Biodiversity in Drylands: Toward a Unified Framework (Long-Term Ecological Research Network Series)

Biodiversity in Drylands: Toward a Unified Framework
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Mosaics can also be used to monitor changes in the composition and patterns of vegetation in drylands Rango et al. A UAS can operate at low altitudes with different types of payloads to accommodate a range of sensors, thereby greatly enhancing modeling activities in dryland landscapes eg Anderson and Gaston ; Vivoni et al. For instance, Templeton et al. Accurate surface topography and vegetation data from a UAS were used by Vivoni et al. The sampling areas of the watershed black outlines upstream of flumes , COSMOS red outline , and eddy covariance tower blue outline are shown.

A paucity of scalable, integrative analytical techniques — as opposed to a lack of data — is the primary factor constraining links between science and land management Reichman et al. Improvements in data collection and computing capacity Aanensen et al. Frequent observations from a network of sensors collecting similar compatible data also permit quantification of the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of ecological phenomena Panels 2 and 4 ; Richardson et al.

At that site, fine resolution, multiscale data from sensor networks and aerial platforms are integrated across scientific disciplines eg hydrology, ecology, atmospheric science to quantify landscape dynamics at the watershed scale. Ecological research needs to explicitly broaden this model to one that is open, transparent, and interactive. As research has become more sophisticated and reliant on complex simulations and analyses, the potential for computational errors that affect results has increased Merali Furthermore, as the repeatability of scientific results in general has been called into question www.

These and other related efforts are affecting the culture of scientific research and broadening the traditional view of a scholarly journal article as the primary output of research to also include data, workflows including algorithms and code , and metadata as public research outputs. Workflows document the scientific method in a form that is more thorough, accessible, and reproducible than the methods section of a journal article. Like data, many workflows have a temporal component that is, they are relevant for a specific time period — ie version — and experimental context.

We believe that the use of tools to document research methods should be encouraged and that the unrestricted publication of and access to workflows and data will facilitate the exchange and evaluation of ideas. Systems for archiving, discovering, and accessing data — as well as algorithms, code, and other workflows — need to be further developed, with an emphasis on integrating the different types of research products. Although necessary, technological advances alone are not enough; modifying research practices is an essential counterpart.

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An incentive system that motivates researchers to document and publish data, workflows, and derived data products would be one way forward Peters et al. Such an approach, involving open, collaborative, and interactive science, would be particularly beneficial in dryland ecosystems that are part of large federal land holdings — spatially heterogeneous landscapes that are both remote and expansive — and that are facing pressures associated with supporting growing human populations Panel 3.

The dynamic nature of dryland landscapes, along with the close links between functional indicators eg perennial grass cover, frequency of bare soil gaps and climate variability, complicates efforts to monitor trends in landscape condition and gauge the relative impact of management practices or disturbance. One solution to this dilemma is to adopt consistent sets of indicators based on functional ecosystem attributes and standardized methods for measuring these indicators Herrick et al.

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This approach facilitates data sharing across relevant agencies, simplifies synthesis of ecosystem dynamics across landscapes, and allows the reuse of data to address questions pertinent to drylands research and management. One example of the derivation and application of functional indicators is recent research pertaining to the use of canopy gap size distributions to estimate and model wind erosion. There is an emerging capacity for scientists, organizations, and even private citizens to collect data for contribution to the scientific record.

Such data can now be shared in a way that allows for effective and meaningful engagement among diverse stakeholders Newman et al. In addition to increasing the possibility that measurements will be used for other purposes in the future and improving the mechanistic understanding of dryland landscapes, sharing data collected from these areas also provides usable knowledge for dryland management and conservation.

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Communication systems eg web tools, networks, social media, funding programs and research practices eg standardized methods and technologies have emerged that are improving the discoverability and accessibility of scientific research and data Proctor et al. Integrative analyses of these datasets have the potential to transform knowledge of dryland landscapes. However, there are few efficient mechanisms for data discovery that link data interpretations with raw data and associated workflows, including algorithms, to facilitate new and different applications Karl et al.

