But this time, and in contrast to alpha-interferon, the remissions were complete CR and were long-lasting after treatment which is given intravenously at intervals over a month period was discontinued. A further breakthrough was reported in the mids, with a similar high complete remission rate achieved after a single week of continuous intravenous treatment with another nucleoside analogue, Cladribine. An important development with Cladribine is the possibility of using this agent by the subcutaneous  route over 5 days, with a similar success rate as when given intravenously.
This has resulted in patient convenience and cost savings as it avoids hospital admissions or clinic visits. There are no major differences in effectiveness between Pentostatin and Cladribine apart from the fact that therapy with Pentostatin is lengthy three to four months and requires intravenous administration. With Cladribine and Pentostatin treatments, an important end point is to achieve complete remission.
If only partial remission is obtained, then retreatment is necessary until the bone marrow is cleared of any detectable hairy cells. This is assessed by bone marrow trephines and careful immunohistochemical stainings. Such complete remissions often last over ten years and, in fact, the overall survival of hairy cell leukaemia patients has improved dramatically in the last years.
Despite the above improvements, further progress has been made with the addition of the monoclonal antibody Rituximab to either nucleoside analogue to improve the quality of the response. At present, these combinations are reserved for relapses, or for patients failing to achieve a complete remission with the first line of treatment.
Last reviewed: August Share on: Facebook Twitter. In idiopathic myelofibrosis, the ability of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells may be impaired. It seeks out a protein found on leukaemia cells and attaches itself to it. Red blood cells that carry oxygen and other substances to all tissues of the body. Telephone: ; Email: CommentsPathout gmail. Resources for News Media.
Both agents cause a degree of immunosuppression and lymphopenia and therefore special care is needed to prevent viral and bacterial infections, usually for the first six months of treatment. A type of white blood cell that is a necessary part of your immune system. Reduction in the normal number of blood cells. This can be neutropenia, anaemia or thrombocytopenia.
Not enough neutrophils in the blood. Neutrophils are a type of white cell that destroy any invading bacteria in the blood stream, so a lack of neutrophils makes a patient more likely to get infections. Fewer red blood cells than normal. Reduction in the number of platelets in the blood. Platelets are a type of small blood cell that helps in the clotting process.
A type of white blood cell that is a part of your immune system. Fits into the DNA in a dividing cell in place of the true nucleoside. Skip to main content. Chemotherapy kills cells that multiply quickly, such as leukaemic cells. It also causes damage to fast-growing normalcells, including hair cells and cells that make up the tissues in your mouth, gut and bone marrow. The side effects of chemotherapy occur as a result of this damage. As a result, your blood count the number of white cells, platelets and red cells circulating in your blood will generally fall within a week of treatment.
The length of time it takes for your bone marrow and blood counts to recover mainly depends on the type of chemotherapy given.
When your platelet count is very low thrombocytopenic you can bruise and bleed more easily. During this time it is helpful to avoid sharp objects in your mouth such as chop bones or potato chips as these can cut your gums. Using a soft toothbrush also helps to protect your gums. In many cases a transfusion of platelets is given to reduce the risk of bleeding until the platelet count recovers.
If your red blood cell count and haemoglobin levels drop you will probably become anaemic. When you are anaemic you feel more tired and lethargic than usual. If your haemoglobin level is very low, your doctor may prescribe a blood transfusion. The point at which your white blood cell count is at its lowest is called the nadir.
This is usually expected 10 to 14 days after having your chemotherapy. During this time you will be at a higher risk of developing an infection. At this stage you will also be neutropenic, which means that your neutrophil count is low. Neutrophils are important white blood cells that help us to fight infection. While your white blood cell count is low you should take sensible precautions to help prevent infection. These include avoiding crowds, avoiding close contact with people with contagious infections for example colds, flu, chicken pox and only eating food that has been properly prepared and cooked.
If you do develop an infection you may experience a fever, which may or may not be accompanied by an episode of shivering where you shake uncontrollably. Infections while you are neutropenic can be quite serious and need to be treated with antibiotics as soon as possible. Sometimes your doctor may decide to use a drug like G-CSF to help the recovery of your neutrophil count.
Hairy cell leukaemia is one of the rarest types of leukaemia, which is cancer of the white blood cells. It gets its name from the fine, hair-like strands around the. Hairy cell leukemia is a rare, slow-growing cancer of the blood in which your bone marrow makes too many B cells (lymphocytes), a type of.
This drug works by stimulating the bone marrow to increase the production of neutrophils. G-CSF is given as an injection under the skin subcutaneous. Nausea and vomiting are often associated with chemotherapy and some forms of radiotherapy. These days however, thanks to significant improvements in anti-sickness anti-emetic drugs, nausea and vomiting are generally very well-controlled.
You will be given anti-sickness drugs before and for a few days after your chemotherapy treatment. Be sure to tell the nurses and doctors if the anti-emetics are not working for you and you still feel sick. Some people find that eating smaller meals more frequently during the day, rather than a few large meals, helps to reduce nausea and vomiting. Many find that eating cool or cold food is more palatable, for example jelly or custard. Drinking ginger ale or soda water and eating dry toast may also help if you are feeling sick. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy can cause changes to your sense of taste and smell.
This is usually temporary but in some cases it lasts up to several months. Mucositis, or inflammation of the lining of the mouth, throat or gut is a common and uncomfortable side effect of chemotherapy and some forms of radiotherapy.
It usually starts about a week after the treatment has finished and goes away once your blood count recovers, usually a couple of weeks later. During this time your mouth and throat could get quite sore. If the pain becomes more severe, stronger pain killers might be needed. It is important to keep your mouth as clean as possible while you are having treatment to help prevent infection.