The bayonet supplied was the Enfield triangular pattern, This single fire rifle, used a paper cartridge with a 0,45 inch 1,13 cm lead bullet at the tip and a felt wad behind. The black powder fouled the barrel and the breechblock lever and rapid fire was thus hindered and slowed down. Some of the Natal Native Contingent still had the early muzzle-loading, percussion Enfields, using black powder, wad, and lead bullet rammed down the muzzle with the ramrod.
Rate of fire was slow. Others had the modified Enfield muzzle loader, in which the Snider breechblock was inserted. This unsatisfactory compromise weapon, was the first British breechloading, fixed cartridge Boxer , centre-fire rifle. Rate of fire was relatively slow. Fortunately the Zulus were bad shots. What went wrong? The camp was widely spread out and concentrated firepower behind a fixed defence was not employed. The 1 men, in 10 separate units were thinly spread on the ground for a distance of about one mile or 1 yards 1 in.
They fell into two ranks, one behind the other, but the line was ragged with gaps between, allowing the enemy to rush through and attack the defenders from the rear. This especially occurred when the Natal Native Contingent early in the battle broke and fled, leaving a gap in the defence line, yards m wide. Furthermore any concentrated firepower of the main force was drastically reduced and thus weakened by the absence of a large body of men who had left the camp.
Firstly, some with the Commanding General, Lord Chelmsford; secondly Major Dartnell with his mounted troops, and thirdly Colonel Durnford with his dismounted native horsemen, who were isolated away from the main force in a donga, where he halted and held-up the Zulu left horn, until eventually, when his ammunition ran out he had to vacate his strongpoint and retreat to the saddle. He made his second stand here, but being surrounded was overwhelmed and died fighting. At the second alarm the men were at lunch. Tumbling out of their tents, they only had on their belts with 40 rounds in the pouches, a few brought their haversacks which had two extra packets of cartridges and some did not wear the pouch which contained the loose ten rounds.
Most of the men only had 40 to 50 rounds on their persons, when in fact each soldier should have had 70 rounds. Each battalion quartermaster had an ammunition reserve of 30 rounds per man and, in any case, were there not rounds in the ammunition waggons parked somewhere on the saddle?
He took it to actor Stanley Baker with whom he had made several films and who was interested in moving into production. Endfield and Prebble drafted a script, which Baker then showed to Joseph E. Levine while making Sodom and Gomorrah in Italy.
Levine agreed to fund the movie, which was produced by Baker's company, Diamond Films. Most of Zulu was shot on location in South Africa. The mission depot at Rorke's Drift was recreated beneath the natural Amphitheatre in the Drakensberg Mountains considerably more precipitous than the real Rorke's Drift , which is little more than two small hills.
The set for the British field hospital and supply depot at Rorke's Drift was created near the Tugela River with the Amphitheatre in the background. Other scenes were filmed within the national parks of KwaZulu-Natal. The majority of the Zulus were real Zulus. Around 1, additional tribesmen were filmed by the second unit in Zululand. The film was compared by Baker to a Western movie , with the traditional roles of the United States Cavalry and Native Americans taken by the British and the Zulus respectively.
Director Endfield showed a Western to Zulu extras to demonstrate the concept of film acting and how he wanted the warriors to conduct themselves. This allegation is incorrect, as all of the Zulu extras were paid in full — the main body of extras were paid the equivalent of nine shillings per day each, additional extras eight shillings, and the female dancers slightly less.
Michael Caine, who at this early stage in his career was primarily playing bit parts, was originally up for the role of Private Henry Hook, which went to James Booth. According to Caine, he was extremely nervous during his screen test for the part of Bromhead, and director Cy Endfield told him that it was the worst screen test he had ever seen, but they were casting Caine in the part anyway because the production was leaving for South Africa shortly and they had not found anyone else for the role. Caine's performance in Zulu won him praise from reviewers, and his next film role would be as the star of The Ipcress File in which he was reunited with Nigel Green.
