The Aesthetic Imperative. Relevance and Responsibility in Arts Education

Epub The Aesthetic Imperative Relevance And Responsibility In Arts Education 1981
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I was toopreoccupied with peace activities even to write on art education. However, occasionally I gave talks on therelevance of the intrinsic relationship between creativity and peace at every level of human existence. During my days at Sevagram I had known that enduring peace of an individual, both in social and politicalmatters, can be achieved only through an education which made the individual predisposed to peace; asMaria Montessori said: "If at some time the child were to receive proper consideration and his immensepossibilities were to be developed, then a Man might arise for whom there would be no need ofencouragement to disarmament and resistance to war because his nature would be such that he would notendure the state of degradation and of extreme moral corruption which makes possible any participation inwar.

Nevertheless, I always had a feeling that it occupied a corner in that part of mymemory which stored things that were not required for the time being but were nevertheless important. That made me keep my eyes and mind open to the developments in the field of art and education takingplace in the West during the period of more than two decades of my stay there. I returned to India for good at the very end of After a few months, or maybe a year, a very dearfriend gave me a photocopy of a clipping from a Hindi magazine of an article with the title "To BeForgotten!

I quote: " Written by anaccomplished artist and art teacher on the basis of his personal experience in the Sevagram educationalinstitute, having a deeply experimental orientation, it is undoubtedly a classic in the field of education. Classics are those which remain always available on account of their permanent importance This bookdoes not appear even in the catalogue of its publishers. Having been written in a language in which booksdo not receive their due respect, it has been forgotten.. The suggestion was that I should try to publish in English, so that it would be available tomany more people.

I also remembered that after a couple of years of its publication in was toldby a German friend that a group of teachers in Hamburg had been studying the book with the help ofsomeone there who knew Hindi well enough to assist the group is going through it in detail. I was told thatthe group had "found it very useful".

When I visited Hamburg in the early sixties, I met this group. They too made the same suggestion. At thattime, I was not in a position to take up the task. Some otherfriends too encouraged me to make the effort. The first thought that came to my mind was that I would go through the book carefully and thoroughlyassess its relevance before starting to work on it.

I had to be sure that its publication made sense in thecontemporary educational scenario. Secondly, it was necessary to find out if there was a need to add somenew material or take out what was not relevant any more. I went through the book three times and foundthat, by and large, the approach, analysis and contents of the book were as relevant today as they were 38years ago.

The thesis on which the book was based was crucial for the reconstruction of most of theeducational systems nearly everywhere in the world. Before I began working on it I had thought that a straightforward translation would do the job. But as soonas I started the work I faced some problems. The question of language was the most important one. Having been written for the Hindi speaking world, it had its own stylistic character.

Hence, the idea ofstraightforward translation was totally other friends too encouraged me to make the effort ruled out. Thebook had to be, in fact, "rewritten" in English. The second problem was presented by what was supposed to be a new approach that was developing inthe West. It seemed to be based on the realization that allowing children to express themselves freely, withas little interference as possible, was not educationally sound.

This approach suggested that what peoplelike Franz Cizek and many educationists had experienced and were advocating—creating an atmospherein the school as well as in the family in which the child could express his feelings, experiences, and dreams with freedom and without inhibitionsfor the fuller development of the childs personality—was wrong.

The argument was that the child must betaught the right things from his very early years. Of course, I did not mean that the child has to be left entirely to his own resources. The principles ofdealing with child art demand much more from the teacher and parents than merely teaching how toexecute a certain job. The responsibility of the teacher is much greater in a situation where genuinefreedom from fear and inhibitions is allowed to the child who is encouraged to express himself through thelanguages which are more effective than the language of words, particularly at that stage of the life of anindividual.

Educators should know that even at the later stages of life there are several feelings andexperiences which can be expressed only through these languages of form and sound. There are occasions when the child needs support and assurance. Only a teacher who knows about theneeds of childhood and has love and respect for children, can give the desired guidance for the fullestpossible growth of their personality. The teacher who wants the child to grow quickly into adulthood andfeels the pressure to teaching the right things, becomes a hindrance to healthy growth.

In the process ofrewriting the book I had to put due emphasis on these aspects of art education. During the past few decades much effort has been made to encourage children to do art work. In manycountries, exhibitions of childrens art work are being organized and prizes for the best works aredistributed to child-artists. Literature on childrens art and its teaching is being regularly published in goodquantity. Most schools in the Western countries have art sections for the teaching of art to children.

Evidently, it is a good development in the field of child education. However, it has created a misleadingnotion, i. In other words, the notion is that art is now playingits due role in the growth of the childs personality. I have no doubt that the introduction of art activities has provided some joy in the school life of manychildren. But is that all that was behind the proposals made by educational thinkers like Herbert Read,who, in the forties, were anxious to see art playing its role in the development of the childs and theadolescents personality in its fullest and healthiest manner?

Did they not ask for a complete rethinking ofthe educational practices that had developed in the industrial society? During my recent visit to Britain I met some people who felt that art is already playing its expected roleand that it has brought good results. According to many of them there is not much that needs to be done topromote the philosophy -which advocates art and creativity to be the basis of educational planning.

At thesame time, I also met some teachers who were serious about art being more than just a source ofentertainment for the child. I had some discussions on the thesis I am advocating in this book with a smallgroup of teachers, who also looked at the typescript of the book which I had carried with me. Later,someone who had been listening to our conversations told me that the teachers were thrilled with ourdiscussions and the contents of the typescript. They felt that there was definitely an urgent need for suchliterature. I was encouraged on learning their response, especially because I felt assured that motivated andinformed teachers were looking forward to guidance, both theoretical as well as practical, to transform arteducation into something that should help the child to become a well fulfilled individual predisposed topeaceful living, as Maria Montessori had indicated in her message to the International Congress AgainstWar and Militarism.

Another issue was related to the question of gender. Until I reached nearly halfway through the writing Iwas using the expression his or her and he or she. I am generally conscious about the sexist nature of thelanguage I am using. Writing in Hindi, this was not much of a problem, but it sounded ridiculous when Iread through the rough English text.

The expressions he or she, and his or her was so repeatedly used thatit hurt the ears. Therefore I decided to use only he or his wherever necessary, and hoped that readers,rightly against sexism in language, will not mind my inconsistancies. Although the preface written for the original version was adequate in itself, I felt it necessary to write anadditional preface for this edition. It was particularly necessary to justify my response to the demand torewrite the book.

I hope it will help teachers and parents in understanding the need of their children to beable to express themselves more fully and enjoy and benefit from art activities as the most effective wayto the road to peace and fulfilment. Some of my friends have been very helpful in reading and editing the manuscript. Usha Chadda, herself aneducator and Akash Dharamraj, psychotherapist, did the preliminary editing, Usha Abrol, RegionalDirector, NIPCCD Bangalore read a few chapters at the beginning and gave very helpful suggestions andmy wife Bindu Prasad, special educationist and clinical psychologist, was consistently looking into themanuscript.

I am indeed very grateful to them for their valuable assistance. Preface The artist is not a special kind of man but every man is a special kind of artist1I had my primary education in a school which was a typical example of one of the most anti-educationeducational systems created by colonial rule in nineteenth century India. The most vivid memory I have ofthat period is that for some reason or another, or perhaps for no reason at all, our teachers never hesitatedto give us corporal punishment, which made us hate the school. There was nothing in the school that couldcreate in us an interest in any subject or activity.

I do not remember enjoying even a moment of my timein it. Later I was moved to the primary section of an intermediate college founded on the Aryasamajideals. Luckily this school had a carpentry class as an extracurricular activity. The family moved to a new house situated in open and better surroundings. The new place was partlyrenovated before we moved in and partly afterwards. I was almost nine at the time and was fascinated bythe work the craftsmen were doing. Both the head mason and the carpenter, were very good craftsmen andtolerant people. They did not mind my sitting and watching them work and meddling with their tools.

Thisexperience was enough for me to take an interest in carpentry at school. So much so, that I graduallycollected enough tools of my own, bought with my pocket money, to be able to make things for the house. I also became interested in keeping the wood work of the house especially the doors and windows—cleanand well painted. Later I even became interested in drawing and painting, a subject whichI took for my college education after finishing school. In spite of a boring, nay hateful, primary education I think I had a more or less happy childhood although Iwas not conscious of it at the time.