As the culture of sharing data among researchers evolves Hampton et al. Data collected by these methods are deposited within federated data repositories and are proving useful for modeling landscape productivity and informing models predicting plant responses to climate change. Drylands research and management may benefit greatly from emerging environmental monitoring technologies, which will provide crucial information at temporal and spatial extents required to inform decision making.

Nevertheless, it is not always clear which technologies will be most effective for each situation based on accessibility, available financial and human resources, and existing knowledge. Ideally, multiple, related, and diverse datasets spanning long timescales and vast regions would be available for any part of the world and could be readily incorporated into models and synthesized; however, the infrastructure to support these capabilities has yet to be designed and implemented.

Identifying environmental cues that trigger phases of the plant growing cycle will enhance the ability to predict plant responses to changing climates and the effectiveness of vegetation management activities. For example, phenocam estimates of canopy development indicate that honey mesquite Prosopis glandulosa, a ubiquitous C 3 leguminous shrub transitions from dormancy to full canopy greenness in approximately 14 days brown line on graph in Figure 4b.

Rapid canopy development does not appear to be triggered by rainfall and prompts further study of the role of air temperature and day length on patterns in mesquite canopy development. Phenological patterns can inform management plans to curtail woody plant expansion eg herbicide applications and promote perennial grass recovery. Images from digital cameras ie phenocams; insets in Figure 4a can be acquired more frequently than field data or satellite images.

To facilitate the convergence of technological innovation and transformations occurring in how science is conducted and data are shared, we offer some thoughts and guiding principles to researchers and managers alike. The accounts of the numerous applications in insect control given there provide a link.

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But for a certain breed of biologist, lice make for fascinating Coexistentialism and the Unbearable Intimacy of Ecological Emergency. Community Ecology. Community ecology is the study of patterns and processes involving these collections of two or more species. Communities are typically studied using a diversity of No further sub categories. Thus, in order to understand fundamental pathways involved in disease states, it is necessary to link preexisting cell state to cell fate in the disease process at the individual cell level. The Center for Environmental Science Applications CESA promotes research that reconciles the needs of society and nature through projects involving urban systems, climate change, and sustainable technologies.

The Center for Nanotechnology and Society CNS is working to increase capacity for social learning within the nanotechnology enterprise and to increase society's capacity to engage in anticipatory governance of nanotechnology and other emerging technologies. Thorough these avenues, CNS strives to increase the ability for society to make informed decisions about evolving nanotechnology and to guide nanotechnology knowledge and innovation towards a more socially desireable outome. CePoD is a transdisciplinary research center drawing scholars who are interested in broad aspects of population research.

The center is located in the Phoenix metropolitan area, a vibrant, rapidly growing urban center of the American Southwest. We pursue novel avenues of population research in local, regional, national and international settings. CRESMET is a collaborative center that leverages intellectual and fiscal resources from key colleges in the University to study and improve education in science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

The Center brings together individuals, programs and organizations interested in improving K STEM education to research, develop, and assess educational theories, curricula and administrative policies that impact science, mathematics, engineering and technology education; and to encourage and support wide-scale sharing and implementation of effective approaches to producing a more scientifically and technologically literate populace and more capable science, mathematics, engineering, and technology majors.

The Center for Sustainable Health is working to build a sustainable world where every human can live a healthy and fulfilling life. In this study, Professor Nongjian Tao and his research group at Arizona State University will develop single molecule break-junction techniques to study electronic conductance through polyaromatic hydrocarbon molecules and molecular bridge structures formed from water.

This project characterizes the chemical composition of coarse and fine particulate matter PM to support source attribution and to quantify local sources and regional transport contributing to elevated PM levels in Pinal County, AZ. Considering the growing importance of water resources issues around the globe, this project addresses the need to train the current and future generations of teachers, students and general public to use cyberinfrastructure CI to address water related issues.

