Monetary Theory: National and International

Monetary Theory
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source According to MMT, bank credit should be regarded as a "leverage" of the monetary base and should not be regarded as increasing the net financial assets held by an economy: only the government or central bank is able to issue high-powered money with no corresponding liability. MMT proponents such as Warren Mosler argue that trade deficits need not be unsustainable and are beneficial to the standard of living in the short run. Exports, on the other hand, are an economic cost to the exporting nation because it is losing real goods that it could have consumed.

Cheap imports may also cause the failure of local firms providing similar goods at higher prices, and hence unemployment but MMT commentators label that consideration as a subjective value-based one, rather than an economic-based one: it is up to a nation to decide whether it values the benefit of cheaper imports more than it values employment in a particular industry.

MMT argues that as long as there is a demand for the issuer's currency, whether the bond holder is foreign or not, governments can never be insolvent when the debt obligations are in their own currency; this is because the government is not constrained in creating its own currency although the bond holder may affect the exchange rate by converting to local currency. MMT does agree with mainstream economics, that debt denominated in a foreign currency certainly is a fiscal risk to governments, since the indebted government cannot create foreign currency.

In this case the only way the government can sustainably repay its foreign debt is to ensure that its currency is continually in high demand by foreigners over the period that it wishes to repay the debt — an exchange rate collapse would potentially multiply the debt many times over asymptotically, making it impossible to repay.

In that case, the government can default, or attempt to shift to an export-led strategy or raise interest rates to attract foreign investment in the currency. Either one has a negative effect on the economy. Economist John T. Harvey explained several of the premises of MMT and their policy implications in March MMT claims that the word "borrowing" is a misnomer when it comes to a sovereign government's fiscal operations, because what the government is doing is accepting back its own IOUs , and nobody can borrow back their own debt instruments.

In this theory, sovereign government is not financially constrained in its ability to spend; it is argued that the government can afford to buy anything that is for sale in currency that it issues there may be political constraints, like a debt ceiling law. The only constraint is that excessive spending by any sector of the economy whether households, firms, or public could cause inflationary pressures.

MMT economists advocate a government-funded job guarantee scheme to eliminate involuntary unemployment.

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Proponents argue that this can be consistent with price stability as it targets unemployment directly rather than attempting to increase private sector job creation indirectly through a much larger economic stimulus, and maintains a "buffer stock" of labor that can readily switch to the private sector when jobs become available. A job guarantee program could also be considered an automatic stabilizer to the economy, expanding when private sector activity cools down and shrinking in size when private sector activity heats up.

MMT can be compared and contrasted with mainstream Keynesian economics in a variety of ways: [4] [6] [7]. A survey of leading economists by the University of Chicago Booth 's Initiative on Global Markets showed a unanimous rejection of assertions attributed to modern monetary theory in the survey: "Countries that borrow in their own currency should not worry about government deficits because they can always create money to finance their debt.

Black said "MMT scholars do not make or support either claim. The post-Keynesian economist Thomas Palley argues that MMT is largely a restatement of elementary Keynesian economics , but prone to "over-simplistic analysis" and understating the risks of its policy implications. He argues that these insights are well captured by standard Keynesian stock-flow consistent IS-LM models , and have been well understood by Keynesian economists for decades. He also criticizes MMT for "assum[ing] away the problem of fiscal—monetary conflict" [68] — that is, that the governmental body that creates the spending budget e.

Congress may refuse to cooperate with the governmental body that controls the money supply e. He also argues that MMT lacks a plausible theory of inflation , particularly in the context of full employment in the employer of last resort policy first proposed by Hyman Minsky and advocated by Bill Mitchell and other MMT theorists; of a lack of appreciation of the financial instability that could be caused by permanently zero interest rates; and of overstating the importance of government created money. Palley concludes that MMT provides no new insights about monetary theory, while making unsubstantiated claims about macroeconomic policy, and that MMT has only received attention recently due to it being a "policy polemic for depressed times.

Marc Lavoie argues that whilst the neochartalist argument is "essentially correct", many of its counter-intuitive claims depend on a "confusing" and "fictitious" consolidation of government and central banking operations [13] — again what Palley calls "the problem of fiscal—monetary conflict. New Keynesian economist and Nobel laureate Paul Krugman argues that MMT goes too far in its support for government budget deficits and ignores the inflationary implications of maintaining budget deficits when the economy is growing.

