Refer to eBay Return policy for more details. Stoner, J. Although the efficacy of the social identity approach to leadership has yet to be extensively examined in exercise settings, a vast body of other research supports its applicability to this context. Learn More - opens in a new window or tab Any international shipping and import charges are paid in part to Pitney Bowes Inc. Watch list is full. Moreover, it proposes that when people categorize themselves as members of a group, this gives their behaviour a distinct meaning, in part because it motivates them to positively differentiate their ingroup from comparison outgroups on valued dimensions. The theory of planned behaviour: self identity, social identity and group norms.
Shane R. Edward J. The "Advances in Group Processes" series publishes theoretical analyses, reviews and theory-based empirical chapters on group phenomena. Volume 19 includes papers that address fundamental issues of solidarity, cohesion and trust. Chapter one shows how solidarity is a consequence of group-level phenomena competition and individual level phenomena similarity.
The second chapter examines solidarity among injection drug users, showing that the cohesion and solidarity of drug users are patterned by principles of collective action. The next two chapters integrate extant theories to provide new insights. Chapter three integrates principles of social exchange, status organizing processes and game theory to theorize solidarity; while chapter four shows how research on emotions can explain solidarity in status-differentiated groups. Two chapters then review and analyse long-standing programmes of research on cohesion and trust.
Chapter five reviews a decade of growth for the theory of relational cohesion, showing how emotions lead to cohesion and commitment. Chapter six analyses how learning and social control can produce trust in networks of varying size. The final two chapters examine processes that are often neglected in the production of solidarity and cohesion. Chapter seven analyses group loyalty as a function of intra- and inter-personal factors. By thwarting the ambitions of agentic women and communal men, evaluators contribute to preserving stereotypes in the culture-at-large.
Men and women were assigned to receive false positive feedback on gender knowledge tests. Participants were randomly assigned to believe they had scored high in their own gender test normatives or the opposite gender test deviants. They were then afforded the opportunity to publicize their success in various ways e. Compared with normatives, deviants were more likely to hide their success by refusing publicity, deceiving the experimenter by claiming success in the wrong test , and depositing their ticket in the wrong box.
PHELAN gender stereotypical occupations and activities, suggesting a need to increase their efforts to conform to gender norms. However, these effects were moderated by fear of backlash. That is, successful gender deviants engaged in these strategies hiding, deception, and norm conformity in response to the threat of being socially rejected.
As a result, stereotypes are allowed to thrive in the culture-at-large. Potential Moderators of Backlash While research evidence clearly points to negative consequences for female agency, studies have also suggested ways for agentic women to overcome backlash. Heilman and Okimoto in press found that when successful women managers were also described as communal they were rated as far more likeable than successful women managers for whom no communal information was provided.
Although displaying communal qualities in addition to displaying competence may be an effective method of alleviating backlash, it is not an ideal solution as it presents an additional burden for female leaders. Men do not suffer repercussions for assertive behavior; therefore they have more freedom to lead without the risk of sanctions.
Are there gender differences in backlash effects? For most of the part, research shows that men and women equally sanction counterstereotypical Sex Differences, Sexism, and Sex 37 targets, but there are a few exceptions. In addition, Carranza found that women reacted more positively toward feminine men on measures of facial feedback, compared with men. Finally, backlash effects are a particularly pernicious barrier to gender equity because they prevent the very women who might be best suited for 38 LAURIE A.
Moreover, backlash stems from traditional stereotype prescriptions that seem particularly resistant to change. In sum, contemporary gender researchers are beginning to understand the complex barriers that women face as they strive to gain equal status with men. Although convincing laypeople that benevolence can be a form of discrimination may prove a daunting task, the accumulating research evidence makes a persuasive case.
Similarly, backlash research expands our understanding of the way gender stereotypes operate in the workplace, allowing for intervention strategies to be developed that not only help to ameliorate bias due to descriptive stereotypes, but also take into account gender stereotype prescriptions. Future research in these domains will continue to revise and expand theoretical frameworks, which can only further the ultimate aim of achieving gender equity.
Correspondence concerning this article may be addressed to Laurie A.
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We then identify organizational conditions that may weaken the influence of these expectations. In addition, we discuss how prescriptive gender stereotypes i. We then review recent research exploring the conditions under which women experience penalties for direct, or inferred, prescriptive norm violations. Gender stereotypes have both descriptive and prescriptive properties. Each of these aspects of gender stereotypes give rise to biased perceptions that can affect both how women are evaluated and the career-related decisions that are made about them.
In this chapter we will discuss our ideas about how and why gender stereotypes lead to negative consequences for women in Social Psychology of Gender Advances in Group Processes, Volume 24, 47—77 Copyright r by Elsevier Ltd. We also will discuss research based on these ideas that seeks to identify the conditions most likely to bring about sex bias in evaluative judgments and organizational decision-making.
Descriptive gender stereotypes designate what women and men are like. Prescriptive gender stereotypes indicate what women and men should be like. First we will consider how performance expectations about women deriving from descriptive gender stereotypes can adversely affect the perceived suitability of women for organizational advancement.