I realized that if during my childhood I had not had the opportunity to "meddle" with the tools and the rawmaterials of the craftsmen who renovated our house, I would not have developed the taste for "makingthings"! Without this experience would I have understood childrens nature, as I think I did in later life, Ioften wonder!

The principles of education worked out by Tagore had totally rejected the notion and practice of teachingbased on textbooks. For Tagore, education was a process of learning rather than a mechanical method ofthrusting information into, what are supposed to be, the empty minds of children and adults. According toTagore, the best textbook is life itself, and nature, of which we are an integral part; so also our culturalheritage and its significance in the ongoing processes of our lives.

To put it in a nutshell, there are threecentres of education: mother-tongue, nature and creative activities. The system of education the colonialrulers had developed in India not only ignored these elements, it totally ruled out their place in theprocesses of education at all levels. Looking at the lives and expressions of the children of the Sishu-Vibhag pre-school and Patha-Bhawan primary school of Santiniketan, and spending some time with them, I understood that the school can andmust be a place of joy and creativity. That wasthe inspiration and strength behind my experiments with child-art in the Sevagram educational institute.

I was fairly well aware of Gandhis ideas on art. He was closer to Tolstoy than to Tagore—a bit toopuritanical for someone like me, who had experienced life as a young artist in an atmosphere created and1. Ananda K. Tagore believed that for a healthy development of personality and humanrelationships, bread and art are inseparable aspects of life. Tagore and Gandhi were aware of their so-called differences.

Yet they were very close to each other on all matters of consequence, the truth of whichI continuously realized in my life. Within a few months of my graduation from Santiniketan I joined the team working for the developmentof Nayee Talim "new education" as it was named by Mahatma Gandhi himself in its second and the finalstage. Initially I took up the job for six months. It was for the duration of the teachers training camporganized by Hindustani Talimi Sangh the organization founded in for carrying out the NayeeTalim scheme to start work along the lines of the thinking Gandhiji had come to during his lastimprisonment.

He was released in early May, A basic school was already functioning in Sevagramsince , when the Gandhian education scheme for children between seven and fourteen years of agewas first launched. This was the beginning of the second phase of Nayee Talim. Explaining his scheme to the HindustaniTalimi Sangh Conference held in Sevagram in January, Gandhiji said: "Although we have beenworking for Nayee Talim all these years, we have so far been, as it were, sailing in an inland sea which iscomparatively safer.

We are now leaving the shores and heading for the open sea. So far, our course wasmapped out. We have now before us uncharted waters, with the Pole Star as our only guide and protection. That Pole Star is village handicrafts. Even as a fresher in the field I hadrealized almost from the very beginning that it was probably going to be very tough, but it -was thegreatest and most revolutionary experiment in educational planning for our country. It was my good luck that I had my college education in Tagores Santiniketan. Our two seniormostcolleagues E. Aryanayakam and Asha Devi Aryanayakam also had been close associates of Tagore.

Asha Devi took a keen interest in my experiments and supported me throughout. She also encouraged meto write occasional articles for publication in the institutes official journal Nayee Talim, which, by theway, helped me in working out the plan of this book. I became convinced that the experiments I was going to conduct should fully incorporate, in a balancedand integrated manner, the educational principles propagated by both Gandhi and Tagore.

It may be worthmentioning here that the first syllabus-for teaching art in Basic Education—as Nayee Talim was called —in , was prepared with the help of Acharya Nandalal Bose. It was a take-off point for me, but only atakeoff point. Although they were inspired by the Gandhian spirit and the spirit of experimenting with the principles ofNayee Talim, most of our colleagues had no clear notions about the place of art in the processes ofeducation. Art to them was some kind of skill or a collection of skills to decorate various aspects of life orpainting pictures, making-sculptures, etc.

As a "specialist" in the field and one who was trying to discover amuch wider role that art could play in the development of the full personality of the child, I had to facevarious problems, practical as well as theoretical. I was in need of clarity and support at the same time. I wrote a letter to Gandhiji for guidance. He sent me a written reply in which he mentioned my teacherNandalal Bose as an artist who "comes very close to my ideal That has always been my belief. But since you are here, do2.

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Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi,Vol. Learn here what true art is There is therefore a place for true artists inNayee Talim I believe be did, but I do not know for certain. However, I am convinced that he wanted me to do mywork in the manner I thought best.

This letter was indeed a great encouragement to me and a source ofself-confidence. I was able to stand firm on my principles whenever other colleagues failed to understandmy approach and work. As art instructor I considered my task to be of a multifarious nature. It included discussions with teachertrainees on the place of art in education and the role art has in society and the life the individual; childrensart of drawing, painting and clay modelling etc.

The Ashram school andits primary section in the Sevagram village were ideal places for the trainees to practice teaching. TheAshram school became my laboratory for experimenting with Child Art. Then, of course, there were ourown school teachers who needed orientation as well as instruction in relating art as such to the rest of theschool subjects and hostel activities.

Neither the school teachers nor the trainees had any previousexperience in regard to these subjects. As a matter of principle, Nayee Talim puts the maximum emphasis on the aspect of self-reliance for theindividual as well as the community, and on social relationships. As an experiment in education for thewhole country, it was eminently clear in our minds that our school should not possess any such equipmentor conventional buildings which schools in the six hundred thousand villages of the country could notafford.

Instead of considering it a handicap, I used to think of Tagores thoughts on this question expressedin his essay My School:"There, are men who think that by the simplicity of living introduced in my school I preach theidealization of poverty which prevailed in the medieval age But seen from the point of view ofeducation, should we not admit that poverty is the school in which man had his first lessons and his besttraining?

Even a millionaire had to be born hopeless and poor and to begin his lesson of life from thebeginning. He has to learn to walk like the poorest of children, though he has means to afford to bewithout the appendage of legs. Poverty brings us into complete touch with life and the world, for livingrichly is living mostly by proxy, thus living in a lesser world of reality.

This may be good for onespleasure and pride, but not for ones education. Wealth is a golden cage in which the children of the richare bred into artificial deadening of their powers. Therefore in my school, much to the disgust of people ofexpensive habits, I had to provide for this great teacher—this bareness of furniture and materials—notbecause it is poverty, but because it leads to personal experience of the world Unlike any other educational system or institution, in Nayee Talim, no subject or activitycould be considered in isolation, outside the context of the life and environment around.

Moreover, for thebalanced development of the personality of the child, the growth of the mind and the body should be inter-linked and integrated. To this end, one of the significant aspects of Nayee Talim was its approach toteaching. Most of the subjects related to intellectual growth. For example, arithmetic, history, geography,science, language etc. Similarly, all manual-creative work was treatedintelligently. This implied reallocation of priorities of the contents of teaching.

Hence, the question I hadto ask myself was: Could I treat the teaching of art to children in isolation—as a subject totallyindependent of other subjects or activities? There was yet another question that forced me to work out a fresh strategy and the way I should plan mywork as an art teacher. Was it practically possible to have a special art teacher in every school in each3. The straight forward answer was: No! Moreover, was having a special art teacherin every primary and middle school essential?

At the beginning I had no answer to these questions, but itcame to me after working for a few years with children.

Aesthetic Appreciation: Crash Course Philosophy #30

I realized that the teaching of art in Nayee Talimwas different from the way it was taught in ordinary, or even so-called progressive schools. It could surelynot be like that of art schools, for the aim was not just to teach drawing and painting etc. It was muchmore than teaching the skills that are associated with arts and crafts as they are understood today. I had to work out two things in my mind. First, it was necessary to define and clarify what actually was thepurpose of art education. Secondly, apart from drawing up a syllabus and the methodology for artteaching, it was important to identify those activities in which art could play its creative role?

TheSevagram school was a residential institution, which meant that it provided more opportunities forintroducing an aesthetic aspect to the lifestyle of the community. Very few artists can be teachers, and fewer still can be really good art teachers, particularly for children. Based on my own observation I have found that art teachers—artists trained in art schools—generallyspeaking, tend to impose their own notions and forms on children.

They try to "teach" rather than createthe required atmosphere for children to express themselves through line and colour, clay or wood, etc. After years of experience I have come to the conclusion that for children under ten or twelve years of age,a teacher who is not an artist but who understands children, and the beauty and nature of their art, can be abetter-art teacher than one who may be a good artist but does not understand the child. A teacher who isable to give proper guidance to children upto the age often or eleven is more likely to be a good teacher ofart.