One technical problem the armorers and the director had to deal with concerned the rifles used during the filming. The company was unable to obtain enough Martini-Henry rifles to equip all of the extras, and had to fill in with No.
Go Strong into the Desert focuses in close detail on the combat waged across the Sudan and is characterized by absorbing blow-by-blow narratives of what actually happened during such dramatic actions as: The Siege of El Obeid and the massacre at Sheikan of Hicks Pasha's Kordofan expedition. Nothing more or less than a terrible panic ensued. But their misjudgement came to rebound on them badly. Because it suited those responsible for the disaster to exaggerate the importance of Rorke's Drift in the hope of reducing the impact of Isandlwana. Quite apart from the writings of the late Frank Emery, who refers to eighty-five correspondents in The Red Soldier and another twenty-four in his chapter on that campaign in Marching Over Africa , 1 there are invaluable edited collections of letters from individual officers by Sonia Clark 2 and Daphne Child, 3 and by Adrian Greaves and Brian Best.
In the scene at where Chard orders a walking advance and volley fire by ranks, the cocking pieces can be seen moving forward as the men shoot, and one kneeling man can even be seen working the bolt on his rifle. Generally, in any scene shot from the soldiers' left, the rifles being used are Enfields; in any scene shot from the right, Martini-Henrys. The budget of the film has been the subject of some speculation.
Joe Levine later revealed that Stanley Baker had approached him with a script and budget in , just after the filming of Sodom and Gomorrah. According to the records of the British completion bond company, Film Finance, Ltd. The basic premises of the film are true and largely accurate; however, the film must be viewed as simply that and not a historical reenactment of real events.
The heavily outnumbered British successfully defended Rorke's Drift more or less as portrayed in the film. Writer Cy Endfield even consulted a Zulu tribal historian for information from Zulu oral tradition about the attack. There are several inconsistencies with the historical record concerning the Swedish missionaries, the Witts.
In the film, Witt is depicted as a middle-aged widower, a pacifist and drunkard, who has an adult daughter called Margareta. In reality, Otto Witt was aged 30 and had a wife, Elin, and two infant children. On the morning of the battle, Otto Witt, with the chaplain, George Smith and Surgeon-Major James Henry Reynolds had ascended Shiyane, the large hill near the station, and noticed the approach of the Zulu force across the Buffalo River. Far from being a pacifist, Witt had co-operated closely with the army and negotiated a lease to put Rorke's Drift at Lord Chelmsford's disposal.
Witt made it clear that he did not oppose British intervention against Cetshwayo. He had stayed at Rorke's Drift because he wished "to take part in the defence of my own house and at the same time in the defence of an important place for the whole colony, yet my thoughts went to my wife and to my children, who were at a short distance from there, and did not know anything of what was going on". He therefore left on horseback to join his family shortly before the battle.
The attack on the mission station was not ordered by King Cetshwayo, as the audience is led to believe in the film. Cetshwayo had specifically told his warriors not to invade Natal, the British Colony. The attack was led by Prince Dabulamanzi kaMpande , the King's half-brother, who pursued fleeing survivors at Isandlwana across the river and then moved on to attack Rorke's Drift. Although almost 20, rounds of ammunition were fired by the defenders, just under Zulus were killed at Rorke's Drift. A similar number were left behind when the Zulus retreated, being too badly wounded to move.
Comments from veterans many years after the event suggest the British killed many of these wounded men in the battle's aftermath, raising the total number of Zulu deaths to over At roughly a. No attack materialised, as the Zulus had been on the move for six days prior to the battle. In their ranks were hundreds of wounded, and moreover they were several days march from any supplies. Around am, another force appeared, the defenders abandoned their breakfast and manned their positions again.
The approaching troops were the vanguard of Lord Chelmsford's relief column. The Zulus did not sing a song saluting fellow warriors, and departed at the approach of the British relief column. On its initial release in , it was one of the biggest box-office hits of all time in the British market. For the next 12 years it remained in constant cinema circulation before making its first appearance on television.
