The trinity is just another example of paganism in the Christian religion. Jonathan Sarfati March 23rd, The first statement is false: the Holy Spirit overshadowed Mary so she would conceive Jesus. As Tertullian pointed out in Against Praxeas see above : Besides, the flesh is not God, so that it could not have been said concerning it, That Holy Thing shall be called the Son of God, but only that Divine Being who was born in the flesh, of whom the psalm also says, Since God became man in the midst of it, and established it by the will of the Father.
Now what Divine Person was born in it? The Word, and the Spirit which became incarnate with the Word by the will of the Father. The Word, therefore, is incarnate; and this must be the point of our inquiry: How the Word became flesh—whether it was by having been transfigured, as it were, in the flesh, or by having really clothed Himself in flesh.
Certainly it was by a real clothing of Himself in flesh. In like manner, again, the apostle calls Him the Mediator between God and Men, 1 Timothy and so affirmed His participation of both substances. Your second argument is just an argument from silence. The role of the Holy Spirit is largely to point people to Christ, not to Himself.
It is folly to use such arguments and ignore the clear teachings of the personality of the Holy Spirit. Your third argument is the reverse of the truth.
The early church was adamant that the true teachings must be derived from the Bible; we can see this copiously demonstrated by Tertullian, for example. And they fought strongly against pagan philosophies. Sam W. KE March 22nd, This is a good read, very informative. It would be good to include who originated the concept of Trinity, Tertullian, and why. The church father wanted to illustrate the unique and complex relationship between the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, each maintaining their individuality but each distinct in function. This would assist the reader further understand this concept.
Once more it is a good read. Jonathan Sarfati March 22nd, We are glad you liked the article. He explains that Tertullian, a lawyer and Christian apologist, realized that the Bible taught that God made a covenant with Israel. Now in Roman law, the word for party to a legal action was persona.
From this, Tertullian summarized the biblical teaching as tres Personae, una Substantia three Persons, one Substance. Tertullian explained the Trinity at length using copious biblical passages as proof that there was one God in three distinct Persons in Against Praxeas newadvent. Now, observe, my assertion is that the Father is one, and the Son one, and the Spirit one, and that They are distinct from Each Other. Actually, a little before Tertullian, Theophilus of Antioch AD — wrote in an apologetic work to the learned pagan magistrate Autolycus.
Susan W. US March 22nd, Thank you for including the analogy about space. I find that it has expanded my understanding of the triune diety, and I hope to share it with others. Thank you for your work! God Bless You! Jennifer H. US March 21st, I believe I heard somewhere that Genesis also is a clue that Jesus was there in the Garden. They heard the sound of the Lord God The word for that is "voice". They heard the voice of God walking in the garden. How do you hear a voice walking? Doesn't make a whole lot of sense unless they heard the "Word" of God walking, which would be Jesus.
Paul A. AU March 21st, Jorge S. ZA March 21st, There was famine in every country, but throughout the land of Egypt there was bread. Pharaoh said to all the Egyptians, "Go to Joseph; what he says to you, do. And Joseph's brothers came and bowed themselves before him with their faces to the ground. They said, "From the land of Canaan, to buy food. He said to them, "You are spies; you have come to see the nakedness of the land! The rest of you shall go and carry grain for the famine of your households,  and bring your youngest brother to me.
Thus your words will be verified, and you shall not die. That is why this anguish has come upon us. But you would not listen. So now there comes a reckoning for his blood. And he picked out Simeon and had him bound before their eyes. This was done for them. Then I will release your brother to you, and you may trade in the land.
When they and their father saw their bundles of money, they were dismayed.
All this has happened to me! Put him in my hands, and I will bring him back to you. If harm should come to him on the journey that you are to make, you would bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to Sheol. Have you another brother? Could we in any way know that he would say, 'Bring your brother down'? If I do not bring him back to you and set him before you, then let me bear the blame forever.