So also for children into the beginning of their adolescence. I have seen teachers who did not possess even the minimum skill of drawing but who had knowledge ofchild-art, who appreciated and enjoyed it, and who fully identified themselves with the needs of children,being very good art teachers for children. Only such teachers can nurture the creative spirit and artistictalents of children. The point to note here is that at that stage the question of teaching techniques or specialskills does not arise.

What children need from the teacher is encouragement, proper material, classmanagement and companionship. If such a teacher happens to be a good artist it will surely be an asset,but it is a rare thing to happen. Moreover it is not that essential. So, one of my objectives was to try to impress upon the class teachers to develop an attitude andperspective which would give them the confidence required to guide children in their art activities also.

Itwould require them to learn the psychogenesis of child art, learn to believe that childrens drawings are notjust scribblings or splashes of colour, they can be beautiful artistic creations. Moreover, these creationsopen the window into the world of the child and his inner life to a great extent.

By this statement I do notimply that the status of childrens art is the same as that of Ajanta. Nonetheless, I domean that it can be real good art and that it should be treated with understanding and respect. There are two manifestations of art education. One is similar to that of the artists creations: painting,sculpture, music and dance etc.

The second is that which finds expression in all our conscious andunconscious movements and behaviour. Both are essential for making life balanced and creative. There are some who believe that there should not be a separate provision for artistic expression in theform of painting, sculpture and dance etc.

Itshould not have a "superficial" existence. Such a puritanical approach lacks understanding of humannature and of the function of art in life. Some people consider art a useless activity because it does not always provide enough for a physicallycomfortable life. They even think that being a useless activity, it should not have any place in education.

Nandalal Bose has the following to say about this kind of attitude: "People who say that art does notprovide a good livelihood should remember one thing There are two aspects of art. One gives joy andthe other gives money. One is called arts Charushilpa and the other crafts Karushilpa. Charu-shilpa Karushilpanot only makes our life-journey beautiful by making the objects of daily use beautiful by its golden touch;it also gives us our daily bread. Our country is being impoverished by the decline of our crafts It no longer makes any impact on our inner life.

Even in the lives of artists themselves, one hardly sees any harmony between their creations, personalitiesand lifestyles. It seems that an artists art activity and private life have nothing to do with each other. Art isbecoming an object of luxury for the rich and the indulgent. It is probably for that reason that some socialrevolutionaries do not consider art as an essential part of life. In fact, some even think of it as undesirable. They do not realize that the dislocation that has occurred in human unity is to a great extent due to the factthat the absence of art experiences has resulted in unfulfilled lives.

According to Indian philosophy, the artist was considered a yogi, as Coomaraswamy wrote in The Danceof Shiva: " It will beremembered that the purpose of Yoga is mental concentration, carried so far as the overlooking of alldistinction between the subject and the object of contemplation; means or achieving harmony or unity ofconsciousness. According to them most of the active time of the individual should be spent in"useful" pursuits and the rest in other activities. One needs some relaxation after working on usefulmatters. Such relaxation should be obtained by taking to fine arts.

These educators go as far as to say"Without painting, sculpture, music, poetry, and the emotions produced by natural beauty of every kind,life would lose half of its charm. Herbert Spencer continues: "So, far from regarding the training and gratification of the tastes asunimportant, we believe that in time to come they will occupy a much larger share of human life thannow.

When the forces of Nature have been fully conquered to mans use, when the means of productionhave been brought to perfection, when labour has been economized to the highest degree, when educationhas been so systemized that a preparation for the more essential activities may be made with comparativerapidity, and when, consequently, there is a great increase of spare time, then will the beautiful, both inArt and Nature, rightly fill a large space in the minds of all. Hepronounced: "Accomplishments, the fine arts, belles-letters, and all those things which, as we say,constitute the efflorescence of civilization be wholly subordinate to that instruction and discipline onwhich civilization rests.

As they occupy the leisure part of life, so should they occupy the leisure part ofeducation"8This thought, that art and art education are related to leisure, is responsible for making art a dasi maid-servant of the rich and the indulgent. It has created a gap between the life of the common citizen and thelife of the rich who can afford time and money. Thus the term "cultural activities" was coined.

The moreleisure time one can afford for such activities, the more cultured he or she is supposed to be. As a result of separating art education from day-to-day living, life has lost its joy; and to overcome thefatigue caused by "more important work", art has been made into an object of recreation. Instead ofremaining a life-giving force, art has become a slave. A slave can provide only physical comfort, it cannotgive the sense of inner fulfilment which is an essential part of a well developed personality.

Art now is aluxury that only the rich can afford. And it is probably for this reason that many a social and spiritualleader rejects the idea of art being given an important place in life. It is a tragedy that they see it only as anobject of indulgence, rather than a way of life in terms of social, aesthetical and spiritualenergy. Herbert Read puts it as follows: "But when, as nowadays, we speak of the problem of leisure, we are notthinking of securing time or opportunity to do something—we have time on our hands, and the problem ishow to fill it.

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Leisure no longer signifies a space with some difficulty secured against the pressure ofevents, rather it signifies a pervasive emptiness for which we must invent occupations. Leisure is avacuum, a desperate state of vacancy—a vacancy of mind and body. It has been handed over to thesociologists and the psychologists; to such specialists it is more than a problem. It is disease. We call them workand play. We work for so many hours a day, and when we have allowed the necessary minimum for suchactivities as eating and shopping, the rest we spend in various activities which we call recreations, anelegant word which indicates that we do not even play in our hours of leisure, but spend them in variousforms of passive enjoyment which we call entertainment—not playing football, but watching footballgames; not drama, but theatre-going; not walking, but riding in an automobile.

It is precisely this decline of active play—ofamateur sport—and the enormous growth of purely receptive entertainment that constitutes a sociologicalproblem. If the greater part of the population, instead of indulging in healthy sports, spends its hours ofleisure in dark and crowded cinemas, there will inevitably be a decline in health and physique. And inaddition, there will be psychological problems, for we have yet to trace the mental and moral consequenceof a prolonged diet of sentimental or sensational films.

We have to paint rather than lookat paintings, to play instruments rather than go to concerts, to dance and sing and act ourselves, engage allour senses in the ritual and discipline of the arts. Then something may begin to happen to us: to work uponour bodies and our souls. It has also providedhuman kind with all kinds of means of luxury and indulgence, which have resulted in grossly aggravatingthe inequalities that exist in society, instead of eradicating them.

And yet people are not able to be discreetin the management of science. They want education to be totally geared to the physical sciences. Educational institutions long to build the most modern and fully equipped science laboratories; but theyconsider it extravagant to have a proper art studio which would carry the same prestige as a sciencelaboratory. Such an art studio in a school can give children the experience of joy which only art can.

Human beings start experiencing creativity from a very early stage in life. Unfortunately, the inherentcreativity of childhood gradually disappears in later years. Given the social structure and values nurturedby the so-called modern educational system, which ignores the role of art in the development of thepersonality of the child, his or her natural creativity tends to end with the beginning of adolescence. If thatquality in children is to be retained, the educational system that exists today must be totally overhauled,nay, revolutionized.

Gandhi and Tagore had a vision of a liberated human being. That vision can be realized only through aneducational approach, based on creativity in which the aim of every activity is the affirmation of the unitywithin the individuals personality and, at the same time, the unity of all humanity. In other words, art hasan essential role to play in the educational process, the aim of which is human unity.

Emphasizing the role art plays in liberating the personality, Herbert Read says: "A childs art, therefore, isits passport to freedom, to the full fruition of all its gifts and talents, to its true and stable happiness inadult life. Art leads the child out of itself. It may begin as a lonely individual activity, as the self-absorbedscribbling of a baby on a piece of paper. But the child scribbles in order to communicate its inner world toa sympathetic spectator, the parent from whom it expects a sympathetic response. Nothing is more crushing to the infant spirit thana parents or a teachers contempt for those creative efforts of expression.

That is one aspect of a processwhich disgraces the whole of our intellectualized civilization and which, in my opinion, is the root causeof our social disintegration. We sow the seeds of disunity in the nursery and the class room, with oursuperior adult conceit. We divide the intelligence from the sensibility of our children, create split men schizophrenics, to give them a psychological name , and then discover that we have no social unity. Tagore wrote about the growth of human unity through the growth of love beginning fromthe love of the mother and the baby to the love for the immediate family, then to the extended family andultimately to universal love.