The chartalist view of money itself, and the MMT emphasis on the importance of taxes in driving money, is also a source of criticism. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The lead section of this article may need to be rewritten. The reason given is: Does not adequately cover the topic. Conflates policy proposals of advocates with the theory itself. Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. Use the lead layout guide to ensure the section follows Wikipedia's norms and to be inclusive of all essential details. May Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Basic concepts. Fiscal Monetary Commercial Central bank. Related fields. Econometrics Economic statistics Monetary economics Development economics International economics. Edward C. Sargent Paul Krugman N.

The Basics of Modern Money

Gregory Mankiw. See also. Macroeconomic model Publications in macroeconomics Economics Applied Microeconomics Political economy Mathematical economics. Percent change in U. Further information: Sectoral balances. Further information: Monetary circuit theory. Randall FT Alphaville. The Financial Times Ltd. Retrieved 27 April The Banking Law Journal.

May The American Economic Review. The Economist. Retrieved 12 March Retrieved 27 March Retrieved 28 July ABC News.

Retrieved 14 May Monetary Policy and Financial Markets. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. April Retrieved 16 June Randall Wray: Sovereign government really can't borrow, because what it is doing is accepting back its own IOUs. If you have given your IOU to your neighbour because you borrowed some sugar, could you borrow it back?

No, you can't borrow back your own IOUs". Retrieved 15 March Business Insider.

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Retrieved 19 March The New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 March Retrieved 17 July Murphy 9 May Ludwig von Mises Institute. Innes, A. Mitchell , "What is Money? Good Alternative Theory? Introduction to modern as of Chartalism. Wray, L. Neoclassical economics Neo-Keynesian economics Saltwater and freshwater economics Stockholm school Supply-side economics. Monetarism New classical macroeconomics New Keynesian economics. Economic theory Political economy Applied economics. Economic model Economic systems Microfoundations Mathematical economics Econometrics Computational economics Experimental economics Publications.

Schools history of economic thought. Notable economists and thinkers within economics. Categories : Modern monetary theory Schools of economic thought Post-Keynesian economics Macroeconomic theories Ideologies of capitalism Political terminology.

International Monetary Theory & Policy | The Fletcher School

Hidden categories: Use dmy dates from June Wikipedia introduction cleanup from May All pages needing cleanup Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from May All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify Articles with short description Pages incorrectly using the quote template. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. MMT's conception of money parallels Knapp's hypothesis that money is a "creature of law" rather than a commodity which independently sprang up in a market.

As per Knapp, money is what the State decrees as money. More specifically, only that commodity or token can serve as money which the State accepts in settlement of taxes this approach to money is called the "Chartalist" approach.

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Monetary Theory: National and International [Alvaro Cencini] on * FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Traditional approaches to monetary. the exchange rate by converting to local currency). that debt denominated in a foreign currency certainly is a.

The Chartalist notion of money is different from the "Metalist" approach which links the value of money to a precious metal or to it being scarce. The Metalist view says that money originated independently as that commodity which served as a common medium of exchange, like precious metals, irrespective of any State decree.

Under Knapp's "state theory of money", it is not required that money should be converted into a precious commodity.

What is Modern Monetary Theory?

This is because as a "creature of law", the decree of the State is sufficient to ensure that any token which the State declares as money will act as the predominant medium of exchange. As the State is central to the creation of a monetary system, the State is also responsible for taking full cognizance of its discretionary powers over money supply to ensure full employment.

If this entails printing currency for State expenditure to ensure full employment, so be it. This ties closely with Abba Lerner's doctrine of "Functional Finance"- the forerunner to the contemporary MMT thought, which we examine next. Abba Lerner, a Russian born British economist, in his popular paper titled 'Finance and the Federal Debt' suggested that since the State does not have any constraints on currency issuance, fiscal policy should be evaluated only by what effects it has on the economy and not by pre-conceived notions of sound finance.

Thus, the only criteria for evaluating fiscal policy is the function that it plays in promoting employment and income. Lerner's functional approach to finance, flowing from the "state theory of money" was premised on the fact that a government which issues debt in its own currency can never go bankrupt and has full discretion on printing currency. Lerner wrote that "Functional Finance rejects completely the traditional doctrines of 'sound finance' and the principle of trying to balance the budget over a solar year or any other arbitrary period.

