, with scarce a perceptible lapse of time. So far as I know, it has never yet been suspected by anybody that this degree of perfection is possible, and will yet be attained by every faculty of the intellect; yet such is certainly the truth.
If we will only try, however inadequately, to realize what this means: the noble, the divine being man will be, when all his faculties act with the rapidity and precision of a sunbeam, penetrating not only all the arcana of nature, but the spiritual universe also, we may then begin to perceive what is really meant by education, culture-whatever contributes to the growth and unfoldment of the human mind. I am not disposed to magnify the importance of cotton in the progress of civilization.
All the elements of progress are in the constitution of the human mind; all mineral, vegetable, and animal nature seem to have been a preparation for man.
In few of the productions of nature is this preparation more marked than in cotton. Less indispensable than iron, it is hardly less useful or less extensively used. No single article gives remunerative employment to a larger number of persons. The large addition which is made to its value between the hands of the producer and the back of the wearer, constitutes the financial life-blood of whole communities and governments, without which, so far as we can see, they could hardly exist.
The United States and Europe manufacture, at the present time, about seven million bales of cotton per annum, averaging not far from four hundred pounds each. For this cotton, the producers receive about four hundred million dollars, gold value. When this cotton is manufactured, and ultimately sold to the consumers in all parts of the world, it has risen in.
Nearly all the inventions for spinning and weaving by power originated in Great Britain. The French revolution, and the disturbed condition of the continent until after the battle of Waterloo, retarded the advance of manufactures there. At the same time, England used every effort in her power to prevent a knowledge of her inventions from reaching other countries.
Practically, the English people had, during their whole contest with France, a monopoly of these inventions, and, consequently, a monopoly of certain kinds of manufactures. This was especially true of cotton, which did more than anything else to sustain her financial system under the tremendous strain to which it was then exposed. It was to her industrial progress that England owed her success in that great struggle. To what did she owe her industrial progress? Undoubtedly to the genius of her people. The philosophical works of Lord Bacon mark the drift of the English mind when it first began to manifest extraordinary vigor.
Bacon was the natural forerunner of Newton. Philosophy first, science afterward. It is common to give Bacon credit for the great intellectual development that followed the publication of his works. In one sense, this is just; in another, it is not. Such men as Bacon follow quite as much as they lead. Great men are the product of the nation and the time. They are, in the highest sense, representative men. No great discovery is wholly the act of one man.
Bacon, like all men of great genius, was exquisitely receptive. He felt the spirit of the genius of his countrymen before it had yet assumed a body. He incarnated it, if I may use the expression. The inductive method was then due in the order of evolution. The first attempt at reasoning in the childhood of the race, or the individual, takes a synthetic form.
I before stated that the first budding of a faculty is prophetic of its ultimate future. So it is even with the reasoning faculties. When the human mind attains to a knowledge of fundamental laws, it will resume its native instinct, and sweep the whole domain of nature with a single synthesis. Childhood, in the absence of a knowledge of principles, takes principles for granted. It adopts theories which become, in some sense, matters of faith, and reasons from them.
How many thousands of years the human family reasoned in this way, there is no record to show. Nine in ten still continue the same method, but it is a great deal to be able to say that there is ten per cent. Until about the commencement of the seventeenth century, all departments of human knowledge were filled with dogmas, that is, things taken for granted. The English mind, as represented by Lord Bacon, began to question and ask for proof.
XVII single fact placed the English people in the vanguard of the race for the time being. It was the first ripe fruit of the swing of the human mind from the supernatural toward the natural. All the scientific discoveries and mechanical inventions, of which the eighteenth century was so prolific, were the natural fruit of this movement.
I would not underestimate the importance of men of great genius to the world. I would only avoid that kind of hero-worship which exaggerates the importance of one man that it may pour contempt upon the mass of mankind. This is manifest in the fact that crimes have always the color and bias of the popular sentiment. In a community where animal pride, in the form of personal force and courage, are esteemed above the other qualities, crimes of personal violence prevail most.
In communities where the possession of wealth is unduly esteemed, crimes against property prevail most. If a community is thus responsible for the crimes of its members, it has a right to be credited with the achievements of its worthies. Men of great parts are always being born into the world, but it is the drift of the times and the popular sentiment that shape their work. The people of central western Europe, after the discovery of America, led the advance guard of progress.
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I have before explained what I suppose to be one of the natural causes of this. After America was discovered, Spain advanced to the position of the leading power of Europe. Why did she not retain it? I stated that the shores of the Mediterranean were the centre of activity in the action and reaction of European and Asiatic influences..