If the educational processes are created to aim for the unity of the whole ofhumankind, theprocess will be a gradual one, i. But the foundations of this unity are laid in creativitywhich is the most important aim of art education. The source of creativity is in nature and we discover it by being creators ourselves; as artists, painters,dancers, carpenters, sculptors etc. We also discover that our creativity manifests itself in its best formwhen it is carried out in the spirit of togetherness working together and living together, as this too is thepattern of nature.

I soon realized that as teacher, one of the important steps I had to take was to introduce children at anearly stage of their education to the play of harmony and rhythm in nature, for these elements penetratedeeply into the mind and take a powerful hold on the fresh and open mind of the child. This realizationcame to me also because of my Tagorean background.

Tagore made a significant distinction betweenknowing and internalizing. We may becomepowerful by knowledge, but we attain fullness by sympathy with all existence The young mindshould be saturated with the idea that it has been born in a human world which is in harmony with theworld around it The first and foremost was the aspect that isso adequately presented in the words have already quoted from Tagore and Read—the aspect of creativity. Secondly, the practical aspect which is related to the forces that direct the development of skills, such asthe skill to see, measure or plan.

The third, equally important and useful side of art education I found wasits diagnostic potential. Rabindranath Tagore I was repeatedly fascinated by the way childrens drawings revealed the inside of their mind its joys and itssorrows, its past experiences and its wishful thinking, and much more. Educational psychologists havenow realized the potential of art as a tool for diagnostic purposes and also as a therapeutic activity. Arttherapy is now becoming an important educational tool. In the hands of the schoolteacher, it can serve asan effective way to plan the childs educational activities.

I was also inspired by descriptions of the Indian educational traditions and philosophy given by scholars,as well as those found in our folklore. In India we did not compartmentalize art and life separately. Themain objective of education was the pursuit of knowledge. Pursuit of knowledge did not imply onlygathering of, or seeking information. It included wisdom, capacity of discretion, control of the ego,humility, truthfulness, self-dignity, social service, and creative skills. The teacher did not impart only theeducation of classical subjects but also taught students the practical skills required for living a good life.

The teacher and the students lived together and did everything required for survival from collectingfirewood for cooking to receiving guests and looking after them in the most hospitable manner. Education was related to the professional, family and social needs of the students. If it was a kshatriya warrior class , along with other subject, the art of using weaponry and like political science was alsotaught. According to the Indian classical tradition, a person was considered well educated only if he wasconversant in all the sixty-four arts seventy-two according to some scriptures which included almosteverything that makes life wholesome and practically and aesthetically sound.

These educational conceptsmost probably applied to those sections of the population which were engaged in professions related tointellectual, religious, as well as trade and defence activities. Artisans too had their educational traditions,in which along with learning the skills of their trade, social, religious as well as ethical values and theirpractice were given great importance.

The colonial period of Indian history has been a dark period in terms of the educational, artistic, industrialand cultural traditions of our country. It caused a dislocation in almost every aspect of Indian lifeespecially its value system. The system of education the British constructed was totally divorced from thedaily lives of the people.

It could not have been otherwise. For, the sole purpose of that education was tomanufacture clerks for the colonial administration. Instead of education being geared to the human needsof the community, it was built around the needs of the colonial administration, through textbooks. Although the British now are nowhere in the picture, our educational system has remained book-oriented.

In addition to clerks and administrators our national education system today aims at producing more andmore engineers, doctors, professors, etc. Our so-called national educational planning has not been able torescue the country from colonial practices. Instead of bringing joy and the spirit of togetherness in theindividual and the community, it has nurtured competition and greed.

Contrary to our situation, the West has taken some interesting steps towards improving their educationalsystems. Although it was mainly on account of their commercial values —certainly not solely socialisticideals—that new elements were introduced in the school curriculum. Eventually the changes proved tohave led their thinking in new directions. With the advent of the industrial revolution, industry needed anincreasing number of draftsmen and crafts people, for which the training of the eye and the hand wasessential.

In Britain, a little before the middle of the eighteenth century, the government set up a SelectCommittee to enquire into the best method to promote the understanding of art among the people. TheReport of the Committee recommended that it would be useful for the artist and the consumer of theworks of art, if art was made a part of the elementary school curriculum. It led to the introduction ofdrawing and painting in school curricula sometime in the mid eighteenth century. The introduction of art and drawing was by no means aimed at teaching art and art appreciation as it hadnothing to do with the training in the real objective of art.

It was too mechanical and dry in spirit. Tomlinson called it "soul destroying and sterile methods". After all, the Bauhaus movement was a product of industrialization. The growth of radical art movements,e. Impressionism, was also a kind of reaction.

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That kind of art education included drawing of straight lines going in different directions, drawing ofdifferent shapes, geometrical or otherwise. In short, it aimed at understanding perspective, threedimensional drawing. Later on, some free hand drawing was also introduced in the curriculum, and with itthe effects of light and shade. Naturally this kind of drawing did not much interest children. It was too dryan exercise, for them to do still-lives of cups, vases and pyramids. Gradually drawing and painting ofscenes, trees and flowers with colours, and designing and pattern making also became part of arteducation.

In Europe, all this was considered progressive about three quarters of a century ago. In India, however, artclasses in most schools, even today, continue to do only that which the majority of the children hate, a factteachers know very well. Moreover, art is not thought to be an important subject in the context of thetotality of the educational scheme. And since it is not a "difficult" subject, children take it for passing theexams. The main reason for the drawing class being so boring for children is the manner in which it istaught.

Teachers handling the subject may have had some training in drawing, but not many of them havereceived the required education in art teaching, leave alone in the understanding of the art children create. Moreover, very few teachers possess a sound understanding of the childs mind and its needs. Unfortunately, most of our teacher training institutes remain untouched by the discoveries made bypsychologists into the depth of the world of children.

Our educationists and planners cannot even imaginethe profound role art can play in the development of the childs personality. While our educators have continued to impose their ideas on children, in other countries significantchanges have taken place in the educational world over the past several decades. New experiments havebeen conducted to explore the world and needs of childhood. The German founder of kindergarteneducational reformer, Wilhelm August Froebel showed that freedom is a very important element in theeducation of the child. Some others demonstrated that strict discipline was harmful for the creativity ofchildren.

The work of these psychologists was important historically, but the work done by an Austrian artist namedFranz Cizek was revolutionary in the field of childrens creativity in practical terms. Despite emphasizingthe importance and need for freedom for the development of the childs personality most psychologistsoften impose their own ideas on children. Cizek, on the other hand, has protected the child from adultdomination. He said: "I have liberated the child. Previous to me children were punished and scolded forscribbling and drawing. I have saved them from this treatment.

I said to them: What you do is good. And Igave mankind something which until I came had been spurned. I have shown parents the creative power ofchildren. Formerly parents and teachers suppressed the best things in children. But I have done all that notfrom the point of new of the pedagogue, but as a human being as artist. Such things are not achieved frompedagogy, but from the artistic and human or from human artisticness. So much so,he said something that had never been heard before: "The most beautiful things in the creation of the childare his mistakes. The more a childs work is full of these individual mistakes the more wonderful it is.

And the more a teacher removes them from the childs work the duller, more desolate and impersonal it Franz Cizek was an artist himself. He was born in in a small Czech town called Leitmeritz inBohemia, then a part of Austria. Wilhelm Viola described Cizeks life and struggles in these words: "Cizekcame to Vienna when he was twenty, and entered the Academy of Fine Arts. He lodged with a poorfamily, where, fortunately, there were children. These children saw him painting and drawing, and theywanted, as Cizek so often related, to play painting too. Out of his genuine love for children, one of thereasons of his success, he gave them what they asked for— pencils, brushes, and paints.

And beautifulworks were created by them. It was a happy coincidence that Cizek was in close contact with the foundersof the Secession movement, a kind of revolution of young painters and architects against the old academicart. He showed his friends the drawings of his children and these artists were so thrilled that theyencouraged Cizek to open what they scarcely liked to call a school, but for which they had no other name.

There children would be allowed, for the first time, to do what they liked. Reports, articles, and chapters on writing research, theory, and instruction; current and historical perspectives in writing research and research findings relating to teaching and learning in this area.

Perspectives on the Education of Linguistic Minorities. Social, political, linguistic, and pedagogical issues associated with educating students who do not speak the language or language variety of the majority society. Focus is on the U. American attitudes toward linguistic and racial minorities. Educational problems of linguistically different children and non-English- or limited-English-speaking children. Approaches to solving problems.