It then went on to become a television perennial, and remains beloved by the British public. Zulu received highly positive reviews from critics. Bosley Crowther of The New York Times wrote that "if you're not too squeamish at the sight of slaughter and blood and can keep your mind fixed on the notion that there was something heroic and strong about British colonial expansion in the 19th century, you may find a great deal of excitement in this robustly Kiplingesque film.
For certainly the fellows who made it, Cy Endfield and Stanley Baker, have done about as nifty a job of realizing on the formula as one could do. It has already been pointed out that 'Zulu' is in poor taste. But so are such invaluable relics as G. Henty and Rider Haggard and Kipling. And the battle, which occupies the whole second half of the film, is unquestionably thrilling But whenever there is a pause in the action the script plunges relentlessly into bathos, with feuding officers, comic other ranks, and all the other trappings of British War Film Mark I, which one had hoped were safely obsolete.
Although actual participants of the battle are named characters in the film, they bear little resemblance to historical accuracy. The most controversial portrayal is the one of Private Hook who is depicted as a thief and malingerer the real Hook was a model soldier and teetotaller. The first troops arrived at Durban on 7 March. On the 29th a column, under Lord Chelmsford, consisting of 3, British and 2, African soldiers, marched to the relief of Eshowe , entrenched camps being formed each night.
However, as the Zulu main army of 20, men approached to help their besieged tribesmen, the British force began a retreat which turned into a rout and were pursued by 1, Zulus of the abaQulusi who inflicted some casualties on the British force. The next day 20, Zulu warriors [n] attacked Wood's 2, men in a well-fortified camp at Kambula, apparently without Cetshwayo's permission. The British held them off in the Battle of Kambula and after five hours of heavy attacks the Zulus withdrew with heavy losses but were pursued by British mounted troops, who killed many more fleeing and wounded warriors.
British losses amounted to 83 28 killed and 55 wounded , while the Zulus lost up to 2, killed. Their commander Mnyamana tried to get the regiments to return to Ulundi but many demoralised warriors simply went home. While Woods was thus engaged, Chelmsford's column was marching on Eshowe. On 2 April this force was attacked en route at Gingindlovu , the Zulu being repulsed. Their losses were heavy, estimated at 1, while the British only suffered two dead and 52 wounded. The next day they relieved Pearson's men.
They evacuated Eshowe on 5 April, after which the Zulu forces burned it down. The new start of the larger, heavily reinforced second invasion [p] was not promising for the British. Despite their successes at Kambula, Gingindlovu and Eshowe, they were right back where they had started from at the beginning of January.
Nevertheless, Chelmsford had a pressing reason to proceed with haste — Sir Garnet Wolseley was being sent to replace him, and he wanted to inflict a decisive defeat on Cetshwayo's forces before then. With yet more reinforcements arriving, soon to total 16, British and 7, Native troops, Chelmsford reorganised his forces and again advanced into Zululand in June, this time with extreme caution building fortified camps all along the way to prevent any repeat of Isandlwana.
One of the early British casualties was the exiled heir to the French throne, Imperial Prince Napoleon Eugene , who had volunteered to serve in the British army and was killed on 1 June while out with a reconnoitering party.
Cetshwayo, knowing that the newly reinforced British would be a formidable opponent, attempted to negotiate a peace treaty. Chelmsford was not open to negotiations, as he wished to restore his reputation before Wolseley relieved him of command, and he proceeded to the royal kraal of Ulundi, intending to defeat the main Zulu army. On 4 July, the armies clashed at the Battle of Ulundi , and Cetshwayo's forces were decisively defeated.
After the battle of Ulundi the Zulu army dispersed, most of the leading chiefs tendered their submission, and Cetshwayo became a fugitive. Wolseley, having relieved Chelmsford after Ulundi, took over the final operations. On 28 August the king was captured and sent to Cape Town It is said that scouts spotted the water-carriers of the king, distinctive because the water was carried above, not upon, their heads. His deposition was formally announced to the Zulu. Wolseley wasted no time in discarding Bartle Frere's confederation scheme and drew up a new scheme which divided Zululand into thirteen chiefdoms headed by compliant chiefs which ensured that the Zulus would no longer unite under a single king and made internal divisions and civil wars inevitable.
