The Trial of Tempel Anneke: Records of a Witchcraft Trial in Brunswick, Germany, 1663

The Trial of Tempel Anneke : Records of a Witchcraft Trial in Brunswick, Germany, 1663
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Copies of contemporary maps help the reader to locate the proceedings. All this leads to the life of Tempel Anneke herself. The introduction effectively contextualizes the translation process. The editor and translator review their choice of terms and use of linguistic and legal conventions; they describe the archival sources and provide information on currency and on the language of witchcraft. The introduction concludes with notes on the translation itself, which constitutes the third part of the book.

Since we do not have access to the original document, it is not possible to compare the original to the translation. In a translation of this kind such a choice is commendable; in fact, it is the only one available. Packaging should be the same as what is found in a retail store, unless the item is handmade or was packaged by the manufacturer in non-retail packaging, such as an unprinted box or plastic bag.

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Full records were kept of every deposition and testimony, as well as correspon- dence with surrounding jurisdictions. As a result, the written record of the trial is extensive and detailed. The records from which the translation is drawn come almost entirely from a single file in the city archive of Brunswick. In the seventeenth century full re- cords of trials were not always preserved, and often only the final judgment was kept in the public record.

The complete record of the trial of Tempel Anneke, however, was preserved and was placed in the city archive in the early nineteenth century. The archival record consists of some pages, originally divided into 45 folios, which document the trial in chronological order.

Each folio has a cover page with the folio number, the date, and a description of the con- tents. In our translation we have placed these covers at the beginning of each folio. There are three sets of documents that do not fit the chronologi- cal pattern. All three date from before the arrest of Tempel Anneke and the trial proper. First, Folio 17 contains the earliest record in the file concern- ing Tempel Anneke, dated August 17, The next oldest document of testimony against Tempel Anneke is filed as part of Folio Finally, the third oldest document in the collec- tion was simply inserted at the back of the file without a folio number.

It is from this incident that the formal charges against her originated. Since these three documents do not have folio numbers in the same chronological order as the rest of the record, we have placed them at the beginning of the records in chronological order, and labelled them Documents A, B, and C respectively.

A few important documents originally in the file are now missing, but fortunately most of the missing material has been recorded elsewhere. Folios 1, 2, and 3 are no longer in the collection. Folio 1 contained the record of the first interrogation of witnesses against Tempel Anneke. There are summaries.

For this reason we have translated only those items common to both summaries. Incidentally, both of these works state that Tempel Anneke was the last person tried for witchcraft in Brunswick, an assertion repeated by Rohmann Rhamm , pp. Unfortunately, neither is very reliable; in our transla- tion we have formed a composite of what is found in both summaries. Folio 2 contains the questions first put to Tempel Anneke, and Folio 3 has her answers to them.

However, Rohmann contains excerpts from the trial records, and this includes the contents of these two folios. Folio 24, the first of two letters written by the faculty of law at the University of Jena to the court in Brunswick, has also disappeared from the collection. There is one feature of the trial against Tempel Anneke that strikes the modern reader as especially odd. The questions that were put to the accused were formed in accordance with the stipulations in the Carolina, and each was written before the actual questioning and thus without the benefit of the answers to previous questions.

This was common practice at the time. The curious result is that questions often stand in contradiction to answers given earlier. Tempel Anneke is often asked how and from whom she learned to do something that she has just denied doing at all. Most often her answers to such questions are simply silence. In the original records the questions to be asked of the accused are listed in one folio, and the answers without questions are recorded in the following and later folios.

In our translation we have repeated the questions with the answers, since otherwise the records are difficult to read. The trial of Tempel Anneke was carried out under the authority of the General Council of the city of Brunswick. Among its duties the General. Council served as the Higher Court of the city, charged with the administra- tion of, and final judgment in, all capital offences. Trials of the Higher Court were held in the municipal hall of Hagen, illustrated in Figure 6.

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Rohmann , p A senior judge called a Syndicus of the Higher Court was the highest civil servant, and was trained in law. A lower judge was called a Consiliar. The initial order to carry out the investigation, recorded in Folio 4, is signed by Johann Strauch, the first Syndicus. The final judgment of the court was writ- ten by Johann Burchard Baumgarten, the second Syndicus. His statement of the final judgment of the Council is Folio 44, which is reproduced in Figures 7 and 8.