Carry back with you the money that was returned in the top of your sacks; perhaps it was an oversight. As for me, if I am bereaved of my children, I am bereaved. Then they went on their way down to Egypt, and stood before Joseph. So we have brought it back with us. We do not know who put our money in our sacks. Is he still alive? God be gracious to you, my son! So he went into a private room and wept there. So they drank and were merry with him. Why have you stolen my silver cup? Does he not indeed use it for divination? You have done wrong in doing this. Far be it from your servants that they should do such a thing!
Then each one loaded his donkey, and they returned to the city. Do you not know that one such as I can practice divination? What can we speak? How can we clear ourselves? God has found out the guilt of your servants; here we are then, my lord's slaves, both we and also the one in whose possession the cup has been found. Only the one in whose possession the cup was found shall be my slave; but as for you, go up in peace to your father. His brother is dead; he alone is left of his mother's children, and his father loves him.
Only if our youngest brother goes with us, will we go down; for we cannot see the man's face unless our youngest brother is with us. I fear to see the suffering that would come upon my father. Is my father still alive? He said, "I am your brother, Joseph, whom you sold into Egypt. Hurry and bring my father down here. Joseph gave them wagons according to the instruction of Pharaoh, and he gave them provisions for the journey. He is even ruler over all the land of Egypt. My son Joseph is still alive. I must go and see him before I die.
The children of Beriah: Heber and Malchiel  these are the children of Zilpah, whom Laban gave to his daughter Leah; and these she bore to Jacob--sixteen persons. When they came to the land of Goshen,  Joseph made ready his chariot and went up to meet his father Israel in Goshen. He presented himself to him, fell on his neck, and wept on his neck a good while.
Now, we ask you, let your servants settle in the land of Goshen. They do not compare with the years of the life of my ancestors during their long sojourn. The land of Egypt and the land of Canaan languished because of the famine. Why should we die before your eyes? For our money is gone. That year he supplied them with food in exchange for all their livestock. There is nothing left in the sight of my lord but our bodies and our lands. Buy us and our land in exchange for food. We with our land will become slaves to Pharaoh; just give us seed, so that we may live and not die, and that the land may not become desolate.
All the Egyptians sold their fields, because the famine was severe upon them; and the land became Pharaoh's. The land of the priests alone did not become Pharaoh's. Do not bury me in Egypt. Then Israel bowed himself on the head of his bed. They shall be recorded under the names of their brothers with regard to their inheritance. So Joseph brought them near him; and he kissed them and embraced them. Since this one is the firstborn, put your right hand on his head. Nevertheless his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his offspring shall become a multitude of nations.
I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel.
He crouches down, he stretches out like a lion, like a lioness - who dares rouse him up? Bury me with my ancestors - in the cave in the field of Ephron the Hittite,  in the cave in the field at Machpelah, near Mamre, in the land of Canaan, in the field that Abraham bought from Ephron the Hittite as a burial site.
So the physicians embalmed Israel;  they spent forty days in doing this, for that is the time required for embalming. And the Egyptians wept for him seventy days. In the tomb that I hewed out for myself in the land of Canaan, there you shall bury me. With him went up all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his household, and all the elders of the land of Egypt,  as well as all the household of Joseph, his brothers, and his father's household.
Only their children, their flocks, and their herds were left in the land of Goshen. It was a very great company. Am I in the place of God? Chapter 2  Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all their multitude. Chapter 5  This is the list of the descendants of Adam. Chapter 6  When people began to multiply on the face of the ground, and daughters were born to them,  the sons of God saw that they were fair; and they took wives for themselves of all that they chose. Chapter 7  Then the LORD said to Noah, "Go into the ark, you and all your household, for I have seen that you alone are righteous before me in this generation.
Chapter 8  But God remembered Noah and all the wild animals and all the domestic animals that were with him in the ark. Chapter 10  These are the descendants of Noah's sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth; children were born to them after the flood. Chapter 11  Now the whole earth had one language and the same words.
Chapter 13  So Abram went up from Egypt, he and his wife, and all that he had, and Lot with him, into the Negeb. Chapter 16  Now Sarai, Abram's wife, bore him no children. Chapter 19  The two angels came to Sodom in the evening, and Lot was sitting in the gateway of Sodom.
