enter site Pfister and Henry C.
The Sentinel joined in the chorus of indignation that resounded from Milwaukee and beyond, particularly during when Pfister and Payne succeeded, by means of bribery, to push through a year contract with the city. On December 29 Pfister and Payne sued the Sentinel for libel, to which the paper replied that it had fallen prey to "probably the most formidable and influential combination of selfish interests ever found in the city of Milwaukee.
Charles F. Pfister was heir to a fortune built from his father's tannery company and he directed many valuable holdings, including banks, railroads, insurance companies, heavy industries, pinelands and mines, plus the lavish Pfister Hotel. He developed funds as well as strategy for the state's stalwart Republican machine, having made governors and senators. Rather than going to trial and having his business practices revealed, Pfister bought the Sentinel outright on February 18, , paying an immense sum to buy up a majority of its stock.
After the death of his publisher, Lansing Warren, that summer Pfister assumed publishing duties, immersing himself in the paper's operations and directing political coverage. Owning the Sentinel expanded his conservative influence from the convention backrooms to the pages of the largest daily paper in Wisconsin. The Sentinel immediately opposed the newly elected Governor La Follette. During La Follete's successful re-election campaign in Pfister's political power was diminished after it had been revealed that he had secretly purchased the editorial pages of some of the state's newspapers.
In Pfister was indicted in a rendering company bribery scandal by Milwaukee district attorney and future Wisconsin governor Francis McGovern , but was acquitted for lack of testimony. Pfister sold the paper to the William Randolph Hearst's newspaper syndicate on June 1, A majority stake was purchased by the Hearst Corporation in The lease was for a minimum of three years. The station was sold to the Wisconsin News in November The News closed in , being consolidated with the Sentinel as a single morning paper.
Hearst operated the Sentinel until when, following a long and costly strike, it abruptly announced the closing of the paper. Although Hearst claimed that the paper had lost money for years, television was directly affecting Hearst's evening papers in New York City and Chicago , forcing the company to drive income from the Sentinel to finance the other papers. The Journal Company, concerned about the loss of an important voice and facing questions about its own dominance of the Milwaukee media market , agreed to buy the Sentinel name, subscription lists, and any "good will" associated with the name.
The Journal was started in , in competition with four other English-language, four German- and two Polish-language dailies. Its first editor was Lucius Nieman , who wanted to steer the paper away from the political biases and yellow journalism common at the time.
Nieman was an innovative and crusading editor. The Pulitzer Prize for Public Service was awarded to The Milwaukee Journal in "for its strong campaign for Americanism in a constituency where foreign elements made such a policy hazardous from a business point of view". The Journal followed the Sentinel into broadcasting. Nieman's successor, Harry J. A small bloc of Journal stock was given to Harvard College, and funded the Nieman Fellowship program for promising journalists.
Competing with two raucous Hearst papers filled with gossip, features and comic strips, Harry Grant took a more sober approach to news presentation, emphasizing local news. During his years as editor and publisher, the Journal received several Pulitzers and other awards from its peers; it was under Grant that the Journal gained a reputation as a leading voice of moderate midwestern liberalism. During the s, the Journal was outspoken in its opposition to Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy and his search for communist influence in government, which perhaps inflated the Journal 's reputation for liberalism.
At its circulation peak in the early s, the Journal sold about , copies daily and , on Sunday. The Journal was a Monday-through-Saturday afternoon broadsheet, containing its distinctive Green Sheet , also publishing Sunday mornings. Though circulation had declined from its peak, it still held a rare position for an afternoon paper, dominating its market up until , when the Journal and Sentinel were consolidated.
As of mid, the Journal Sentinel had the 31st-largest circulation among all major U. On April 8, , decades of local ownership for both papers ended when Journal Media Group was acquired by the Gannett Company. In , business desk reporter Austin C. Wehrwein won for international reporting with the series of stories "Canada's New Century. In , the series "Pollution: The Spreading Menace" garnered the award for public service.
She won the award in the category of best general reporting for a series of articles on the elderly and the process of aging. In , local government reporter David Umhoefer was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Local Reporting for his investigation of the Milwaukee County pension system. In , reporter Raquel Rutledge was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for local reporting for her investigations and stories on abuses in a state-run child care system.