The officers conducting the actual investigation were members of the Lower Court. The permanent members of the Lower Court were two magis- trates Vogt , salaried civil servants drawn from the two largest municipalities, Altstadt and Hagen. In the trial of Tempel Anneke these are Otto Theune, magistrate of the municipality of Hagen, and Johann Velhagen, magistrate of the municipality of Altstadt. The scribe of the Lower Court was Johann Pilgram, who is the draftsman of most of the documents in the trial records.

The city executioner was Hans Pfefferkorn, who was also responsible for conducting the torture. Folio 23 contains a letter from Dr. Laurentius Gieseler, the Stadtphysicus, whom we would now describe as chief medical officer of the city. The Stadtphysicus was among the highest and best-paid officers of the city, ap- pointed directly by the Council. He held authority over all medical practice in the city, including the overseeing of physicians and barber-surgeons, and the regulation of apothecaries and bath-houses.

The letter in the trial records was requested by the court to determine that the medicinal ingredients used by Tempel Anneke could not have the effect that she claimed for them with- out the aid of magic. The trial records also contain letters to and from officers in the towns and jurisdictions outside the city. There is one last set of court officers, the bailiffs Fronbote. Their responsi- bilities included carrying communications between jurisdictions, performing arrests, and the incarceration of prisoners. One aspect of the letters between the jurisdictions merits a word of ex- planation.

The letters begin with very elaborate formal addresses, which are sometimes repeated in the body of the letter. Each term carried a specific meaning in terms of the rank or position of the officials addressed, so that the formal addresses served the function of acknowledging the respective levels of authority. There are two words, Veste and Ehrenveste, which pose a problem for translation.

The term Veste originally designated a fortification, and from this origin the two terms were used in the sixteenth century as forms of address for minor nobility. In the trial records, however, the terms indicate officers of courts with given levels of authority. Following the trial records, we have included in our translation a section from the local civic regulations concerning sorcery, and some items drawn from the accounting books of the court.

Record 1, the civic regulations, indi- cates the kinds of sorcery that are punishable within the city and the penalties for them. The accounting records document the amounts paid to the officers of the court involved in the trial of Tempel Anneke. Record 2 includes the. The first account lists the administrative salaries of the judges.

There are four entries included here: the salary of the professor of law at Jena who served as legal expert to the city, the salaries of the two Syndici, Johann Strauch and Johann Baumgarten, and the salary of the Consiliar or lower judge. The second of the accounts lists the annual base salaries of the permanent officers of the Lower Court, who conducted the interrogation and questioning of witnesses. There are four individuals listed in this account: the two magistrates Otto Theune and Johann Velhagen , the scribe Johann Pilgram , and the executioner Hans Pfefferkorn.

These contain supplementary amounts paid to the bailiffs, to the priests who accompanied Tempel Anneke to her execution, bills for wine for the may- ors and officials who attended the execution, and the money paid to Hans Pfefferkorn, the executioner. In seventeenth-century Brunswick there were two distinct ways of count- ing money. In the early Middle Ages the only coin that was in common use in Brunswick was the Pfennig abbreviated as Pf or d.

The latter were not coins but merely amounts used in calculation. Despite the later introduction of new coinage, these medieval values remained in use as units of accounting well into the seventeenth century. Hence, the fines levied by the courts, the salaries paid to court officials, and the amounts paid for services, are recorded in Pfennig, Schillings, and Marks. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries two additional coins were in- troduced: the Groschen g or gr and Taler Tal. By the seventeenth century the general population no longer referred to the Schilling and Mark, but only to the coins.

In one of the episodes documented particularly. See e. An older word, Zwickersche, is used once in Document C. Although Hexe and Hexerei are used in the trial records, much more common are the words based on the verb zaubern. There are other aspects of the language that are more subtle. At the time there was a common belief in northern Germany that these beings were little creatures, called Holden. Rhamm , p. There are occasionally descriptions of forms of witchcraft caused directly by the Devil.

He also whispers zublasen information to people. There is one further form of magic that is worth noting. This is a very common accusation made against witches, both by the general population and by demonologists. Normally it occurs during copulation, that someone who wants to take away the possibility of continuation of the line from a young married couple secretly carries a lock in their pocket, closes it, and throws it into water. Rhamm describes the same practice in the region, and adds that it was also common to tie knots into string to achieve the same effect.

The grammar, spelling, and use of upper- and lower-case letters, are very ir- regular in the original documents, a common feature of written texts during this time. Also, the quality of the prose varies greatly, sometimes very clear and other times very crude. We have attempted a translation that preserves as much as possible the character of the original.