Chapter 20  From there Abraham journeyed toward the region of the Negeb, and settled between Kadesh and Shur. Chapter 22  After these things God tested Abraham. Chapter 23  Sarah lived one hundred twenty-seven years; this was the length of Sarah's life. Chapter 25  Abraham took another wife, whose name was Keturah. Chapter 26  Now there was a famine in the land, besides the former famine that had occurred in the days of Abraham. Chapter 27  When Isaac was old and his eyes were dim so that he could not see, he called his elder son Esau and said to him, "My son"; and he answered, "Here I am.
Chapter 30  When Rachel saw that she bore Jacob no children, she envied her sister; and she said to Jacob, "Give me children, or I shall die! Chapter 31  Now Jacob heard that the sons of Laban were saying, "Jacob has taken all that was our father's; he has gained all this wealth from what belonged to our father. Chapter 32  Jacob went on his way and the angels of God met him;  and when Jacob saw them he said, "This is God's camp! Chapter 33  Now Jacob looked up and saw Esau coming, and four hundred men with him. And God said: 'Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures, and let fowl fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.
In the Egyptian and Mesopotamian mythologies, the creator-god has to do battle with the sea-monsters before he can make heaven and earth; in Genesis , the word tannin , sometimes translated as "sea monsters" or "great creatures", parallels the named chaos-monsters Rahab and Leviathan from Psalm , and Isaiah , and Isaiah , but there is no hint in Genesis of combat, and the tannin are simply creatures created by God.
And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day. When in Genesis God says "Let us make man", the Hebrew word used is adam ; in this form it is a generic noun, "mankind", and does not imply that this creation is male. After this first mention the word always appears as ha-adam , "the man", but as Genesis shows "So God created man in his [own] image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.
Man was created in the " image of God ". The meaning of this is unclear: suggestions include:. The fact that God says "Let us make man Only later, after the Flood, is man given permission to eat flesh. The Priestly author of Genesis appears to look back to an ideal past in which mankind lived at peace both with itself and with the animal kingdom, and which could be re-achieved through a proper sacrificial life in harmony with God.
Upon completion, God sees that "every thing that He had made This implies that the materials that existed before the Creation " tohu wa-bohu ," "darkness," " tehom " were not "very good. And the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. Creation is followed by rest. In ancient Near Eastern literature the divine rest is achieved in a temple as a result of having brought order to chaos.
Rest is both disengagement, as the work of creation is finished, but also engagement, as the deity is now present in his temple to maintain a secure and ordered cosmos. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work; but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates; for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day; wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.
Genesis 2—3, the Garden of Eden story, was probably authored around BCE as "a discourse on ideals in life, the danger in human glory, and the fundamentally ambiguous nature of humanity — especially human mental faculties". In Genesis 1 the characteristic word for God's activity is bara , "created"; in Genesis 2 the word used when he creates the man is yatsar , meaning "fashioned", a word used in contexts such as a potter fashioning a pot from clay. Eden, where God puts his Garden of Eden , comes from a root meaning "fertility": the first man is to work in God's miraculously fertile garden.
Suggestions include: human qualities, sexual consciousness, ethical knowledge, or universal knowledge; with the last being the most widely accepted. Eden may represent the divine garden on Zion , the mountain of God, which was also Jerusalem; while the real Gihon was a spring outside the city mirroring the spring which waters Eden ; and the imagery of the Garden, with its serpent and cherubs, has been seen as a reflection of the real images of the Solomonic Temple with its copper serpent the nehushtan and guardian cherubs.
When God forbids the man to eat from the tree of knowledge he says that if he does so he is "doomed to die": the Hebrew behind this is in the form used in the Bible for issuing death sentences.
The first woman is created to be ezer kenegdo — a term notably difficult to translate — to the man. Kenegdo means "alongside, opposite, a counterpart to him", and ezer means active intervention on behalf of the other person. The woman is called ishah , "Woman", with an explanation that this is because she was taken from ish , meaning "man"; the two words are not in fact connected.