In , Mark Johnson, Kathleen Gallagher, Gary Porter, Lou Saldivar, and Alison Sherwood were awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Reporting for their "lucid examination of an epic effort to use genetic technology to save a 4-year-old boy imperiled by a mysterious disease, told with words, graphics, videos and other images. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. ABCNewspaper Search. Retrieved USA Today , April 11, Business Wire. Archived from the original on Wisconsin Magazine of History , vol. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, , p.
Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Bruce Thompson. Matthew Hale Carpenter, Webster of the West.
Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, , pp. Conrad, Kathleen F. Wilson and Dale Wilson.
Our study provides evidence, that the ILI sentinel surveillance system in the Greater Accra Region GAR , Ghana, is only partially meeting its objectives because it did not have thresholds for alerting the health system and does not perform antiviral resistance testing. They can enable innovation and competition and reduce the cost of finance. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. With the increase in international travel, infectious disease control is gaining a greater importance across regional borders [ 1 ]. The sentinel sites consistently failed to meet their case detection quotas annually over the period evaluated. Nine attributes: simplicity, flexibility, data quality, acceptability, sensitivity, predictive value positive, representativeness, timeliness and stability, usefulness and the utility of the system to achieve its objectives were evaluated. Chapter 4: Media agenda-setting and donor aid - Douglas A.
The Milwaukee Journal. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, , pp. The New Citizenship. University of Missouri Press, , pp. The system is sustainable with donors mainly funding its operation. Influenza causes considerable morbidity and about , deaths per year globally. The disease is highly infectious with high pandemic potential. Therefore, worldwide surveillance systems to record Influenza-like illnesses ILI in real time and detect possible influenza outbreaks are essential to prevent and control epidemics. Our study provides evidence, that the ILI sentinel surveillance system in the Greater Accra Region GAR , Ghana, is only partially meeting its objectives because it did not have thresholds for alerting the health system and does not perform antiviral resistance testing.
It is sensitive and timely in detecting influenza cases but of low predictive value positive PVP. It is representative of the population under surveillance and flexible to modifications. The system is fairly stable and acceptable to key stakeholders; the quality of data is relatively high. Predominant influenza subtype in circulation is influenza A H3N2 virus. The sentinel sites consistently failed to meet their case detection quotas annually over the period evaluated. Despite these apparent weaknesses in the ILI system, the good performance of the laboratory component is commendable and key to detection of novel influenza viruses for prompt response.
For the past two decades of influenza surveillance in Ghana, the system proved its utility by its ability to detect and classify circulating strains as well as providing key information for public health action. Similar findings were made in the South African [ 13 ] and Madagascar [ 14 ] influenza surveillance systems.
Even though the PVP is low, it generally conforms to other syndromic surveillance systems with broad case definitions but specific for respiratory diseases in this case, aimed at maximizing influenza case detection [ 15 ].
Nevertheless, the unmet objectives, lack of thresholds and antiviral resistance testing, of the system require attention. The lack of antiviral resistance testing to detect the emergence of treatment resistant strains and the absence of thresholds preventing the issuing of alerts, are a major drawback. This situation is not specific to the GAR alone but is found in all sites in Ghana.
In addition, the mainly conservative management of clinical signs and symptoms, of confirmed influenza cases in the health system, without the use of recommended antiviral agents, may partly explain the absence of antiviral susceptibility testing. These shortfalls may, however, be caused by a lack of capacity or resources antiviral drugs and laboratory reagents at the sentinel facilities to determine thresholds for influenza alerts and test for antiviral resistance, as was observed in evaluations done in other settings [ 16 , 17 ].
Threshold establishment for disease surveillance is paramount to be able to alert the health system early when outbreaks occur for prompt public health action [ 1 ]. A study to test the Moving Epidemic Method in determining thresholds for ILI and SARI surveillance systems in Europe, was able to detect epidemic periods with few or no false alarms in different countries [ 18 ].
Other methods employed in Cambodia [ 19 ] and Australia [ 20 ] had similar findings. The NIC must take the lead using the WHO manual [ 21 ], to choose an epidemic threshold determination method and train focal persons in the facilities to use it, to ensure this key information is available. Even though implementing an integrated human and animal surveillance could be cost-effective and improve case detection and response [ 22 ], discussions with ILI surveillance personnel at sentinel sites revealed the absence of a link between influenza surveillance in humans and animals.