A common grammatical feature. The result is that the testimony is largely a string of run-on sentences. We have preserved this wherever it does not thoroughly confuse the English syntax. Capitalization and grammar are more difficult, since modern German and English are dif- ferent in any case. We have had to put most sentence structure into modern English form, especially the position of subordinate clauses, so that some of the convoluted grammar of the original is lost.

We hope, though, that the result preserves something of the distinctive character of the original. There are two aspects of the writing that could not be preserved. One is the regular use of the conjunctive tense in German to indicate something reported but not confirmed by the speaker. The other is that in the past perfect tense the auxiliary verb e. This is done to preserve as much of the character of the original documents as possible.

The Latin is often irregular and Germanized. Sentences and terms used only once are trans- lated in footnotes, and Appendix A contains translations of the frequently repeated Latin phrases. The original docu- ments use a variety of spellings for most names, since spelling at the time was not standardized. For the purposes of the index and cross-referenc- ing, we have chosen a single spelling for each name.

At the time in Germany women kept the last name of their father after marriage, rather than taking the name of their husband. When we do this, we have put the name in square editorial brackets, [ We have used the latter. One last comment on the trial documents: there are two people named Hennig Roleffes.

The Trial of Tempel Anneke

He was dead prior to the trial, but is mentioned in the records, in Folios 18, 28, and The effect of an umlaut is to soften the vowel sound. Here we suggest some introductory readings for those interested in the broader history of the witch trials of early modern Europe. This is in no sense a general bibliography, but rather an indication of some starting points for those who wish to explore the topic further.

For those encountering the European witch-hunt for the first time, Levack provides a broad introductory survey of the witch-hunt as a whole, including its legal, intellectual, and social backgrounds. A good companion to this book is Kors and Peters , which contains excerpts from histori- cal documents, from early theological writings on magic to the end of the witch trials. Witchcraft and Magic in Europe, edited by Bengt Ankarloo and Stuart Clark, is a six-volume series of articles written especially for the series by specialists in various fields.

The most relevant volume for readers of the Tempel Anneke trial is Ankarloo and Clark In this volume Monter and Ankarloo survey the most recent research on the witch trials on the continent and in northern Europe respectively, and Clark discusses the positions of witchcraft and magic in early modern culture. There are two general bibliographies intended for the non-specialist: Levack , pp. Both of these give the reader an overview of the literature up to the date of publication, organized by general topic, and also give some idea of the general perspec- tives on the issues surrounding the witch trials.

Also useful, Levack is a six-volume anthology, which contains reprints of articles drawn from journals and anthologies on various aspects of the early modern European witch trials. On the subject of witchcraft trials in Germany, the following are available in English. Midelfort is a classic study of the witch trials in south- western Germany. Two books by Lyndal Roper and examine witch trials in Augsburg and southern Germany from a psy- choanalytic perspective.

Account Options The Trial of Tempel Anneke: Records of a Witchcraft Trial in Brunswick, Germany, (): Peter A. Morton, Barbara Dahms: . The Trial of Tempel Anneke: Records of a Witchcraft Trial in Brunswick, Germany, , Second Edition [Peter A. Morton, Barbara Dähms] on

Rowlands is a study of trials in Rothenburg ob der Tauber that examines why trials there led to only one execution in ninety years, focussing closely on the narratives revealed in the trial records. These studies, however, are of regions in southern Germany, which were different in various respects from north Germany and the Brunswick region. There are some other works that provide useful comparisons to the trial of Tempel Anneke.

Briggs draws extensively on the trial records in Lorraine in southwestern France, a region that experienced a large number of trials. His work focuses on patterns of accusation among neighbours and the responses of local authorities. His observations provide a good compari- son to the accusations against Tempel Anneke. Kunze is a study of a single witchcraft trial in southern Germany that provides a striking contrast to the trial of Tempel Anneke. It was originally filed as Folio 17, but it has been moved here because of its date. For a description of the archival material that we are naming Documents A through C, see pp.

How Tempel Anneke brought a suit against Hennig Roleffes of Wenden, con- cerning his accusation of witchcraft against her, but, when they were sup- posed to be confronted with each other, she failed to appear. Because she was innocent of that, she demanded the accused Roleffes be summoned and it be required of him that he make amends to her. In wanting justice for the plaintiff, it was prom- ised to the same, that the accused would be summoned to appear before the office in eight days, where she could also appear again at the same time to await further judicial information.