The truth is, that southern Europe is not yet distinctly European, but is largely Asiatic. Eastern and northeastern Europe are also tinctured with the same quality. It was the evident purpose of nature that Europe should evolve a new humanity, different from Asia; as it is the purpose that America shall evolve a new humanity, different from Europe.
I suppose that the reason why Spain lost her position was because she was not in the current of progress, but seemingly in one of its eddies. We are now on the eve of great changes, which will probably increase, more rapidly than ever before, the production and consumption of cotton. The progress of European influences westward has already penetrated Asia with a new force. Japan is already melting at our touch. Strange that contact with Europe from the west has never had any such influence upon any Asiatic people.
It would seem as if the European was not, and could not be, prepared to exercise such potent influence on the Asiatic mind until it first becomes Americanized. Within a short time, certainly before the end of this century, the vast populations of eastern Asia will be opened up to trade with this country, even to the most interior hamlet. The railroad and the telegraph will penetrate Japan and China in every.
There will be a large emigration of Asiatics to the United States, and of Americans to Asia, each supplying the other with what it most needs. The dense population of China, with their wants increased by European civilization, will require nearly all their land for the production of food. There will, consequently, be an immense increase in the production of cotton in this country. It is not improbable that, before the end of this century, the cotton crop of this country may reach ten million bales, and at least half of it be manufactured here. I suppose the time cannot be very far distant when the commercial intercourse between different nations will be as free and unrestricted as it is now between the States of this Union.
Every enlightened mind, every merchant especially, should labor to hasten the coming of that day. The times are almost ripe for this consummation of the prophetic instincts of the religious sentiment. Everywhere men feel that they are brothers, and that all barriers between nations are in some sort sacrilege. The pulpits preach universal love as a sentiment, but they should understand that it could not be a true sentiment if it were not also true philosoply. There is no sacrifice in the law of love.
It is all pure gain. The more good we do, the more we are benefited. A knowledge of this will lift commerce out of the mire and place it in the atmosphere of the purest ethics. The swindling, the deception, and all the desperate expedients of speculators are merely a reflex of the policy pursued by nations towards eacli other. The policy of international jealousy and hatred. If the churches were to proclaim a crusade against all customhouses, they would be doing more for the human race than they can accomplish in any other way at present.
It is the most imperative demand of the age. THE object of this work is to supply a convenient book of reference for all who are in any way interested in the cotton trade. To facilitate such reference, the facts and statistics will be arranged chronologically. Of course all who deal in an article of world-wide use, liable to great changes in value, would be glad to learn something of the causes which so often influence the market. I know of no better way to obtain that knowledge, than through a carefully arranged statement of the facts connected with the trade in past time.
History furnishes no means of ascertaining when, or by what progressive stages of discovery and invention, cotton was first utilized to human use. The arts of spinning and weaving are probably as old as agriculture. The Egyptians ascribed their origin to Isis. According to Pliny, Semiramis was believed to have been the inventress of weaving. The Peruvians ascribed them to Manco Capac, their first sovereign.
These traditions point to their extreme antiquity. It is certain that they have been found among almost all the nations of the old and new worlds, where anything like a social organization existed. The first mention of cotton by any European writer is by Herodotus, called the father of history, about B. Even then the manufacture of cotton cloth in India seems to have been as perfect as at any later period. In like manner, cotton was always characteristic of India.
What ancient Egypt was in the culture and manufacture of flax, India was in cotton. The "fine linen of Egypt" was not more celebrated on the shores of the Mediterranean, than the beautiful soft cotton fabrics of India. The great perfection attained in this manufacture in India is scarcely credible. T'avernier, a merchant, who traveled in the middle of the seventeenth century, says "The white calicuts calicoes, or rather muslins, so called from the great commercial city of Calicut, whence the Portuguese and Dutch first brought them are woven in several places in Mogulistan and Bengal, and are carried to Rioxary and Baroche to be whitened, because of the large meadows and plenty of lemons that grow thereabouts; for they are never so white as they should be until they are dipped in lemon water.
Some calicuts are made so fine you can hardly feel them in your hand, and the thread, when spun, is scarce discernible. It is probable that the expedition of Alexander the Great B. About 60, B. Of silk there is frequent mention; to cotton as a curious product of the East there are several allusions, but to cotton cloths, as articles of apparel among the Roman people, there is no allusion whatever. Cottons are among the imports of the Empire, taxed by a law under Justinian, from which it is evident they were in use for some purpose. Indeed it would be strange if it were otherwise, for before the Christian era India had begun to supply cottons to Persia, parts of Arabia, Abyssinia and all the eastern parts of Africa.