Later, after the story of the Garden is complete, she receives a name: Hawwah Eve. This means "living" in Hebrew, from a root that can also mean "snake". The meaning to be derived from the Genesis creation narrative will depend on the reader's understanding of its genre, the literary "type" to which it belongs: "it makes an enormous difference whether the first chapters of Genesis are read as scientific cosmology, creation myth, or historical saga". Whatever else it may be, Genesis 1 is "story", since it features character and characterisation, a narrator, and dramatic tension expressed through a series of incidents arranged in time.
First, there is the fact that since only God exists at this point, no-one was available to be the narrator; the storyteller solved this by introducing an unobtrusive "third person narrator". This was solved by creating a very minimal tension: God is opposed by nothingness itself, the blank of the world "without form and void. It can also be regarded as ancient history, "part of a broader spectrum of originally anonymous, history-like ancient Near Eastern narratives. Genesis 1—2 can be seen as ancient science: in the words of E. Speiser , "on the subject of creation biblical tradition aligned itself with the traditional tenets of Babylonian science.
The biblical authors conceived the cosmos as a flat disc-shaped Earth in the centre, an underworld for the dead below, and heaven above. The idea that God created the world out of nothing creatio ex nihilo is central today to Islam, Christianity, and Judaism — indeed, the medieval Jewish philosopher Maimonides felt it was the only concept that the three religions shared  — yet it is not found directly in Genesis, nor in the entire Hebrew Bible. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity. For other uses, see Genesis 1 disambiguation.
Canons and books. Tanakh Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim. Christian biblical canons. Deuterocanon Antilegomena. Authorship and development. Authorship Dating Hebrew canon. Pauline epistles Petrine epistles. Translations and manuscripts. Biblical studies. Hermeneutics Pesher Midrash Pardes. Allegorical interpretation Literalism. Gnostic Islamic Qur'anic. Inerrancy Infallibility. See also: Documentary hypothesis. See also: Panbabylonism.
History Neo-creationism. Old Earth Day-age Gap Progressive. Book of Genesis Creation narrative Framework interpretation As an allegory. Created kind Flood geology Creationist cosmologies Intelligent design. History Creation myth Public education "Teach the Controversy". See also: Literary genre , Myth disambiguation , and Narrative. This could not have happened if the existence of variation were seen as a serious defect or if rigid consistency were deemed essential to effective storytelling.
Maxwell Miller. Ancient Near Eastern Art. University of California Press. Retrieved 27 April Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities. Walter de Gruyter. Alter, Robert The Art of Biblical narrative. Basic Books. The Five Books of Moses. Andersen, Francis I. Backgrounds for the Bible. Aune, David E.
Westminster John Knox Press. Bandstra, Barry L. Wadsworth Publishing Company. Blenkinsopp, Joseph Bouteneff, Peter C. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic. Brettler, Mark Zvi How To Read the Bible. Jewish Publication Society. Brueggemann, Walter Interpretation of Genesis.
Carr, David M. Reading the Fractures in Genesis. An Introduction to the Old Testament. Cotter, David W Liturgical Press. Cross, Frank Moore Harvard University Press. Dalley, Stephanie Oxford University Press. Davidson, Robert Genesis 1— Cambridge University Press. Davies, G. In Barton, John; Muddiman, John eds.
The very first verse of the Bible reads: ‘In the beginning God (plural) created (singular) the heavens and the earth’ (Genesis ). Moses, the author of Genesis under the direction of the Holy Spirit, chose to use the Hebrew plural term elohim for God,2 rather than the singular. The Genesis creation narrative is the creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity. The narrative is made up of two stories, roughly equivalent to the first two chapters of the Book of Genesis. In the first, Elohim (the Hebrew generic word for God) creates the heavens.
Oxford Bible Commentary. Dolansky, Shawna Biblical Archaeology Review. Fishbane, Michael Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking. Friedman, Richard Elliott The Bible with Sources Revealed. Ginzberg, Louis Graves, Robert; Patai, Raphael Hebrew Myths: The Book of Genesis. Random House. Hamilton, Victor P