Theoretical foundation for volunteer tutors of English language learners in urban environments working with children in school-based programs or adults in community-based settings. Theory and Issues in the Study of Bilingualism. Sociolinguistic perspective.

Emphasis is on typologies of bilingualism, the acquisition of bilingual ability, description and measurement, and the nature of societal bilingualism. Prepares students to work with bilingual students and their families and to carry out research in bilingual settings. Through lecture, demonstration, online modules, and in-class web-work, this course will provide students with advanced strategies in a identifying sources and tools for advancing the quest for information; b assessing elements of trust, authority, and chicanery in the provision of information; c recognizing the economic and legal structures shaping information sources, services, and rights; and d discovering who is behind what information.

With a focus on the info-worlds of journalism, learning, governance, students will acquire and practice the forensic skills and web savvy of fact-checkers and investigative reporters, activists and scholars. Here's a class set to determine the future course of information. The class will be a hybrid course, combining in-class delivery of materials, with a number of classes involving students taking online modules at their convenience that are designed to teach information literacy skills.

First Year Reflections Seminar. Restricted to first-year undergraduates; limited enrollment. There are two options for how to participate. These times provide a structured time for students to explore their identities, values, and the kind of lives they want to lead.

Exercises and discussions led by faculty, staff, and upper-class student co-facilitators. This year-long workshop focuses on current research regarding the relationship between poverty, schooling, and educational success. Invited speakers will discuss current research and strategies for improving the educational outcomes of low-income students.

Students will read and discuss current research and discuss current strategies for improving education for low-income students. Students may enroll for one quarter at a time or for the entire year. History of Higher Education in the U. Major periods of evolution, particularly since the midth century. Premise: insights into contemporary higher education can be obtained through its antecedents, particularly regarding issues of governance, mission, access, curriculum, and the changing organization of colleges and universities.

Preparation for Independent Public Service Projects. Open only to recipients of the Haas Summer Fellowship, which offers students the opportunity to initiate and carry out an innovative service project in collaboration with a community partner. Goal is to expand upon the work fellows did during the application process with respect to the feasibility and sustainability of their field projects.

Restricted to students who participate in a service learning program focused on early math learning. Training for activities in preschool classrooms. Focus is on the teaching of math to young children, but also includes background on issues related to young children's cognitive, language, and social development; classroom management; cultural diversity; and early childhood education programs.

This course examines the ways in which higher education structures and policies interact with gender, gender identity, and other characteristics in the United States, around the world, and over time. Attention is paid to how changes in those structures and policies relate to access to, experiences in, and outcomes of higher education by gender.

Students can expect to gain an understanding of theories and perspectives from the social sciences relevant to an understanding of the role of higher education in relation to structures of gender differentiation and hierarchy. Topics include undergraduate and graduate education; identity and sexuality; gender and science; gender and faculty; and feminist scholarship and pedagogy. Studio-based, participatory, and user-centered development of casual learning technologies is explored, using the Apple iPhone as a prototype platform. The term "casual" is borrowed from casual gaming to denote that the learning technologies are meant for learners to use in "extreme informal" learning circumstances while "on the go", "any time and any place".

The class builds on learning about and synthesizing knowledge, theory and development activity in four areas including learning theories, mobile technologies, games and participatory design processes. This is an interdisciplinary course that will examine the dramatic demographic changes in American society that are challenging the institutions of our country, from health care and education to business and politics. This demographic transformation is occurring first in children and youth, and understanding how social institutions are responding to the needs of immigrant children and youth to support their well-being is the goal of this course.

Latino Families, Languages, and Schools. The challenges facing schools to establish school-family partnerships with newly arrived Latino immigrant parents. How language acts as a barrier to home-school communication and parent participation. Current models of parent-school collaboration and the ideology of parental involvement in schooling. By considering the relationship between the creation of "Latinx" and "American" identities, students will critically reconsider the borders that constitute the U. The course balances depth and breadth in its study of the variety of perspectives and experiences that come to be associated with U.

Thus, we will analyze the histories of predominant U. Latinx identities. Topics include the U. Sources include a range of social science and humanities scholarship. This course will meet at Sequoia High School. Transportation will be provided. Directed Reading in Education. Pre-field Course for Alternative Spring Break. Limited to students participating in the Alternative Spring Break program. Multicultural Issues in Higher Education. The primary social, educational, and political issues that have surfaced in American higher education due to the rapid demographic changes occurring since the early 80s.

Research efforts and the policy debates include multicultural communities, the campus racial climate, and student development; affirmative action in college admissions; multiculturalism and the curriculum; and multiculturalism and scholarship. Student Development and the Study of College Impact. The philosophies, theories, and methods that undergird most research in higher education. How college affects students.

Student development theories, models of college impact, and issues surrounding data collection, national databases, and secondary data analysis. This practicum will assist students in developing a set of skills in English-Spanish interpreting that will prepare them to provide interpretation services in school and community settings.

The course will build students' abilities to transfer intended meanings between two or more monolingual individuals of who are physically present in a school or community setting and who must communicate with each other for professional and personal purposes. Directed Research in Education. For undergraduates and master's students.

Introduction to Survey Research. Planning tasks, including problem formulation, study design, questionnaire and interview design, pretesting, sampling, interviewer training, and field management. Epistemological and ethical perspectives. Issues of design, refinement, and ethics in research that crosses boundaries of nationality, class, gender, language, and ethnicity.

Preparing students for roles as Resident and Community Assistants, "Intelligent Leadership" explores research on college student development, leadership and the complex dynamics of our changing society both within and outside the college environment. Participants will engage in course work that builds skills relevant to their positions and allow students to implement these skills in a real world environment. Through reflection, self-examination and engagement in interpersonal dynamics and analysis, students will examine how their peer group develops while at the university.

Participants will engage in course work intended to build skills relevant to being on a Row Staff team. Students will practice self reflection, risk taking, facilitating, decision-making and group leadership. Students will develop strategies to build community and facilitate challenging conversations while creating a safe environment for their peers to do the same. Students will practice listening, question asking, self-reflection, risk taking, facilitating, conflict mediating and decision-making.

They will explore how groups of people can come together for intellectual and interpersonal learning and growth within a complex society. Participants will engage in course work intended to build skills relevant to the Ethnic Theme Associate position. Students will practice listening, question asking, self reflection, risk taking, facilitating, conflict mediating, decision-making and group leadership. Listen Up! Core Peer Counseling Skills. Topics: verbal and non-verbal skills, open and closed questions, paraphrasing, working with feelings, summarization, and integration.

Individual training, group exercises, role play practice with optional video feedback. Sections on relevance to crisis counseling and student life. Guest speakers from University and community agencies. Students develop and apply skills in University settings. Sections will be assigned during the first week of the quarter. Topics: verbal and non-verbal attending and communication skills, open and closed questions, working with feelings, summarization, and integration. Individual training, group exercises, role play, and videotape practice.

Topics: the concept of culture, Black cultural attributes and their effect on reactions to counseling, verbal and non-verbal attending, open and closed questions, working with feelings, summarization, and integration. Reading assignments, guest speakers, role play, and videotaped practice. Students develop and apply skills in the Black community on campus or in other settings that the student chooses. Topics: the Asian family structure, and concepts of identity, ethnicity, culture, and racism in terms of their impact on individual development and the counseling process.

Emphasis is on empathic understanding of Asians in America. Group exercises. This course examines mental health and psychological well-being across the spectrum of gender and sexual identities. It addresses the unique challenges that face LGBTQ-identified students, and provides tools for supporting peers as they navigate these challenges. Peer Counseling in the Native American Community. Verbal and non-verbal communication, strategic use of questions, methods of dealing with strong feelings, and conflict resolution.

How elements of counseling apply to Native Americans including client, counselor, and situational variables in counseling, non-verbal communication, the role of ethnic identity in self-understanding, the relationship of culture to personal development, the impact of family on personal development, gender roles, and the experience of Native American students in university settings.

Individual skill development, group exercises, and role practice. Peer Counseling at the Bridge. Mental health issues such as relationships, substance abuse, sexual assault, depression, eating disorders, academic stressors, suicide, and grief and bereavement. Guest speakers. Peer Counseling on Comprehensive Sexual Health.

Information on sexually transmitted infections and diseases, and birth control methods. Topics related to sexual health such as communication, societal attitudes and pressures, pregnancy, abortion, and the range of sexual expression. Role-play and peer-education outreach projects. This course will prepare students to lead Frosh , a discussion style course designed to help first-year students with their transition to Stanford's dynamic campus. This course will expose students to inclusive teaching practices and research on the impact mental health, diversity and inclusion and sense of belonging have on the experiences of undergraduates.