And in spite of the mentioned Hennig Roleffes appearing here on the specified day, Tempel Anneke nevertheless failed to appear, and her complaint made here is not pursued. Nor did she even come within the sovereign jurisdiction of this office, especially as the same might have found out that there are careful enquiries into what different kinds of suspicious business in Thune and Wenden, as well as elsewhere, what many evils she had both accomplished and started. For translations of Latin expressions see the glossary in Appendix A, pp. Originally it was filed as part of Folio 15, but it has been moved here on the basis of its date.

So she said, he should get up to drink with her, which he also did not want to do. Thereupon she left in the morning, and as soon as she left his house, his child, a boy at that time about 5 years old, cried the whole time, he carried on like that for two days. For names of the months, see p. They were sometimes kept on the mantle for good luck. We do not know the origin of the belief that a mandrake could move of its own accord: it is not impossible that Tempel Anneke herself invented the idea.

See p. This incident was the origin of the criminal charges against Tempel Anneke.

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It was originally filed without a cover at the back of the collection. Thereupon he gave as answer that not long ago some tinware and sausages were stolen from his house, and as he wanted very much to know where the stolen goods went to, he was directed to Tempel Anneke by the Veltesche. Hereupon it is decreed through civic regulations, that Tiehmann is fined 6mr.

However, the Veltesche, because she gave instruction, is fined 3mr for that, which fine should be applied in accordance with the scope of the ordinance of the local Civic Regulations. For more discussion on the role of the officers, see pp. It records the testimony of the five witnesses who were first called to give evidence against Tempel Anneke following her arrest. For the sources of this document, see pp.

The first witness, Hans Tiehmann, citizen and roofer in Brunswick- Neustadt, testified that at the end of the year , during the night, seven tin bowls, a tin mug, a tin bottle, tin spoons, various foodstuffs, grain, etc. There a knowledgeable woman was supposed to live, the widow of Hans Kage, usu- ally called Tempel Anneke. He should let her read his hand. She is supposed to know everything.

She would frighten the thief so much that he would get his belongings back in 24 hours. He should return in three days. Then he gave her an Ortstaler as a tip and went home again. But he gave her no more, but sent word that she had already drunk enough during the day. The following night he suddenly woke up because of a pain in his leg.

When he looked for the cause he saw that a blister as big as a plate had developed on his ankle bone. Once the criminal investigation commenced the trial was moved to the Higher Court in Hagen. She should come to answer for herself or remove the injury. Everyone in the village takes Tempel Anneke for a witch and a sorceress. She knows how to bring back lost things and cures animals with magical potions. Anna Steinmann, the wife of the aforesaid Hans Harves, had the follow- ing to report: before Shrove Tuesday she had a swollen hand. Tempel Anneke gave her a remedy against it, which sometimes helped more and sometimes helped less.

At any rate, as everyone can see, the hand has not improved yet. Also on one occasion Tempel Anneke had the already half decomposed head of an animal brought to her house. Afterwards she threw the head into the water.

The Trial of Tempel Anneke: Records of a Witchcraft Trial in Brunswic…

When her husband crossed the river in his boat a few days later, he probably got the injury to his leg from the rotting head. Also she knew that Tempel Anneke had not visited the church for twenty years, and also had not been to the table of the Lord in this same time. Tempel Anneke was asked to help. She then baked a sheep to powder in the oven and administered that to the sheep, whereupon all became healthy again. The following day he suddenly took ill. In great pain he had to lie in his bed and acquired holes in his leg as long as fingers.

Neither Tempel Anneke nor another healing woman could cure him, even though he gave the first three Taler and a goose.

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Finally he went to the trouser tailor, Jochen, in Brunswick. This one cured him so that he can now stand and walk again. He testified: six years ago two horses as well as a foal disap- peared from the field during the night. Your horses are walking there in front of the woods. See Folio 3. In accordance with legal practice at the time, the questions were prepared before they were put to Tempel Anneke. For a full description of the original layout of questions and answers in the archival source, see pp.

How did she know how the fellow, who stole from Tiehmann, fed him- self, and how many children he had,. Whether whenever he caught sight of her his whole body swelled thickly, and this happened four times,. Here and elsewhere we have reprinted the questions to avoid the need to read back and forth between the folios.

By the honourable Gabriel Oeding, officer of the court, also Johann Velhagen and Otto Theune, both magistrates of the court, and Johann Pilgram, the court scribe. How old she is and how she supports herself, Says, when Duke Heinrich besieged this town, when it rained so much, she was five years old. How she read and learned such from her herbal books of which she had two. Whether she learned the Ten Commandments, Says, yes, went for three years to Mr.