For centuries the Phenicians had traded in these fabrics, and Egypt was certainly well acquainted with their use. There is good reason to believe that the art of manufacturing. That the Roman empire carried on an extensive trade with India is attested by the well known statement that this trade drained the empire every year of a large amount of the precious metals. One hundred and twenty ships sailed annually from the Arabian Gulf, from Oceles at its mouth, across the great ocean to the coast of Malabar. They returned with the eastern monsoons, ladened with the products of India, clearing from the general mart Musiris.
It is just possible that the semi-transparent robes with which the Roman ladies clothed, or rather exposed their beauties, in the decline of the empire, were India muslins. There is no record of any cotton being manufactured in Europe before the tenth century; and then it was only by the Mohammedans in Spain. Though the Arabs seem to have learned something of cotton culture from India long before the Christian era, China, whose. Yet the court had long held in high estimation the cotton garments which had been presented to them by foreign ambassadors.
As early as A. Toward the end of the seventh century it is known that the cotton plant had long been cultivated in the gardens for its flowers. There was great opposition to the new article. It is amusing to observe how like the objections of the Chinese were to those raised by the English, in the eighteenth century, to the importation of India goods into their country; also to the object ions to the importation of machine-manufactured cottons into this country in the beginning of this century.
Even now a distinguished editor and writer, on what he calls "political economy," assigns his conversion to the restrictive or protective policy to the distress produced in New England households by the importation of goods made by the then lately invented methods and machinery at such low prices and of such superior attractiveness, that the domestic manufacture by hand almost exactly the methods of India and Egypt was completely prostrated. I should have mentioned that long prior to the tenth century, a manufacture of indigenous cotton had existed in southern parts of Italy; there was also something of the sort in the Crimea, but it.
The rise of Mohammedanism and the conquests of the Saracens, were by far the most important events in the Middle Ages. They opened an active commerce front the Straits of Gibralter to Bagdad and fartherest India. The Arabs had preserved some of the learning of the Alexandrian schools. They brought into Europe the figures of arithmetic and Euclid's works on geometry.
After the conquest of Constantinople the Turks introduced the cotton culture into Macedonia. The manuscript of Marco Polo's travels was first circulated in at Genoa. At this time a considerable trade was carried on by Venetian and Syrian merchants in India muslins.
Marco Polo was confidentially employed in the service of the Tartar conqueror of China and returned in the year , after having visited a great many countries in Asia. He makes no mention of any cotton goods in China. The cotton culture was then in its infancy in that empire. In consequence of the dearth of provisions about seventy years ago, an imperial mandate was issued, to convert to the cultivation of corn a considerable portion of the land then appropriated to the cotton plant; since which the Chinese have imported a large quantity of cotton from the east coast of India, from Calcutta, and even from Bombay.
The quantity of cotton produced in China is enormous, some writers estimate it equal to twelve millions of our bales. The lower orders are all clothed in cottons, and the higher classes in silks. In cold weather they do not change the character of their clothing, but increase the quantity, adding garment upon garment.
It is supposed that Mohammedans first introduced the use of the bow-string in opening up the fibres of the cotton, from the circumstance that the bow-string operation is never executed by Hindoos. The Hindoos maintain their ancient supe riority in all the finer fabrics.
This is attributed to the greater delicacy and susceptibility of their organization. The bow-string was once used in this country, and gave rise to the term "Bowed Georgia," still used in Liverpool. The rollers used in India for separating the seed from the lint, are still used in this country for long staple cotton.
It is thought that the best is that worked by the treadle, in the same way it was worked in India, as described by Nearchus, one of Alexander's officers, B. During the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the. I' cotton manufacture continued to flourish in Spain. Its chief mart was Barcelona, in the neighborhood of which the plant is still found growing wild. During the same period, and probably much earlier, the cotton manufacture was very extensively established all over the southern shores of the Mediterranean.
Indeed it may be taken for granted that wherever the Mohammedans obtained a foothold this industry was established, from the Atlantic Ocean to the River Euphratus. Humaine, a small African city in the Mediterranean, frequented in the fifteenth century by the Venetians, is spoken of with high commendation on account of its eminence in this manufacture.
An Italian writer says of them: "The inhabitants were a noble, civilized race of men, and almost all engaged in the production of cotton and cotton cloth. According to Odoardo Barbosa, of Lisbon, who made a voyage to southern Africa in , the Caffres then wore cotton dresses. At Cefala, he says, the Moors grow a large quantity of fine cotton, and use it in white cloth, being unable to dye it on account of the want of coloring stuffs. Cotton cloth, woven on the coast of Guinea, was imported into London in the year Travelers, who have penetrated into the interior of Africa, concur in showing that cotton is indigenous to that continent, and that it is spun and woven into cloth, which is used for raiment by the inhabitants of every class and latitude.