This course is the first of two courses that Frosh leaders will take. Frosh Curriculum Leader Training. This course will provide Frosh leaders with the content and facilitator training needed to lead a discussion style course designed to support first-year students in their transition to Stanford's dynamic campus. This course is about educational progressivism: its origins and competing factions, and the ways it continues to shape schooling today. This is a Cardinal Course, or community engaged learning course. Students will spend time each week in a local school in order to better understand how progressivism continues to influence the structure and practice of schooling, as well as the capacity of teachers and administrators to adopt, ignore, or repurpose progressive ideas to suit their needs.

Senior Research in Public Service. Limited to seniors approved by their departments for honors thesis and admitted to the year-round Public Service Scholars Program sponsored by the Haas Center for Public Service. What standards in addition to those expected by the academy apply to research conducted as a form of public service? How can communities benefit from research? Theory and practice of research as a form of public service readings, thesis workshops, and public presentation of completed research.

Corequisite: Gender and Education in Global and Comparative Perspectives. This course introduces students to theories and perspectives from the social sciences relevant to an understanding of the role of education in relation to structures of gender differentiation, hierarchy, and power. It familiarizes students with and enables them to critically evaluate research on the status of children, adolescents, and young adults around the world and their participation patterns in various sectors of society, particularly in education. This course addresses social and educational policies affecting young children, focusing on France in comparison to the U.

Undergraduate Honors Seminar. Required of juniors and seniors in the honors program in the School of Education. Student involvement and apprenticeships in educational research. Participants share ongoing work on their honors thesis. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit once.

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London: Macmillan; If a world history of textiles is to be written, traditions ofsarees such as Paithan, Pattan, Sambalpuri, Chanderi, Baluchari and hundreds more will feature on top ofthe list. Gordon J-S Bioethics. Most generally, its aim is to identify distinguishing features of good diverse communities and articulate them well enough to offer principles or guidelines for how to design and manage such communities - all with a particular focus on educational communities like schools, universities, academic disciplines, etc. The important thing to notice in this context is that the moreornamental an item, the more it is appreciated. Which voices are heard in what How to think philosophically about educational problems.

Introduction to Data Analysis and Interpretation. Primarily for master's students in the School of Education. Focus is on reading literature and interpreting descriptive and inferential statistics, especially those commonly found in education. Topics: basic research design, instrument reliability and validity, descriptive statistics, correlation, t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, and simple and multiple regression. Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods. Primarily for master's students: An introduction to the core concepts and methods of qualitative research.

Through a variety of hands-on learning activities, readings, field experiences, class lectures, and discussions, students will explore the processes and products of qualitative inquiry. No undergraduates may enroll.

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Priority will be given to GSE students, and final enrollment depends on instructor approval after the first day of class. History of Education in the United States. How education came to its current forms and functions, from the colonial experience to the present. Focus is on the 19th-century invention of the common school system, 20th-century emergence of progressive education reform, and the developments since WW II. The role of gender and race, the development of the high school and university, and school organization, curriculum, and teaching.

Introduction to International and Comparative Education. Contemporary theoretical debates about educational change and development, and the international dimension of issues in education. Emphasis is on the development of students' abilities to make cross-national and historical comparisons of educational phenomena. The readings will cover the critiques leveled at such tests, the pros and cons about each type of test, the advantages and limitations of using international test data for policy research. The class will probably also do group projects utilizing data from the tests so students can familiarize themselves directly with the data.

Introduction to Philosophy of Education. How to think philosophically about educational problems. Recent influential scholarship in philosophy of education. No previous study in philosophy required. Explores how social forces, psychological influences, and biological systems combine to affect human behavior in early childhood, in the educational experience, and throughout the life course. Examines how behaviors are linked to well-being. Uses a flipped classroom model, in which a series of lectures are available for students to view on-line before class.

In-class time then focuses on case studies from published research. Required for M. Orientation to the M. Development of research skills through theoretical and methodological issues in comparative and international education. Completion of a pilot study and preparation of a research proposal for the master's paper.

Practice in data collection, analysis, and interpretation. Preparation of the first draft of the master's paper. Reviews of students' research as they finalize the master's paper. The theories and methods of curriculum development and improvement. Topics: curriculum ideologies, perspectives on design, strategies for diverse learners, and the politics of curriculum construction and implementation. Students develop curriculum plans for use in real settings.

Policy, Organization, and Leadership Studies Seminar. This is a required course for all POLS students. Another goals is to help student define their graduate degree goals, so they can plan their year in a very intentional manner that will result in a project or experiences they can highlight during the required Spring quarter POLS Project Forum. This is a required course for POLS students. Required for POLS students completing an internship.

Provides forum for exploring links to students' academic learning and real world experience through in-class and virtual discussions and reflective assignments. Fall Quarter is focused on understanding an institution's professional and communication norms. Winter Quarter provides scaffolding for navigating complex situations.

Spring Quarter focuses on understanding the relationship of role within the organization, and contextualizing the internship experience into the larger career trajectory. Beyond Bits and Atoms - Lab. This lab course is a hands-on introduction to the prototyping and fabrication of tangible, interactive technologies, with a special focus on learning and education.

No prior prototyping experience required. It focuses on the design and prototyping of low-cost technologies that support learning in all contexts for a variety of diverse learners. You will be introduced to, and learn how to use state-of-the-art fabrication machines 3D printers, laser cutters, Go Go Boards, Sensors, etc.

Key concepts in teaching and learning; teacher content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge; student prior knowledge and preconceptions; cognition and metacognition; classroom culture, motivation, and management; teaching diverse populations; comparison of teaching models; analysis of teaching; standards, accountability, and assessment of learning; assessing teaching quality; online learning and teaching. The required internship is a cornerstone of the LDT program. This course will provide students an opportunity to link their academic learning to real world experience through in-class discussions, presentations, and reflective writing.

It will allow the program director to monitor the quality of the experience and provide timely advice and support as needed for an optimal learning experience. An internship agreement will be required at the beginning of the course signed by the faculty advisor , as well as a reflection paper at the end of the course. Students will take the course for 1 unit, unless they request additional units for unpaid internship hours.

The relationship among race, power, inequality, and education from the s to the s. How schools have constructed race, the politics of school desegregation, and ties between education and the late 20th-century urban crisis. Free Speech, Academic Freedom, and Democracy. The course examines connected ideas of free speech, academic freedom, and democratic legitimacy that are still widely shared by many of us but have been subject to skeptical pressures both outside and inside the academy in recent years. The course explores the principled basis of these ideas, how well they might or might not be defended against skeptical challenge, and how they might be applied in particular controversies about the rights of students, instructors, and researchers.

Topics in Cognition and Learning: Technology and Multitasking. In our new media ecology, has affinity for social media and multitasking become addictive? Detrimental to learning and well-being? This seminar course is designed to engage students in recent advances in this rapidly growing research area via discussions of both historical and late-breaking findings in the literature. The Creative Arts in Elementary Classrooms. Hands-on exploration of visual arts media and works of art.

Introduction to the Economics of Education. The relationship between education and economic analysis. Topics: labor markets for teachers, the economics of child care, the effects of education on earnings and employment, the effects of education on economic growth and distribution of income, and the financing of education. Students who lack training in microeconomics, register for Y for 1 additional unit of credit. Introduction to the Politics of Education.

Graduate School of Education

The relationships between political analysis and policy formulation in education; focus is on alternative models of the political process, the nature of interest groups, political strategies, community power, the external environment of organizations, and the implementations of policy. Applications to policy analysis, implementation, and politics of reform. Focus is on 20th-century U. Intended and unintended patterns in school change; the paradox of reform that schools are often reforming but never seem to change much; rhetorics of reform and factors that inhibit change.

Case studies emphasize the American high school. Introduction to the Economics of Education: Economics Section. For those taking A who have not had microeconomics before or who need a refresher. Corequisite: A. Policy Analysis in Education. Major concepts associated with the development, enactment, and execution of educational policy.

Issues of policy implementation, agenda setting and problem formulation, politics, and intergovernmental relations. Case studies. Goal is to identify factors that affect how analysts and policy makers learn about and influence education. Limited enrollment. Resource Allocation in Education. This course covers economic principles and tools for informing resource allocation decisions in education. Students will review concepts related to educational goods and values; the costs and benefits of different levels and types of schooling; public versus private schooling; as well as adequacy and equity in education financing.