Fredrich, to the church, because he taught children there, after he had been let go in Sampleben. Whether she understands what is forbidden in it, Says, yes, one should not do sorcery, not lie and cheat. Whether she knows Hans Tiehmann, Says, yes, she had seen him before, she wanted to rightly confirm that. What she had seen, there she could give information, but nothing else. Rather such things as he missed, namely a bottle and a tin bowl, a woman had for sale in a basket in a small stall at the market in Altewieck, that Inquisitin had seen it there.

Whether the same had not been with Inquisitin on her farm this winter, and what she had wanted there, Says, once, three or four times, and had with her a woman from Lehre. What kind of advice she had given, and whether she got the ducats back, Says, she said she should look for the ducats, whether they were maybe misplaced, and Inquisitin had heard that the ducats were found again under the documents of the High Count in his pants pocket.

And the High Countess gave her an Ortstaler as a tip since she said that it should be looked for. To this she took a hind quarter of a dead 1 year old calf after it was cut up, and after she baked the same in the oven to a powder, she mixed it with the aforesaid herbs and what cooked out of it, and administered it to the healthy cattle, three times a day in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, in the name of God, not in the name of the Evil One. Also some people gave it themselves to their cattle in the name of God and asked Inquisitin that she should make something for their cattle.

See also Figure 8 on p. What did she do with it, and what did she need it for, Says ad proxe praecedentem Inquisitionalem.

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In accor- dance with the Carolina, the initial evidence recorded in Folio1 to 3 is here determined to be sufficient to proceed to a full criminal investigation. For the background on the Carolina, see pp. And when they have done that to confront them with the Inquisitin, also to write down and to register all and each one of the testimonies carefully, in order that what will happen is what is just.

The third witness, Anna Steinmann, failed to appear.

That letter is recorded in Folio 10, and his sworn testimony is in Folio By the honourable Gabriel Oeding, officer of the court, also Johann Velhagen and Otto Theune both magistrates of the court, and Johann Pilgram the court scribe. Following the Decreto of July 3rd declared before the E. But he had not wanted to say such things. In this way the witness was then able to confirm this, his testimony, gravia admonitione de evitando perjurio ejusq.

Testis Hans Harves was presented with his summary testimony clearly and distinctly together with the added secondary question of the 25th of June in Act. Testis Anna Steinmann, the housewife of Hans Harves, was also supposed to con- firm her testimony, and was summoned because of that, only her husband indicated that she had a bad seizure, because of which her head swelled so badly, that she could barely speak, even less come in front of people.

Because of that, the confirmation by oath, and the confrontation regarding this person to be done after the findings, must be omitted for now. Testis Autor Bahrensdorff was presented again with his testimony from Num Actor. Actor 2—which she denied the 1st of July in Actis Num. And considering the pressing nature of the affair after the findings, Hans Tiehmann was confronted with the same about each question individually, after she had just testified:.

Upon this, Hans Tiehmann was confronted with the imprisoned, and said to the same consistently to her face, she had distinctly told him that, in that way had agreed and promised. The imprisoned stood steadfastly by her denial. But when she was seriously spoken to and it was put to her that she should take it seriously to heart, that she should keep in mind, that there is a God in heaven who sees and knows everything, that she herself just now had heard that which the witness had told her to her face, she said, yes, yes, yes, she had said that, but was sorry, did not want to do it again, wanted to swear an oath to an honourable coun- cil, that in the future she will not tell something to anybody or give news, until eternity even if her own bodily son were to come.

Whether she asked him to come back to her on the 3rd day after, Says, yes, she had certainly thought about it carefully five times. How did she know how the fellow, who stole from Tiehmann, fed himself, and how many children he had, Says, no. At first she declared, that she had talked in that way, and she had forgotten.

Thereupon one wanted to know more ac- curately from her, and asked once more about the sources of her knowledge. From this she learned that it was a man, the same had two children, but the plug burned away together with the linen. Questioned whether she knew that Tiehmann would not get back the lost food of lard, sausage, flour and cheese, which she called in a single word, edible goods. Says finally yes, because in this way the thief would be frightened so that he would return the stolen things. The imprisoned was further questioned again about the 57th and 58th Inquisitionalem, and Autor Bahrensdorff was confronted with her regarding this.

