This appears to have been based on the names listed in the Roll of honour , minus the post-August names and with a few other minor revisions. Taking the number of personnel as 98,, and the 16, who died between and as the most historically rather than administratively meaningful figure, then Twelve nurses died during the war, including 10 who drowned because of the sinking of the Marquette in Calculating death figures for any campaign or battle is a complex and sometimes fraught exercise, and the figures tend to be only as good as the most recent in-depth research into them.
The source material is often patchy and inconsistent, and needs searching interrogation to be properly understood.
Collecting data on the battlefield was a piecemeal and difficult process, and casualties were sometimes reported a week or more after the fighting had taken place. Men reported as missing or captured were later located or reclassified as dead, further complicating the collection of accurate data. Identifying the number who perished on the Somme, say, will depend both on the accuracy of the figures collected at the time and the dates at which you start and stop counting. Others died months and even years later, and attributing each death to a specific battle or phase of combat would be a major exercise in statistical forensics.
These complexities make it necessary to set some limits on the span of a specific campaign or battle. The figures for the Gallipoli campaign and the three major Western Front offensives involving New Zealand forces listed below are based on a estimates by the official medical historian Lieutenant-Colonel A. Carbery in derived from official casualty returns, b later revisions of those figures by subject experts, and c death statistics gleaned from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission database.
A more recent individual analysis of the Gallipoli dead by historian Richard Stowers identifies New Zealand deaths during the campaign. Carbery estimated in that there were NZEF casualties killed, wounded and missing as a result of the Somme campaign between 1 September and 7 October though the artillery remained in the field until 27 October. Of these, were killed, wounded and missing. Historian Andrew Macdonald puts the total casualty figure at , comprising dead and wounded between 31 August and 25 October The Commonwealth War Graves Commission database lists the deaths of New Zealand service personnel in Belgium between those dates, and in France between 8 June — when wounded men were first evacuated there — and 13 June.
This total of will include a few men who died of illness and from injuries unrelated to the Messines offensive. The Messines data awaits in-depth analysis and refinement. Carbery quotes a total casualty number of for October the month of the Broodseinde and Passchendaele offensives during the Third Battle of Ypres , during which men were killed or died of wounds, were reported missing and were wounded.
His death figure is based on the number of New Zealand soldiers who died in Belgium during October , according to the Commonwealth War Graves database. Gallipoli claimed lives As noted above, New Zealanders serving in other British Empire and Allied forces should be counted separately from the NZEF on the rare occasions when figures are available. They are not included in the published Roll of honour , which lists only men who served in the NZEF, but were added to the National War Memorial roll of honour in —4, apparently as a way to retrospectively insert a New Zealand naval presence into the First World War roll.
The CWGC database lists these men as members of a number of different — and mostly non-existent — naval forces. Researcher Errol W. Martyn has traced the history of New Zealanders who served in the various imperial and dominion air forces during the First World War. The broader question of how many New Zealand soldiers were incapacitated by war-related illness or injury is therefore difficult to calculate with certainty.
Between January and November the NZEF sent back to New Zealand 25, men, of whom subsequently returned to active service, leaving a net total of 24, A small proportion of these men had returned on long-service leave, but most were suffering from various medical conditions. This is probably a useful indication of how many men were incapacitated — to a greater or lesser degree — by injuries or illness sustained on military service, though more incapacitated men returned to New Zealand during the period of demobilisation after November Provision and maintenance records that New Zealand service personnel were taken prisoner, though this figure appears to count only those who survived to return to New Zealand.
Kitty's war. Title: List of New Zealand troopships, —19 pdf, 17mbs. The year of the beast. Zero hour : the Anzacs on the Western Front. Anzac to Amiens.
The number of men who enlisted for Home Service in New Zealand in and They served in a variety of civilian roles in the training camps, coastal forts, Defence offices and elsewhere. Provision and maintenance does not explain how this figure relates to its figures of 99,, , or , Provision and maintenance figure for total men called up and sent into camp between and ,, including men who died in camp or were discharged for any reason before the end of training , plus men involved in home service Provision and maintenance disaggregates this into 91, volunteers and 32, conscripts, without explaining where the Home Service men fit in.
A significant proportion of this group never saw active service. The Defence Department figure from January submitted to the British publication Statistics of the military effort of the British Empire during the Great War — p. Provision and maintenance figure for NZEF personnel who died between 5 August and 12 November excluding those who died in camp in New Zealand — superseded by the January figure, 16, The current official First World War New Zealand roll of honour figure, comprising 18, personnel who died during the war and up to 31 August , both overseas and at home, and six individuals added retrospectively.
