There are six basic phases of the Jewish bereavement cycle. Each has a specific time period and a set of major practices and common emotional states that assist the mourner through the grieving process.
The experience of bereavement is highly individualistic and while the time may move quickly, the resolution of grief often takes months or years. Time: Seven days of shiva [literally, sitting], beginning at the conclusion of the funeral Day One through the next six days, unless cancelled by a festival.
The first three days are for intense mourning, followed by four days of mourning and reflection. Common Emotions: Sadness, relief, melancholy, comfort, happiness when recalling fond memories of the deceased.
Major Practices: Return to work, say Kaddishat prayer services in the synagogue, no entertainment, men do not shave. Major Practices: Saying Kaddish at prayer services in the synagogue, some restrictions on behavior including attendance at genuinely happy events until a full year has passed, unveiling of gravestone. Common Emotions: Gradual return to normal feelings, occasional twinges of sadness, recovering from grief, return of humor.
Major Practices: Say Kaddishat prayer services in the synagogue, light a memorial candle, give tzedakah [charitable donations]. In many communities, Yizkor is also said on Rosh Hashanah, the second day of Sukkot and the second day of Passover. Major Practices: Recite special memorial services in the synagogue, light memorial candle although some. Pronounced: SHI-vuh short i , Origin: Hebrew, seven days of mourning after a funeral, when the mourner stays at home and observes various rituals.
Comprised of the Mishnah and the Gemara, it contains the opinions of thousands of rabbis from different periods in Jewish history.
He received a bachelor's degree in history from Harvard University in He studied at the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York, where he was ordained a Conservative rabbi and received a master's degree in Hebrew letters in He also received a doctorate in religion from Columbia University. He retired from there in He was a religious historian and one of the world's foremost scholars of Jewish rabbinical texts.
He also edited and translated, with others, nearly the entirety of the Jewish rabbinical texts.