Then the imprisoned testified:. Hereupon Bahrensdorff is presented to her, and said to her face that she had spoken such words to him at that time, as described in his summary testi- mony. For a discussion of local currency in early modern times, see pp. With that the aforesaid cowherd was supposed to help. Now as the cowherd got the half Taler and 6g. The Mollerse, otherwise called the Thiesche, would know the best information. Through that the witness made the acquaintance of the said Tempel Anneke, so that at times when she came into town Tempel Anneke spoke with them in their house.

But the witness has seen or heard nothing bad about her. Shortly before Epiphany goods were stolen from him, and for 14 days it was talked about, before the facts became known. At the same time they had a man called Martin Richter in their house as a tenant, and it so happened that she had lost a distaff. Hermann Boess, and handed it over,. Says, she revealed to Martin Richter that she had found the bowl right there, and she had not taken him for that kind of a fellow. Poor me, poor me! She must have told it back to him, after that time the witness did not hear it any more. Testis Dorothea Mehrdorff, housewife of local soldier Hans Henkelmann, admonita de veritate dicenda, reports that, at the time the Constable was stabbed to death in the church square of St.

That is how the witness first came to know Tempel Anneke. Michael is September 29, so this statement does not fit with the date that the goods were stolen shortly before Epiphany, January 6. And she was in the living room and had noth- ing to do with the affair. Hereupon, the imprisoned Tempel Anneke was presented with her given testimony on the 1st of July in Actis Num. In this folio the officials question Hennig Vaddrian, who was said to have brought the accusation from Harves to Tempel Anneke.

Tempel Anneke is then confronted with Vaddrian. The testimony of Hennig Vaddrian without torture, his confirmation by oath and the subsequent confrontation concerning the Inquisitionalem Num 2. But she answered nothing to that but immediately turned around and went. Hereupon the imprisoned Tempel Anneke was questioned once again about the Articulos Inquisitionales to be found Sub Num. Actus 2, namely about Inquisitionalem Even though the witness, Vaddrian, repeated his current testimony and said it again to the face of the imprisoned, that he told her everything that time in her presence, that she could well hear and understand, nevertheless she stood by her denials, and added, if the shoe mender heard this at that time, he acted like a rogue, that he did not tell her, that she could have answered to the charge.

Her son is mentioned again in the testimony of Hennig Roleffes in Folio 18, and elsewhere. He testifies concerning her activities. Another boarder at the farm, an unnamed shoe mender, could not be found. By the honourable Gabriel Oeding, officer of the court, also Otto Theune, magistrate of the court and Johann Pilgram the court scribe. Also she had two large books and one small book out of which several pages had been torn. In them base things about chills, about this and that, about horses, and the like, were written there, he could not remember all of it. He knew nothing more except good day and goodbye, had nothing to do with Anneke, and her things must have helped those people, otherwise they would not have been running after them.

Also in this folio is the reply from Gifhorn. Requisitoriales in subsid. Our greetings and service in friendship first, highly born, powerful and strong also knightly, admired and learned, especially highly honoured gentle- men and reliable friends. The other, from Campen,. This person is in fact Anna Timmerman. Our greetings in friendship first, knightly, much respected and well-learned, especially most gracious friend. Then as it can be seen from the Inquisition Actis conducted so far, she not only gave advice regarding dying sheep to the sheep master N.

And we would very much like to have correct knowledge about that, considering that the imprisoned has at this time without torture only told some of it, but gave no testimony in depth. So our request in friendship and subsidiary petition reaches the civil officer, that he may officially enjoin and order the. And this will aid the prevention of further fraud and injury both to our fellow citizens and people in the country far and wide. We are looking forward to the subsidiary help of the civil officer, and we make the proper offer to reciprocate, in the same and different situations.

May the Almighty protect you. Done and given in Brunswick the 3rd of August Anno To the civil officer in friendship Court officers and magistrates of the municipality of Hagen in that very place. Our greeting in friendship first, knightly, much respected and well-learned, especially highly honoured gentleman and friend. As it is found in the Inquisition Actis con- ducted so far, that Hennig Roleffes of Wenden is acquainted with her because of this, and therefore we would very much like have a report, what her advice and help had been to him.

So our request reaches the civil officer to offer us a hand in subsidium Juris, that he may officially enjoin and order said Hennig Roleffes, that he should appear the next coming Saturday, God willing, early in the day and report to the magistrate of the court, the honourable Otto Theune, on Fallersleben Street, and to report as much as he knows. Through this we further the esteemed law, and many a respectable person is protected from fraud and injury. Anticipating action helpful to us, we are willing to reciprocate in the same situation.