It is probable that a much larger surface of Africa is suited to the cotton culture than of either Asia or America. Lord Palmerston predicted that Africa will yet'supply Europe with cotton. The time is drawing near when Africa will be in the line of Colonization. The currents of commercial exchanges between Oceanica and Europe, and between South America and Europe, cannot much longer be prevented from overflowing the African continent.
The movement from Egypt is not likely to accomplish much; the Cape of Good Hope is the key to Africa's future. In , A. The art of making paper from cotton came into Europe from Arabia, where it was first known, though the Chinese had long made paper from refuse silk. Mohammedans, in Spain, subsequently discovered that linen was superior to cotton for that purpose. After the voyage of Vasco De Gama, the Portuguese made large importations of muslins, and other cotton goods into Europe, but did not attempt to establish any cotton manufacture in their own country.
When the Dutch, sometime afterwards, succeeded in depriving the Portuguese of their eastern colonies, they not only extended the traffic in cotton goods, but, towards the end of the six teenth century, began to fabricate them at home. The earliest notice of cotton, as an article of English trade, is about the end of the fifteenth century.
It was naturally included in the trade of the Mediterranean, and was carried by the ships of the Italian cities wherever they sailed. Early in the sixteenth century English commerce began to expand. Though Italy had some knowledge of cotton manufacture three hundred years before it was known in Western Europe, yet in the year there were' only , spindles in the whole of Italy. Columbus found cotton in use among the natives of Hispaniola, but only in the most primitive forms.
Cortez found the manufacture in a much more advanced condition in Mexico. The Spanish historian of Mexico informs us that "The Mexicans made large webs, and as delicate and fine as those of Holland. They wove their cloths of. Of feathers interwoven with cotton, they made mantles and bed-curtains, carpets, gowns, and other things, not less soft than'beautiful.
With cotton also they interwove the finest hair of the belly of rabbits and hares-after having spun it into thread; of this they made most beautiful cloths, and in particular winter waistcoats for their lords. In the stocking frame, one of the most complex and ingenious machines tlien known, was invented. In the spinningwheel was invented by Jurgen of Brunswick.
In the slave trade was actively carried on by England. This may not seem to be a very conclusive indication of progress,. Nearly all the cotton in the world is produced by the colored races. It is a tropical plant, and the tropical races cultivate it, though it seems destined to supply the whole race with a large part of their clothing. The trade is yet in its infancy. Even in this country, where cotton culture is most successful, the methods of culture are most primitive. The time is not distant when four times, as much cotton will be produced to the acre as is now produced, and of quality much superior to the cotton of the present time.
Cotton culture in this country is in about the same stage of progress that marked the condition of agriculture in England one hundred years ago. Since the emancipation of the slaves a new impetus has been given to improvement, but still the business is so profitable that it is done very carelessly. It is the only article that can be produced in such abundance, and so cheaply, that the demand never can for any long time exceed the supply.
There is no other textile material that can be grown so profitably on such an extensive area of the earth' s surface. Baine's'" History of the Cotton Manufacture" says: "No mention has yet been found of the cotton manufacture in England earlier than In calicoes were first imported into Eng. It was not until forty-five years afterwards that calico printing commenced in London.
Carroll, I find several allusions to cotton as an article of culture in that colony. Some colonists from Barbadoes, who settled on the Cape Feare River in , brought with them cotton seed, which they cultivated for domestic purposes. In a description of the Province of Carolina, by Samuel Wilson, addressed to the Earl of Craven, in , it is stated that "cotton of the Smyrna and Cypress sort grows well, and good plenty of the seed is sent thither. West, the first Governor of South Carolina, we find the following: "' Mr. West, God sending you to Barbadoes, you are then to furnish yourself with cotton seed, indigo seed, ginger roots.
Indigo was also introduced into Louisiana by the French in , and within ten years became an object of export. About , when rice became reduced in price, the seed of the East India indigo plant, which had been for many years extensively cultivated in the West Indies, was sent, along with cotton, ginger, lucerne, etc. Lucas, the governor of the island. Previous to the war of the Revolution, indigo held the position among the products of South Carolina afterwards occupied by cotton.
It was hardly less important in Georgia. In her journal, and , she speaks of the pains she had taken to bring cotton and indigo to perfection. The first export of cotton was from Savannah. Peter Purry, in his description of Carolina in , says: "Flax and cotton thrive admirably, and hemp grows thirteen to fourteen feet in height; but, as few people know how to order it, there is very little cultivated. Dubreuil, invented a cotton-gin for separating the fibre from the seed, which greatly stimulated the culture of cotton in that colony. The separation of the seed had previously been effected by picking it with the fingers, at the rate of one pound a day.
This operation, as the evening task of the family, black and white, long continued to be the practice in the cotton region, until increased production called for mechanical appliances.