During this five-year project, the PIs hope to achieve major advances in motion analysis and core computer science areas: computer vision, human-computer interaction, information and data management, geometric computation, knowledge systems and robotics. The goal of the visioning workshop is to establish alignment of the Avondale City Council and staff decisions for managed growth planning for several identified areas of study that are of considerable interest to Avondale, Arizona with the use of Decision Theater visualization tools.

The City of Phoenix has set a goal of achieving a city? To accomplish this, the Public Works Department PWD has created a "Waste Diversion Action Plan" consisting of a number of programs, strategies, measurable outcomes, and responsibilities. These are organized into short? This project seeks to understand how ecosystem services change in response to extraction or addition of water to ecosystems due to population change and climate change.

This project will identify the soil community at many sites along the Antarctic Peninsula to discover how the community changes with environmental conditions from north to south, and will also identify how the soil community at each site differs under different types of plants. This project will determine whether diverse plant litter types maintain their initial chemical differences throughout decay, remaining chemically unique as often assumed, or if decomposing litter follows different chemical trajectories to either converge or diverge over the course of decomposition.

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Combining geochemical data with microbial ecological data makes it possible to predict the distribution of microbial populations and the processes that they catalyze in nature. In this research we will focus on the contrasting microbial processes of methane production e. This project explores the effectiveness of legal, institutional, and political mechanisms for realizing human rights in natural resources that invoke sustainability concerns.

Cities are where most people live and work; most innovation takes place; most pollution and wealth are generated; and most vulnerability to climate change occurs. Finding an equitable way to bring urban consumption into better balance with available resources would greatly help society meet global sustainability goals. The workshop May , looked at new ways to collect complex city data streams, feed that information into models that help envision the future, and translate those visions into improved urban policies.

The overall objective of this proposal is to investigate linkages between the presence of different key groups of phytoplankton in the euphotic zone and their contribution to particle flux at the subtropical North Atlantic time-series station BATS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study by applying a range of traditional and novel molecular techniques. It is necessary to understand and support military operations and national security in a complicated, violent, and rapidly changing world.

The Copper Triangle Pilot Project CTPP is a partnership among Arizona State University, Central Arizona College, a rural high-need school district Superior Unified School District and local industry Resolution Copper Mining Company to develop a research-based, sustainable pathway to baccalaureate degrees and careers in the Earth and environmental sciences for underrepresented minority students mostly Hispanic and Native American who reside in an underserved rural mining area the "Copper Triangle" of central Arizona.

This project will develop a unique four-weeks-long workshop experience for undergraduate students that will explore the social and ethical issues raised by nanotechnology, build cross-disciplinary communicative competence, and enhance engineering leadership and teamwork skills. The proposed study draws upon the project team's research on the etiology of substance use among American Indian youth of the urban Southwest to conduct translational research that recognizes salient risk and resiliency factors identified by these youth, social and relational contexts that expose them to substances, and their culturally appropriate drug resistance strategies.

This project is creating a new instructional strategy and new learning materials using data- and modeling-based modules that are enabling undergraduate students to better understand cause-effect relationships, form and test hypotheses, and learn how to integrate the latest tools for better understanding of hydrologic theory and processes. Nanomaterials are engineered at the molecular level to modify their structure and functional properties, which in turn, enables the development of innovative nano-enabled technologies. However, these same property manipulations have the potential to influence the adverse impacts of these engineered nanomaterials.

It is therefore, critically important to drive the development of safe and functional nano-enabled products. This study addresses, through investigation of students in Arizona High School summer programs, how students learn, understand and manipulate scientific models of the carbon cycle and the water cycle. This EAGER project supports exploratory work to develop a novel approach to the creation of a dynamical computational model of human health behavior. The goal of this high risk project is to apply an experimental design that merges methods from multiple disciplines to generate the necessary data to develop a dynamical systems model of human health behavior.

This research pursues a multidisciplinary, integrative approach to investigate fundamental technical challenges in radio frequency identificatin RFID , both at the physical and data management layers, to realize innovative data-centric applications such as attribute-based object search. An important focus of scientific research is understanding the complex interactions between human societies and the climatic, physical, and biological environments on which they depend, and which they, in turn, influence. Past environments were often quite different from those we experience today.