Students will also learn about the use of educational production functions, teacher value-added estimation, cost effectiveness analysis, experimental program evaluation, systematic reviews, and causal chain analysis. Prerequisites: introductory statistics and regression analysis. Language Issues in Educational Research and Practice. Provides the conceptual foundation for reasoning about language and linguistic groups as critical to making sound decisions in educational research and practice in a global economy and in multilingual societies.

Curating Experience: Representation in and beyond Museums. In this context, how do museums create experiences that teach visitors about who they are and about the world around them? What are the politics of representation that shape learning in these environments? Using an experimental instructional approach, students will reconsider and redefine what it means to curate experience. This course must be taken for a minimum of 3 units to satisfy a Ways requirement. Becoming Literate in School I. First in a three course sequence.

Instructional methods, formats, and materials. Becoming Literate in School II. Second in a three-course required sequence of reading and language arts theory and methodology for candidates in the STEP Elementary program. Theories for guiding instruction and curricular choices. Third in a three-course required sequence of reading and language arts theory and methodology for candidates in STEP Elementary Teacher program.

Literacy, History, and Social Science. How elementary school teachers can teach history and social science within a literacy framework. Topics include: historical thinking, reading, and writing; current research; applying nonfiction reading and writing strategies to historical texts; using primary sources with elementary students; adapting instruction to meet student needs; state standards; evaluating curriculum; assessing student knowledge; developing history and social science units; and embedding history and social science into the general literacy curriculum.

Learning Design and Technology Seminar. Four-quarter required seminar for the LDT master's program. Discussions and activities related to designing for learning with technology. Support for internships and Master's project. Theoretical and practical perspectives, hands-on development, and collaborative efforts. This course explores the design of tools for learning, leveraging scholarship and real-world projects to create prototypes of new digital learning tools.

Students will engage in design activities to come up with prototypes of new learning tools for community partners. Designing these tools will require project groups to gather and apply knowledge, evaluating options and synthesizing ideas in order to create an effective and elegant! A community-based Cardinal Course. This course will examine how people learn religion outside of school, and in conversation with popular cultural texts and practices. Taking a broad social-constructivist approach to the variety of ways people learn, this course will explore how people assemble ideas about faith, identity, community, and practice, and how those ideas inform individual, communal and global notions of religion.

Much of this work takes place in formal educational environments including missionary and parochial schools, Muslim madrasas or Jewish yeshivot. However, even more takes place outside of school, as people develop skills and strategies in conversation with broader social trends. This course takes an interdisciplinary approach to questions that lie at the intersection of religion, popular culture, and education.

Culture, Learning, and Poverty. This course examines the categories and methods used to analyze and explain educational inequalities in the United States from to present. Approaches to theories of school failure and methods of intervention are distinguished by their ideas on the play of learning, language, cognition, culture, and social class in human development.

Particular attention is given to the Culture of Poverty controversies of the s and their recent emergence. Counseling Theories and Interventions from a Multicultural Perspective. This course focuses upon the need to examine, conceptualize, and work with individuals according to the multiple ways in which they identify themselves.

It will systematically examine multicultural counseling concepts, issues, and research. Issues in consultation with culturally and linguistically diverse parents and students and work with migrant children and their families are but a few of the topics covered in this course. Adolescent Development and Mentoring in the Urban Context. Continution of A. Topics include: developmental psychology and service learning; collaborating with the community;psychological research on altruism and prosocial behavior; volunteers' motivations; attributions about poverty, and the problem of prejudice.

This course is a practicum in the design of technology-enabled curricula and hands-on learning environments. It focuses on the theories, concepts, and practices necessary to design effective, low-cost educational technologies that support learning in all contexts for a variety of diverse learners. We will explore theories and design frameworks from constructivist and constructionist learning perspectives, as well as the lenses of critical pedagogy, Universal Design for Learning UDL , and interaction design for children.

The course will concretize theories, concepts, and practices in weekly presentations including examples from industry experts with significant backgrounds and proven expertise in designing successful, evidence-based, educational technology products. Teacher Policies in Latin America. We will explore the complex, challenging and often troubled world of teacher policy in Latin America.

Education policy is an important instrument of change and the hope of many teachers and students. They affect the lives of many people and therefore their design, implementation and evaluation must have high academic and political rigor. The emphasis of this course is on the design and implementation of teacher policies in Latin America. We will focus on how to use empirical evidence to take into account the impact, feasibility and political complexities of designing and implementing teacher policy in LA.

Adolescent Development and Learning. How do adolescents develop their identities, manage their inner and outer worlds, and learn? Presuppositions: that fruitful instruction takes into account the developmental characteristics of learners and the task demands of specific curricula; and that teachers can promote learning and motivation by mediating among the characteristics of students, the curriculum, and the wider social context of the classroom.

Prerequisite: STEP student or consent of instructor. Race, Justice, and Integration. Recent philosophical research on injustice, race, and the ideal of racial integration. This course is designed with the belief that collecting information is a routine activity in which most researchers and educators are involved. Developing and improving instruments to gather information for descriptive, assessment, research, or evaluation purposes is a goal that unites all social sciences.

The course will focus on your personal journey to develop or judge an instrument on something that is important for you. Classroom Management and Leadership. Student and teacher roles in developing a classroom community. Strategies for classroom management within a theoretical framework. STEP secondary only. Building Classroom Communities. How to best manage a classroom.

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STEP elementary only. Skills for developing a positive classroom learning environment. Theoretical issues and opportunities to acquire strategies and make links with practice teaching class. Understanding Racial and Ethnic Identity Development. Theoretical perspectives on identity development will be reviewed, along with research on other social identity variables, such as social class, gender and regional identifications.

New areas within this field such as the complexity of multiracial identity status and intersectional invisibility will also be discussed. Though the class will be rooted in psychology and psychological models of identity formation, no prior exposure to psychology is assumed and other disciplines-including cultural studies, feminist studies, and literature-will be incorporated into the course materials. Preparation and practice in issues and strategies for teaching in classrooms with diverse students.

Topics: instruction, curricular planning, classroom interaction processes, portfolio development, teacher professionalism, patterns of school organization, teaching contexts, and government educational policy. Classroom observation and student teaching with accompanying seminars during each quarter of STEP year. Prerequisite: STEP student. Topics: guided observations, building classroom community, classroom interaction processes, topics in special education portfolio development, teacher professionalism, patterns of school organization, teaching contexts, and government educational policy.

Secondary Teaching Seminar. Elementary Teaching Seminar. Integrating theory and practice in teacher development. Moral and Character Education. Contemporary scholarship and educational practice related to the development of moral beliefs and conduct in young people. The psychology of moral development; major philosophical, sociological, and anthropological approaches. Topics include: natural capacities for moral awareness in the infant; peer and adult influences on moral growth during childhood and adolescence; extraordinary commitment during adulthood; cultural variation in moral judgment; feminist perspectives on morality; the education movement in today's schools; and contending theories concerning the goals of moral education.

Language, Literacy, and Culture. This field-based Cardinal Course will provide a unique opportunity to combine theory and practice in the study of language, literacy, and culture in educational settings. Stanford students will work directly with children enrolled in the Boys and Girls Club after-school program at a youth center in Redwood City.

What Do Students Really Know? The Risks of Modern Assessment. This course focuses on helping students to advance their knowledge about theory, design and research issues related to assessing student learning for accountability and learning purposes. The course explores assessment topics with a critical perspective in two contexts: large-scale and classroom assessment. The course will help students become critical test consumers, better-informed assessment evaluators, and advocator of reliable, valid and fair assessments for culturally and linguistically diverse populations.

Inquiry and Measurement in Education. Part of doctoral research core. The logic of scientific inquiry in education, including identification of research questions, selection of qualitative or quantitative research methods, design of research studies, measurement, and collection, analysis and interpretation of evidence. Multimodality and Literacy. How might differing modes of representation matter in the construction of meaning? Concepts of reliability and validity; derivation and use of test scales and norms; mathematical models and procedures for test validation, scoring, and interpretation.

Introduction to Test Theory - Lab. This course will cover the material from A in an applied setting. Emphasis will be in developing a capacity for applying and interpreting psychometrics techniques to real-world and simulated data. Inequality, Society, and Education. The course will be a graduate student seminar, with enrollment capped at Mission and Money in Education. Educational institutions are defined by their academic missions and their financial structures.

