Listening is not the same as hearing and does not occur incidentally. It is an active skill that needs to be taught, children need to understand what they hear. Speaking is a process of understanding sounds using lips, mouth, teeth, tongue and larynx. Children need to learn a variety of speaking skills.
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Some suggested useful websites addresses are provided at the end of the module to give additional support to course participants. Engage the techniques for teaching listening and speaking skills 2. When we speak, our mind would be processing lots of information, and this happens in great speed and agility. The processes are dynamic and constantly change as new meanings arise in a conversation. This is largely unconscious and we rarely reflect on what it involves.
However, we can all improve our speaking and listening, and developing greater self-awareness is the key to improving our ability in this area. Explicit teaching of speaking and listening provides an opportunity to use interesting and innovative approaches that learners will enjoy. The curriculum content is organized in terms of Content Standards and Learning Standards.
Content Standards specify the essential knowledge, skills, understandings and strategies that pupils need to learn. In the initial stages of learning English, pupils will have the opportunity to listen to meaningful English input, in the form of stories or oral descriptions by teachers based on graphic texts.
Through listening, pupils become familiar with words that willl be introduced in their early reading and writing lessons. The emphasis in the initial stages willl be on vocabulary acquisition. Listening and Speaking Component The curriculum content for Year 1,2 and 3 encompasses listening and speaking, reading, writing, language arts, grammar and word list.
In KSSR, the listening and speaking component is taught simultaneously as one component. Let us look into the details of this content in the listening and speaking component. The learning standards for listening and speaking range from the discrete sound, word and phrase recognition to an understading of chunks of heard texts. Listening and speaking are seen as core skills of early literacy. Pupils should be taught how to listen carefully as well as feel encouraged to speak from the basic level of sound, word, phrase and move on to structural sentences in various situational contexts.
At every stage, the stress, rhythm and intonation patterns need to be used correctly. In addition pupils are also encouraged to recognize, understand and use verbal and non-verbal communication.
Oral communication practice by means of repeating, responding, understanding and applying what pupils have heard sensitizes their senses to be ready for communication. Relationship are established through the ability to communicate by listening first then speaking thoughts, ideas an feelings. It is hoped by the end of primary school, pupils should become confident speakers who can communicate clearly, appropriately and coherently in any given context. Pupils need to listen carefully and respond to what others say and think about the needs of their listeners.
Social conventions in listening and speaking such as turn taking, politeness and courtesy need to be observed. These are crucial especially in group discussions where viewpoints and opinions are exchanged. The use of various text types is recommended; ranging from teacher stimulated texts to media broadcasts and authentic dialogues. Give your review based on the following questions: a. What are the skills focused in the syllabus?
What do you think of the syllabus? If you are given a choice, which of the syllabus would you choose? Our eBooks are ideal for anyone who wants to learn about or develop their interpersonal skills and are full of easy-to-follow, practical information. The following three core elements of vocal production need to be understood for anyone wishing to become an effective speaker:. This is not a question of treating the voice like the volume control on the TV remote. Some people have naturally soft voices and physically cannot bellow.
Additionally, if the voice is raised too much, tonal quality is lost. Instead of raising the voice, it should be ' projected out '.
Support the voice with lots of breath - the further you want to project the voice out, the more breath you need. It also needs to come from the diaphragm, not the throat. When talking to a group or meeting, it is important not to aim your talk to the front row or just to the people nearest you.
Instead, you need to consciously project what you have to say to those furthest away. Some people tend to speak through clenched teeth and with little movement of their lips. It is this inability to open mouths and failure to make speech sounds with precision that is the root cause of inaudibility.
The sound is locked into the mouth and not let out.
To have good articulation it is important to unclench the jaw, open the mouth and give full benefit to each sound you make, paying particular attention to the ends of words. This will also help your audience as a certain amount of lip-reading will be possible. To make speech effective and interesting, certain techniques can be applied. However, it is important not to sound false or as if you are giving a performance. Words convey meaning, but the way that they are said reflects feelings and emotions.
Vocal variety can be achieved by variations in:. Pace: This is the speed at which you talk. If speech is too fast, then listeners will not have time to assimilate what is being said. It is also a good idea to vary the pace - quickening up at times and then slowing down — because this will help to maintain interest. If you drop your voice to almost a whisper as long as it is projected for a sentence or two, it will make your audience suddenly alert.
Be careful not to overuse this technique, though, or it will lose its impact. This does not mean your voice has to swoop and dive all over the place in an uncontrolled manner.
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Try to make the talk interesting. Remember that when you are nervous or excited, your vocal chords tense and shorten, causing the voice to get higher. Emphasise certain words and phrases within the talk to convey their importance and help to add variety.
They can be used for effect to highlight the preceding statement or to gain attention before an important message. Pauses mean silence for a few seconds. Listeners interpret meaning during pauses so have the courage to stay silent for up to five seconds — dramatic pauses like this convey authority and confidence. Before any important speaking situation, whether it is an appointment, meeting or talk, it is beneficial to have a voice warm-up.
The voice is an instrument - no musician arrives at a concert hall and launches into Beethoven without first tuning up. The length of time and frequency of a warm-up is up to you and will depend on how much speaking you need to do. There is more about using your voice effectively on our page non-verbal communication: face and voice. Tone of voice, pace and emphasis are all part of non-verbal communication.
However, your body language is also important. This includes how you stand, your facial expressions, the way you use your hands to emphasise your speech, and even whether and with whom you make eye contact. There is more about how to use body language to communicate effectively in our page on Body Language. This includes considering how far away you are from your audience, and therefore whether you need to exaggerate your gestures to make them clearer.
Perhaps the most important aspect of effective communication is congruence. For communication to be effective, your non-verbal communication needs to reinforce your words: the two must say the same thing. You may therefore need to put some thought into how you want to use body language and other non-verbal cues. This is particularly important if you are trying to get across a difficult or unwelcome message. Search SkillsYouNeed:.