Human infection with zoonotic influenza strains is possible and may cause mild to severe form of the disease. There have been recorded episodes of pandemics in humans over a century due to cross-species transmission of zoonotic respiratory viruses including influenza viruses, notably Spanish flu , severe acute respiratory syndrome and swine flu , resulting in high morbidity and mortality globally [ 23 , 24 ]. Thus, the importance of a One-Health approach in the surveillance and response with control of pandemics in an increasingly globalized world is evident.
Research findings in Africa, Europe and the Americas, have shown incremental gains derived when interventions are integrated between human and animal health systems [ 25 ]. The NIC and Veterinary Service Department in Ghana should collaborate to formalize protocols for engaging each other to integrate influenza surveillance systems in humans and animals, using a One Health approach, as this can provide additional key information on possible cross-species transmission in the country and enhance savings.
In Ghana, the timeliness of the system in case detection, laboratory confirmation and result dissemination is commendable. This strength may be as result of the weekly visits NIC makes to sentinel sites to collect specimen, supply virus transport media in specimen bottles and transfer results. The NIC should further take advantage of these visits and collaborative meetings to ensure each site meets weekly case detection quotas. Focal persons at the various sites must take the lead. In spite of the usefulness and fair performance of ILI surveillance in GAR on indicators evaluated, it is only partially meeting its set objectives.
It is sensitive in detecting circulating influenza types, representative of the population under surveillance and timely. However, sentinel sites do not consistently meet annual case detection quotas. This would ensure that the successes chocked are not undermined, thereby preventing increasing morbidity and mortality related to influenza infections. Considering the zoonotic character of most influenza viruses, it is important that a One Health approach is adopted with influenza surveillance in Ghana.
We propose strict adherence to case detection targets by individual sentinel sites and determination of alert thresholds for the system to allow for a more effective monitoring of influenza activity in the region for prompt public health actions. In addition, we would like to thank the physicians, nurses, surveillance officers, laboratory scientists and health information officers who contribute to the Influenza-like illnesses sentinel surveillance system in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, as well as the staff and Cohort 11 residents of the Ghana Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Program.
Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Background Influenza-like Illness ILI is a medical diagnosis of possible influenza or another respiratory illness with a common set of symptoms. Results All population and age groups were under ILI surveillance over the period evaluated. Introduction Influenza-like illnesses ILI , often also called acute respiratory infection or flu-like syndrome, are acute viral infections of the respiratory tract with similar signs and symptoms to influenza.
Materials and methods We described the attributes and effectiveness of the ILI sentinel surveillance system in the Greater Accra region GAR of Ghana using a descriptive cross-sectional survey.
Study area The GAR is one of ten regional demarcations in Ghana with a population of about 5 million people [ 11 ]. Download: PPT. Fig 1. Data analysis The evaluation was conducted using the CDCs guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems [ 12 ]. Ethics statement The evaluation was done within the framework of Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response matrix implemented by the Ghana Health Service and therefore did not have to receive formal review by Ethical Review Committees. Results Operation of the ILI sentinel surveillance system The surveillance system was found to be utilizing the syndromic approach by screening suspected cases and thereafter conducting further laboratory confirmatory tests on collected nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal specimen.
Fig 2. Direction of information and data flow in the ILI sentinel surveillance system, Greater Accra region, Ghana, — Influenza detection Of the suspected cases tested, 7.
Characteristics and attributes of the ILI surveillance system Utility of the ILI sentinel surveillance system in attaining set objectives. Surveillance system attributes. Table 1. Table 2. Fig 3. Expected and total number of suspected Influenza-like illnesses cases per sentinel site from to in the Greater Accra region in Ghana.
Discussion Influenza causes considerable morbidity and about , deaths per year globally. Conclusion In spite of the usefulness and fair performance of ILI surveillance in GAR on indicators evaluated, it is only partially meeting its set objectives. Supporting information. S1 Table. S2 Table. S3 Table. S1 File. CDC Checklist for assessment of health surveillance systems. References 1. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
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