Increasingly, these options - and novel variations on them - exist throughout the education enterprise: in K schools, higher education, and ancillary service providers. In this course we will explore the relationships between academic goals and financial structures, with particular focus on management and decision making in educational organizations. Theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues pertaining to the psychological and educational resilience of children and adolescents.

Overview of the resilience framework, including current terminology and conceptual and measurement issues. Adaptive systems that enable some children to achieve successful adaptation despite high levels of adversity exposure. How resilience can be studied across multiple levels of analysis, ranging from cell to society. Individual, family, school, and community risk and protective factors that influence children's development and adaptation. Intervention programs designed to foster resilient adaptation in disadvantaged children's populations.

Literacy Development and Instruction. Literacy acquisition as a developmental and educational process. Problems that may be encountered as children learn to read. How to disentangle home, community, and school instruction from development. The fundamental phenomenon of interest in educational research is the growth in knowledge and skills of individual students. Two facts - that children's growth is typically the object of inquiry and that such growth occurs in organizational settings - correspond to two of the most troublesome and persistent methodological problems in the social sciences: the measurement of change and the assessment of multi-level effects also referred to as the unit of analysis problem.

Although these two methodological problems have distinct, long-standing, and non-overlapping literatures, these problems, in fact, share a common cause - the inadequacy of traditional statistical techniques for the modeling of hierarchy. Critical examination of statistical methods in social science and life sciences applications, especially for cause and effect determinations.

Topics: mediating and moderating variables, potential outcomes framework, encouragement designs, multilevel models, heterogeneous treatment effects, matching and propensity score methods, analysis of covariance, instrumental variables, compliance, path analysis and graphical models, group comparisons with longitudinal data. Prerequisite: intermediate-level statistical methods. Advanced Statistical Methods for Observational Studies. Design principles and statistical methods for observational studies. Topics include: matching methods, sensitivity analysis, and instrumental variables.

Computing is in R. Computational Thinking Elective. The course approaches computational thinking through the lens of teaching for social justice. Students will be introduced to the content knowledge and the emerging pedagogical content knowledge of computational thinking. We will examine how and why teachers and schools can support students engagement with computational thinking practices through interdisciplinary means. Students will develop a foundation for using these practices in core subject areas with an emphasis on pedagogy.

As a STEP elective, participants must have theoretical and experiential background in teaching diverse students in k Curriculum and Instruction in English. Approaches to teaching English in the secondary school, including goals for instruction, teaching techniques, and methods of evaluation. Methodology of science instruction: teaching for English and language arts; linking the goals of teaching English with interdisciplinary curricula; opportunities to develop teaching materials.

Curriculum and Instruction in Mathematics. The purposes and programs of mathematics in the secondary curriculum; teaching materials, methods. STEP A.

Carrier CCN

Sum, B. Aut, C. Methodology of math instruction: teaching for mathematical thinking and reasoning; linking the goals of teaching math with literacy and interdisciplinary curricula; opportunities to develop teaching materials. Quantitative Reasoning in Mathematics I. First of a three-course sequence in mathematics for STEP elementary teacher candidates. Content, pedagogy, and context. Mathematics subject matter; the orchestration of teaching and learning of elementary mathematics including curriculum, classroom and lesson design, and cases studies.

Quantitative Reasoning in Mathematics II. Second of a three-course sequence in mathematics for STEP elementary teacher candidates. Third of a three-course sequence in mathematics for STEP elementary teacher candidates. Curriculum and Instruction in World Languages. Approaches to teaching foreign languages in the secondary school, including goals for instruction, teaching techniques, and methods of evaluation. Methods and Materials in Bilingual Classrooms. Theories, research, and methods related to instruction of Spanish-English bilingual children, grades K Approaches to dual language instruction, and pedagogical and curricular strategies for the instruction of reading, language arts, science, history, social science, and math in Spanish.

Assessment issues and practices with bilingual students. In Spanish. An introduction to the growing intersection between education research and emerging research on functional brain development. Students will probe the contributions and limitations of emerging theoretical and empirical contribution of neuroscience approaches to specific academic skills such as reading and mathematics, as well as exposure to general processes crucial for educational success, including motivation, attention, and social cognition.

Final projects will explore these themes in the service of interventions designed to improve how these functions. Curriculum and Instruction in Science. Possible objectives of secondary science teaching and related methods: selection and organization of content and instructional materials; lab and demonstration techniques; evaluation, tests; curricular changes; ties with other subject areas. Methodology of science instruction: teaching for scientific reasoning; linking the goals of teaching science with literacy and interdisciplinary curricula; opportunities to develop teaching materials.

Development of Scientific Reasoning and Knowledge. For STEP elementary teacher candidates. Theories and methods of teaching and learning science. How to develop curricula and criteria for critiquing curricula. Students design a science curriculum plan for a real setting. State and national science frameworks and content standards. Alternative teaching approaches; how to select approaches that are compatible with learner experience and lesson objectives. Focus is on the linguistic and cultural diversity of California public school students.

Continuation of E. Scientific knowledge and pedagogical skills for supporting science instruction. Topics include: how children build scientific understandings and what that understanding might look and sound like in young children; what school science is and how concepts are connected to the doing of it; physical, life, and earth science constructs.

Integrating the Garden into the Elementary Curriculum. This mini-course uses the garden and kitchen environments to provide teacher candidates with real-world contexts in which to explore some of the key issues that children face in health, nutrition, and sustainability. Teacher candidates will gain an understanding of how to integrate the various themes with content areas and standards and an appreciation for the importance of addressing children's health needs in an era when the country is facing increased obesity and other health problems.

Curriculum and Instruction in History and Social Science. The methodology of history instruction: teaching for historical thinking and reasoning; linking the goals of teaching history with literacy; curriculum trends; and opportunities to develop teaching and resource units. The methodology of history instruction: teaching for historical thinking and reasoning; linking the goals of teaching history with literacy and interdisciplinary curricula; opportunities to develop teaching materials. Elementary History and Social Science. Teaching and learning history and social science in the elementary grades.

What is included in the discipline and why it is important to teach. The development of historical thinking among children. How students learn and understand content in these disciplines. Goal is to prepare for the ethical problems teachers confront in their professional lives. Skills of ethical reasoning, familiarity with ethical concepts, and how to apply these skills and concepts in the analysis of case studies.

Topics: ethical responsibility in teaching, freedom of speech and academic freedom, equality and difference, indoctrination, and the teaching of values. Education Policy in the United States. The course will cover topics including a school finance systems; b an overview of policies defining and shaping the sectors and institutional forms of schooling, c an overview of school governance, d educational human-resource policy, e school accountability policies at the federal and state levels; and f school assignment policies and law, including intra- and inter-district choice policies, desegregation law and policy.

This seminar will explore a variety of approaches to measuring teacher effectiveness using student performance on state standardized tests. We will read the recent research literature on value-added estimation, addressing issues such as bias and measurement error. We also will use administrative data from two large districts to create and compare multiple value-added measures. The class assumes a comfort with OLS regression and basic programming in Stata.

Is school choice, including vouchers, charter schools, contract schools, magnet schools, district options, and virtual schools, a threat or an opportunity for public education? Focus is on the charter school movement nationally and in California as reform strategy. Roles and responsibilities of charter schools emphasizing issues of governance, finance, curriculum, standards, and accountability. The landscape of schooling in the U. Organizational theory, leadership theory, and empirical research are lenses through which students will develop a deeper and broader understanding of the similarities and differences among private schools, parochial schools, traditional K schools, charter schools, and alternative schools.

Students will connect theory and research to practice by visiting and learning about two or more schools of their choosing. This course focuses on helping students to advance their knowledge about theory, design, and research issues related to assessing student learning in the classroom context. Students in this course will develop the basic conceptual and technical knowledge about assessment development and evaluation in the context of instructional units. Education of Immigrant Students: Psychological Perspectives. Historical and contemporary approaches to educating immigrant students.

Case study approach focuses on urban centers to demonstrate how stressed urban educational agencies serve immigrants and native-born U. Introduction to Issues in Evaluation. Open to master's and doctoral students with priority to students in the School of Education. Focus is on the basic literature and major theoretical and practical issues in the field of program evaluation. Topics include: defining purpose, obtaining credible evidence, the role of the evaluator, working with stakeholder, values in evaluation, utilization, and professional standards.

The course project is to design an evaluation for a complex national or international program selected by the instructor.