Using the Lack of Fit model Heilman, , we will describe how a perceived mismatch between the characteristics women possess and the characteristics needed for success in male-typed jobs can create expectations of failure for women — expectations that can have a powerful effect on judgments and decisions. Second, we will explore the more subtle but no less pernicious effects of prescriptive gender stereotypes for women in the workplace. We will review research demonstrating the penalties that successful women face for directly or indirectly violating gender norms.
Whereas men are thought to be more agentic i. Although conceptions of men and women differ, each description is positive in its own way. Gender Stereotypes in the Workplace 49 The characterizations of men and women deriving from descriptive gender stereotypes are surprisingly consistent across cultures and time. Williams and Best examined gender stereotypes in 25 countries by asking participants to rate if each adjective in a list was more frequently associated with men, women, or neither group. They found a good deal of consistency in gender stereotypes across cultures.
Adjectives related to agency e. Evidently, the increase in the numbers of working women, as well as their presence in positions of power and authority, has not eliminated gender-stereotypic assumptions about what women are like. These widely shared beliefs about men and women can have broad effects. Descriptive stereotypes serve as heuristics or shortcuts for forming impressions about individuals.
However, it should be noted that the characterizations deriving from these stereotypes do not always produce negative consequences. Rather, stereotypical conceptions of what women are like are detrimental in their career-relevant consequences only when they negatively affect expectations about how successful women will be when working at a particular job. This should cause particular problems for women attempting to gain access to high-level jobs, as the qualities believed to be necessary for jobs that are highest in authority and prestige are typically ones that are considered to be male in gender-type Lyness, Volume 21 Issue 3 May-June Volume 21 Issue 2 March-April Volume 21 Issue 1 January-February Volume 20 Issue 6 November-December Volume 20 Issue 5 September-October Volume 20 Issue 4 July-August Volume 20 Issue 3 May-June Volume 20 Issue 2 March-April Volume 20 Issue 1 January-February Volume 19 Issue 6 November-December Volume 19 Issue 5 September-October Volume 19 Issue 4 July-August Volume 19 Issue 3 May-June Volume 19 Issue 2 March-April Volume 19 Issue 1 January-February Volume 18 Issue 6 November-December Volume 18 Issue 5 September-October Volume 18 Issue 4 July-August Volume 18 Issue 3 May-June Volume 18 Issue 2 March-April Volume 18 Issue 1 January-February Volume 17 Issue 6 November-December Volume 17 Issue 5 September-October Volume 17 Issue 4 July-August Volume 17 Issue 3 May-June Volume 17 Issue 2 March-April Volume 17 Issue 1 January-February Volume 16 Issue 6 November-December Volume 16 Issue 5 September-October Volume 16 Issue 4 July-August Volume 16 Issue 3 May-June Volume 16 Issue 2 March-April Volume 16 Issue 1 January-February Volume 15 Issue 6 November-December Volume 15 Issue 5 September-October Volume 15 Issue 4 July-August Volume 15 Issue 3 May-June Volume 15 Issue 2 March-April Volume 15 Issue 1 January-February Volume 14 Issue 6 November-December Volume 14 Issue 5 September-October Volume 14 Issue 4 July-August Volume 14 Issue 3 May-June Volume 14 Issue 2 March-April Volume 14 Issue 1 January-February Volume 13 Issue 6 November-December Volume 13 Issue 5 September-October Volume 13 Issue 4 July-August Volume 13 Issue 3 May-June Volume 13 Issue 2 March-April Volume 13 Issue 1 January-February Volume 12 Issue 6 November-December Volume 12 Issue 5 September-October Volume 12 Issue 4 July-August Volume 12 Issue 3 May-June Volume 12 Issue 2 March-April Volume 12 Issue 1 January-February Volume 11 Issue 6 November-December Volume 11 Issue 5 September-October Volume 11 Issue 4 July-August Volume 11 Issue 3 May-June Volume 11 Issue 2 March-April Volume 11 Issue 1 January-February Volume 10 Issue 6 November-December Volume 10 Issue 5 September-October Volume 10 Issue 4 July-August Volume 10 Issue 3 May-June Volume 10 Issue 2 March-April Volume 10 Issue 1 January-February Volume 9 Issue 6 November-December Volume 9 Issue 5 September-October Volume 9 Issue 4 July-August Volume 9 Issue 3 May-June Volume 9 Issue 2 March-April Volume 9 Issue 1 January-February Volume 8 Issue 6 November-December Volume 8 Issue 5 September-October Volume 8 Issue 4 July-August Volume 8 Issue 3 May-June Volume 8 Issue 2 March-April Volume 8 Issue 1 January-February Volume 7 Issue 6 November-December Volume 7 Issue 5 September-October Volume 7 Issue 4 July-August Volume 7 Issue 3 May-June Volume 7 Issue 2 March-April Volume 7 Issue 1 January-February Volume 6 Issue 6 November-December Volume 6 Issue 5 September-October Volume 6 Issue 4 July-August Volume 6 Issue 3 May-June Volume 6 Issue 2 March-April Volume 6 Issue 1 January-February