Lerner sought to take the idea of fiscal deficit further from where Keynes left it.

When good economics loses its way

Keynes opened the window for the government to actively use fiscal policy for the management of aggregate demand. During the Great Depression of the s, the prolonged economic slowdown provided Keynes with the impetus to challenge the classical economics bedrock of balanced budgets and he actively advocated for the use of fiscal policy to manage aggregate demand. Lerner felt that the right lessons were not learnt from Keynes' breakthrough. Even after the popularity of Keynes' ideas, the argument remained that "the government merely had to get things going and then the economy could go on by itself.

Thus, deficits were only to be run during recessions or depressions, and in normal times, the government should balance its budget or run fiscal surpluses. Lerner countered this in his famous "steering wheel" hypothesis which stated that the control of the steering wheel for the economy should permanently rest with the State. Also Read: US adds India to its monitoring list for currency practices. In his Functional Finance paper published in , Lerner emphasized that "there is no reason for supposing that the spending and taxation policy which maintains full employment and prevents inflation must necessarily balance the budget.

Also, as long as the public is willing to lend to the State, there is no threat of a burgeoning national debt, irrespective of "how many zeros are added to the national debt. Echoing Lerner's functional finance approach, Minsky wrote that "in developed Western economies, the national debt is unique among all income-earning assets, for there is no default risk attached to this asset.

It is important to note how similar the contemporary MMT thought is to the doctrine of Functional Finance. In fact, most commentators hark back to Lerner's work while discussing MMT. Paul Krugman, the Nobel Prize winning economist, writes that "MMT seems to be pretty much the same thing as Abba Lerner's "functional finance" doctrine from ". Kelton says that MMTers, like herself, have "rediscovered old ideas and assembled them into a complete macroeconomic frame.

It is easy to see why the idea of Functional Finance was popular in the first half of the twentieth century. The Great Depression of the s was the perfect stage for the Keynesian revolution, and from Keynes, moving on to Lerner was only a jump. The s witnessed the Second World War and the only way that the government could meet war expenses without resorting to high taxation and borrowing was by printing money.

The popularity of Functional Finance in that era can be gauged from the fact that the Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Beardsley Ruml said in that raising "taxes for revenue are obsolete". The abandonment of the Gold Standard by revoking domestic convertibility of dollar to gold in by Roosevelt set the stage for the ascendancy of Functional Finance. In , Nixon scrapped the convertibility of dollar for international payments as well, sounding the final death knell of the Gold Standard. The breaking of the link between the dollar and gold marked an important step in the evolution of Functional Finance and removed an important constraint on printing currency for financing government expenditure.

Knapp's foresight that money does not need the backing of a precious metal proved prophetic. The post-war world had fully moved towards a paper-based "fiat" currency system. As described by L. Randall Wray, the development of a non-convertible paper currency system "came nearly three-quarters of a century after Knapp's book was first published , he had recognized that the money of a state does not derive its value from metal, and indeed, that no metal is needed domestically. Once the State is free from convertibility of its issued currency to a precious metal, its spending is not constrained by either the stock of precious metals or taxes.

Thus, as dictated by MMT, why should the fiscal policy be bound by notions of sound finance or a balanced budget when the State can never run out of money or default? During the s and up to the mids, Functional Finance was humming on smoothly. Post-war reconstruction required an expansive fiscal policy which the Federal Reserve was willing to accommodate. The relationship between the Federal Reserve and the governments of Eisenhower and Kennedy was amicable. As inflation was calm, the Federal Reserve was willing to keep a loose monetary policy even though the government was pump priming the economy.

Things changed in with the government of Lyndon Johnson. The Johnson administration believed that "allowing a modest amount of inflation to reach low unemployment was not risky; as long as the economy had not reached full employment, it would have enough slack to keep wage pressures in check. And if inflation did emerge, they believed fiscal policy, rather than the Fed, was the most effective tool to manage it.

The views of the Federal Reserve had however changed due to its anticipation of rising inflationary pressures in the economy. From this point onwards, things went on a downhill. The co-ordination between the monetary and fiscal policy broke down. In , inflation in the US hit an eighteen year high of 5.

Martin's term was set to end in January , and he did not expect it to be renewed given the election of Richard Nixon.