The Roll of honour figure, which includes those killed in action before 12 November , NZEF personnel who died between that date and 31 December , discharged NZEF personnel who died up to 31 December , and recruits who died while training in New Zealand between and An oft-quoted figure for total New Zealand deaths, probably first published in A.
No statistical foundation can be traced for this figure, but it may be an attempt to add deaths in other forces to the NZEF figure.
I had my right arm under a leg, which I thought was [the patient's], but when I lifted it I found to my horror that it was a loose leg with a boot and a puttee on it. The Other Anzacs by Peter Rees, , available at Book Depository with free The Other Anzacs: Nurses at war,
Individuals appear multiple times in the list, which should be read as the total incidence of death, hospitalisation, going missing, and being taken prisoner rather than as a total of individual people. Superseded by a figure of 58, in January Title: The Great War, — Roll of honour pdf, mbs.
The official New Zealand Roll of honour was published in , once the final casualty lists had been compiled and the Defence Department records updated. Copies were supplied to foreign governments and distributed to New Zealand politicians and military figures, but most of the print run of was offered for sale to the public. Title: Record of personal services during the war by John Studholme pdf, mbs. Lieutenant-Colonel John Studholme compiled his Record of personal services in the years following the war, as a companion volume to the four official war histories published by the government from The bulk of the book documents the careers of individual officers and the honours awarded to New Zealand personnel, but it also includes much useful information about how the NZEF operated.
John Studholme — was a landowner who commanded the Ashburton and South Canterbury Mounted Rifles before the war. Title: List of New Zealand troopships, —19 pdf, 17mbs. It does not include troop movements to or from Samoa after the Advance Party. These lists complement the official embarkation lists, on which the names of every individual aboard each ship appear. Title: Report on conscription, —18 pdf, 38mbs. Director of Recruiting D. Cossgrove wrote this assessment of recruiting under conscription in March It includes a detailed overview of how the scheme operated, recruiting circulars explaining the day-to-day workings of the system, and some useful statistics.
Title: Graph of soldiers returning to New Zealand, — Title: Monthly returns of soldiers disembarking in New Zealand, —19 graph. Government Statistician Malcolm Fraser compiled this potted history of the wartime conscription process from the perspective of those responsible for administering it. It provides many useful clues to how the process was undertaken, and is a useful counterpoint to the Defence Department perspective provided by the Cossgrove report. It includes a table of figures outlining the number of men called up in each ballot, though it omits the men called up in the 23 rd ballot in October Turner, Under-Secretary of Defence, to J.
Crawford and I. Allen to H. Andrews to the Defence Expenditure Commission, 15 February , pp. This total is markedly lower than the official population estimate for 31 December , 1,,, published in the Official year-book p. Carbery to G. More recently, Ian McGibbon has made the case for it being Skip to main content. Cynicism toward the ruling classes and disgust with war planners and profiteers led to demands for art forms that were honest and direct, less embroidered with rhetoric and euphemism.
We caught a bus at 2. The first check point was bus registration. We queued for 2 hours in a line of buses for this. The bus was given a number and we were all given tags with the same number- so we could ID our bus at the other end. The next check point was for the people on the bus. Another hour of queuing. We all had to show our ballot passes and passports and were each given a wrist band, different ones for Aussies and Kiwis. Next we queued, again, for the disembarkation point.
We got off the bus and queued for security screening into a holding park where there was, finally, hot food and drinks and toilets. We ended up getting there at 1. The place seemed packed and only half the attendees were there at this stage. Eventually everyone had to stand for the last couple of hours to fit everyone in. There was an entertainment programme through the night with music, singing and documentaries. As dawn approached the lights went off and everyone went quiet in anticipation of the ceremony starting.
It was very moving occasion, much like the ceremonies at home but with the hills behind lit up to visually emphasise the feat achieved. So we had a leisurely walk through the battlefields and cemeteries, using the Nga Tapuwae app as a guide and seeking out the Kiwi points of interest.
Near Lone Pine. Turkish trenches just on other side of the road. The road is no-mans land where bodies piled up for weeks before a cease fire was agreed upon to collect and bury the dead. While we spent time looking for the Kiwi and Wellington graves, the reality is that the brutality of the fighting means there were few bodies to bury and it was difficult to identify remains with precision.
Most of the dead are named on memorials and interred in mass graves under our feet.