The dynasty of Shaka was deposed, and the Zulu country portioned among eleven Zulu chiefs, including Usibepu , John Dunn , a white adventurer, and Hlubi , a Basuto chief allied to the British in the war. Chelmsford received a Knight Grand Cross of Bath, largely because of Ulundi, however, he was severely criticized by the Horse Guards investigation  and he would never serve in the field again. Following the conclusion of the Anglo-Zulu War, Bishop Colenso interceded on behalf of Cetshwayo with the British government and succeeded in getting him released from Robben Island and returned to Zululand in A Resident Melmoth Osborn was appointed to be the channel of communication between the chiefs and the British government.
This arrangement led to much bloodshed and disturbance, and in the British government determined to restore Cetshwayo to power. In the meantime, however, blood feuds had been engendered between the chiefs Usibepu Zibebu and Hamu on the one side and the tribes who supported the ex-king and his family on the other. Cetshwayo's party who now became known as the Usuthu suffered severely at the hands of the two chiefs, who were aided by a band of white freebooters. When Cetshwayo was restored Usibepu was left in possession of his territory, while Dunn's land and that of the Basuto chief the country between the Tugela River and the Umhlatuzi, i.
This new arrangement proved as futile as had Wolseley's. Usibepu, having created a formidable force of well-armed and trained warriors, and being left in independence on the borders of Cetshwayo's territory, viewed with displeasure the re-installation of his former king, and Cetshwayo was desirous of humbling his relative. A collision very soon took place; Usibepu's forces were victorious, and on 22 July , led by a troop of mounted Boer mercenary troops, he made a sudden descent upon Cetshwayo's kraal at Ulundi, which he destroyed, massacring such of the inmates of both sexes as could not save themselves by flight.
The king escaped, though wounded, into Nkandla forest. After appeals to Melmoth Osborn he moved to Eshowe , where he died soon after. Monty Python's The Meaning of Life also features the war in a comedic sketch in which men in tiger suits steal a British soldier's leg. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.
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Scramble for Africa. Main article: Battle of Ulundi. Conflicts Military chiefs List of wars involving South Africa.
Buy British Infantryman vs Zulu Warrior - Anglo-Zulu War (Combat) by Ian Knight (ISBN: ) from Amazon's Book Store. Everyday low prices and free out of 5 stars 10 customer reviews. Book 3 of 40 in the Combat Series . British Infantryman vs Zulu Warrior. Anglo-Zulu War Combat 3. Author: Ian Knight; Illustrator: Peter Dennis; Short code: CBT 3; Publication.
Victorian era portal. Morris , p. The strength of the entire invasion force is given as a total of 16, for the five columns: 6, Imperial and colonial troops: 9, troops in the native contingent; Drivers, etc. Knight , p. Many more lay out on the line of retreat where the slaughter had been heaviest Perhaps as many as 2, died'. Thompson , p.
Morris , pp. Retrieved 9 April Archer, Christon I. World History of Warfare. University of Nebraska Press. Barthorp, Michael The Zulu War: Isandhlwana to Ulundi. Bourquin, S. Military History Journal. A History of Natal. Brooklyn : University of Natal Press. Colenso, Frances E. History of the Zulu War and Its Origin. Assisted by Edward Durnford. David, Saul February BBC History Magazine. Dutton, Roy French, Gerald . Lord Chelmsford and the Zulu War. Giliomee, Hermann Buhr ; Mbenga, Bernard New History of South Africa.
Gump, James O. Bison Books. Guy, Jeff University of Natal Press. Knight, Ian Rorke's Drift, 'pinned Like Rats in a Hole'. Osprey Publishing. The Zulu War British Fortifications in Zululand Knight, Ian; Castle, Ian Brassey's UK. Laband, John; Knight, Ian The Anglo-Zulu War. Stroud : Sutton.