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Is this page useful? Maybe Yes this page is useful No this page is not useful Is there anything wrong with this page? The raw brine is treated with sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide to precipitate calcium and magnesium. The reactions are often carried out in a series of reactors before the treated brine is sent to a large clarifier where the calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide are settled out.
A floculating agent may be added just prior to the clarifier to improve settling. The decanted brine is then mechanically filtered using sand filters or leaf filters before entering a series of ion exchangers to further remove impurities. At several points in this process the brine is tested for hardness and strength. After the ion exchangers, the brine is considered pure, and is transferred to storage tanks to be pumped into the cell room.
The pure brine is heated to the correct temperature to control exit brine temperatures according to the electrical load. Brine exiting the cell room must be treated to remove residual chlorine and control pH levels before being returned to the saturation stage. This can be accomplished via dechlorination towers with acid and sodium bisulfite addition. Failure to remove chlorine can result in damage to the ion exchange units.
Brine should be monitored for accumulation of both chlorate anions and sulfate anions , and either have a treatment system in place, or purging of the brine loop to maintain safe levels, since chlorate anions can diffuse through the membranes and contaminate the caustic, while sulfate anions can damage the anode surface coating. The building that houses the many electrolytic cells is usually called a cell room or cell house, although some plants are built outdoors.
This building contains support structures for the cells, connections for supplying electrical power to the cells and piping for the fluids. Monitoring and control of the temperatures of the feed caustic and brine is done to control exit temperatures. Also monitored are the voltages of each cell which vary with the electrical load on the cell room that is used to control the rate of production. Monitoring and control of the pressures in the chlorine and hydrogen headers is also done via pressure control valves.
Direct current is supplied via a rectified power source. Plant load is controlled by varying the current to the cells. As the current is increased, flow rates for brine and caustic and deionized water are increased, while lowering the feed temperatures. Cooling the gas allows for a large amount of moisture from the brine to condense out of the gas stream. Cooling also improves the efficiency of both the compression and the liquefaction stage that follows.
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After cooling the gas stream passes through a series of towers with counter flowing sulfuric acid. These towers progressively remove any remaining moisture from the chlorine gas.
After exiting the drying towers the chlorine is filtered to remove any remaining sulfuric acid. Several methods of compression may be used: liquid ring , reciprocating , or centrifugal. The chlorine gas is compressed at this stage and may be further cooled by inter- and after-coolers. After compression it flows to the liquefiers, where it is cooled enough to liquefy. Non condensible gases and remaining chlorine gas are vented off as part of the pressure control of the liquefaction systems.
These gases are routed to a gas scrubber, producing sodium hypochlorite , or used in the production of hydrochloric acid by combustion with hydrogen or ethylene dichloride by reaction with ethylene. Liquid chlorine is typically gravity-fed to storage tanks. It can be loaded into rail or road tankers via pumps or padded with compressed dry gas. Caustic, fed to the cell room flows in a loop that is simultaneously bled off to storage with a part diluted with deionized water and returned to the cell line for strengthening within the cells.
The caustic exiting the cell line must be monitored for strength, to maintain safe concentrations.