Many others are still unaccounted for and the battle fields are open graveyards — we found some bones and pieces of skull underfoot as we wandered around, which was thought-provoking. The NZ ceremony at Chunuk Bair was moving as it was especially significant for kiwis with waiata and speeches made with a focus on the kiwi efforts and achievements. Before and after the Chunuk Bair ceremony we were entertained by the NZ Youth Ambassadors singing kiwi classics with the crowd of heartily singing along to keep warm and awake we were well into our second period of 24 hours with no sleep at this stage, but spirits were high.
We then had to wait for our buses to collect us. They were going to Lone Pine first to pick up the Aussies from their ceremony before collecting us. The bus numbers were slowly being called out but with around buses involved it was going to be a long wait. In the end we waited 5 hours for our bus to arrive, which gave us time the reflect on history and the day, and chat to fellows Kiwis. Our bus arrived at 8pm and whisked us off to a restaurant for a hot meal before the drive back to Istanbul.
We arrived at 2am on Sunday 26th — 38 hours after leaving on the 24th and having been awake for 44 hours. We were exhausted but completely moved by what we had seen, learned and experienced. Previous post in the series: Adrienne blogged about her library-related preparations to go to Turkey. Hi everyone! I was fortunate to receive a double pass to the event as part of the Government-run ballot system.
Not only am I a librarian, I also serve as a Medic in the New Zealand Army Reserve and have a history of military service amongst my family, so the event will have special meaning for me.
My first step was to do a little bit of research into my family history. Ancestry Library access from library computers only was my first stop as it gives me access to records of family members — births, deaths, marriages, immigration, military service, employment and more.
Next I searched the catalogue to locate books about the Gallipoli battles. There are also books that portray the Turkish perspective of the battle and it occurred to me that it seems incredible that they let us arrive in our droves each year to celebrate the day we invaded their country. It just goes to show the mutual respect the countries involved have for each other.
You can find these books in the s section in the Central Library. I found guides for Turkey as a whole , but also separately for Istanbul. These have been extremely helpful in planning my trip and making bookings. Travel guides are expensive to purchase, so it was great to use the library ones for planning and to see which guides I liked the best before buying one to take with me.
I also browsed through some language guides which can be found in the s , so I could attempt to wrap my tongue around the Turkish language. Lastly, I had 24hrs of flying to get there, and will have another 24hrs to get back, and many hours sitting on buses in between. For the past year, in the lead up to the Centenary of the Gallipoli landings, Wellington City librarians have been producing a series of contributions highlighting various aspects of our collection where you can find resources related to this major historical event.
Come to the Central Library and discover her fascinating story. For more resources on WW1, browse our series at www. Since our troops landed there on 25 April , Gallipoli has been a destination of great significance for New Zealanders of all ages. The trek to Gallipoli is even more meaningful this year, as we mark the centenary of those landings. And for all Kiwis it will be a time to reflect on what the bitter Gallipoli campaign meant for our developing identity as a nation.
For many of those gathering at the commemorative site, it will also be a deeply personal experience. As we camp out under the stars on the eve of the Dawn Service, we will be thinking of relatives who fought at the Dardanelles — like my great-uncle Jack, of the 16th Waikato Company, 2nd Battalion, Auckland Infantry Regiment, who took part in the landing on 25 April Graves or memorials to most of the approximately New Zealanders who died at Gallipoli are in 24 cemeteries dotted around the peninsula.
Besides attending the Dawn Service, some visitors will have time to explore the significant cemeteries, battlefields and other sites. Many of the travel guides like those published by Lonely Planet have basic information about places of historical importance on the peninsula, but the library also has several more detailed guidebooks. This practical guide book enables them to plan their trip, work out what to see and in what order, and gives the historical background to the major battles.
It gives all the necessary information — both practical and historical — to appreciate what happened, and where. Detailed tours both walking and with transport are described, and accompanied by specially drawn maps. Traumatic details of WWI battle injuries; unbelievable courage and endurance of Australian and NZ nurses; shameful lack of Government recognition of their dedication on return to Australia; deep appreciation by soldier patients. Excellent account of how Australian and New Zealand nurses faced the overwhleming ordeal of caring for wounded soldiers in world war I.
The Other Anzacs : Nurses at War Peter Rees. It was one of the orderly's legs which had been blown off and had landed on the patient's bed. The next day they found the trunk about 20 yards away. These were women who left for war on an adventure, but were soon confronted with remarkable challenges for which their civilian lives could never have prepared them.