This project will develop plans for an online tool, SKOPE Synthesized Knowledge of Past Environments , that will provide state-of-the-art information about the environment experienced by humans at a given a place and time, past or present. This project will provide to the emerging nano environmental and health-effects community well-documented analytical techniques and methodologies for quantifying the size, number concentration and mass concentration of engineered nanomaterials within matrices water, food, biological fluids. This information is critical to assessing nanomaterial dosage and exposure during in vivo or in vitro health effects studies.

This project will deepen basic understanding of the complex interactions involving geophysical, biological, social, and policy factors and feedback systems that affect grassland status.

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The overall goals of this proposed project are to 1 develop an integrated modeling framework to characterize current and future health risks of an older population to urban ozone and extreme heat, indoors and outdoors; 2 improve understanding of how emerging trends in building design and management practices affect indoor air quality; and 3 build local capacity in reducing negative health outcomes during episodes of high ozone and extreme heat.

This proposal involves the development of techniques to measure the physical properties of poorly characterized environmental nanomaterials that have important consequences for both climate change and human health. This project is focused on active learning through game design approaches for civil engineering and construction courses. This combination education and research project will develop, assess, and disseminate innovative introductory macroethical course modules.

This research examines the coupled response of people and the environment in the Cape Floral Region on the south coast of Africa to major fluctuations in global climate during the time of the origins of the modern human lineage. Contamination of cultures and grazing of algae by zooplankton e.

Extreme heat in urban areas can have deleterious consequences on human health and can lead to increases in building cooling energy use. These impacts are projected to become more significant in the future due to ongoing urbanization, population densification, and global climate change. The aim of this research is to answer the question, what are the most effective urban heat mitigation strategies for the populations that are most vulnerable to extreme heat? This project will develop a new interdisciplinary partnership between connectivity ecology, metal isotope geochemistry,, and paleoclimatology to identify new proxies for ocean acidification that can be used to assess pH exposures in living organisms and, potentially to interpret the geologic record.

The project, a collaboration among University of South Florida, Old Dominion University and Arizona State University, is developing state-of-the-art prototype web-based learning tools for open courseware in undergraduate numerical methods courses. The research will have a tremendous impact in the field of nanofluidic devices, eventually replacing the track-etched nanopore membranes that are currently used for filtration.

Since the pore sizes are small and the pore length is short without compromising the mechanical stability, faster diffusion of molecules is expected. In particular, the investigators will investigate the hypothesis that succession drives changes in biodiversity, which in turn causes altered ecosystem function. In this project, researchers from the US and Japan study novel approaches to disaster preparation, response and recovery using survivable communication networks and big data analysis of social media data.

This project couples field studies of local climate, tree establishment and tree growth with regional climate modeling and models that depict spatial processes of plant population and fire dynamics. This project combines field studies of local climate, tree establishment and tree growth with regional climate modeling and models that depict spatial processes of plant population and fire dynamics, and also bridges environmental and plant processes from the local scale of individual trees to whole tree populations at the regional level.

The Drought-Net Research Coordination Network was established to advance understanding of the determinants of terrestrial ecosystem responses to drought by bringing together an international group of scientists to conduct three complementary research coordination activities: 1 planning and coordinating new research using standardized measurements to leverage the value of existing drought experiments across the globe, 2 finalizing the design and facilitating the establishment of a new international network of coordinated drought experiments, and 3 training highly motivated graduate students to conduct synthetic and network-level research through Distributed Graduate Seminars focused on drought.

The objective of this research is to develop signal processing algorithms for processing data from silicon ion-channel sensors to identify the presence of particular chemicals. This project will examine the rate at which soil is produced and eroded in order to better assess the controls on the distribution of this very important natural resource. The objective of this Faculty Early Career Development CAREER program award is to investigate the effects of driver behaviors, such as car-following and lane-changing, on traffic state transitions i.

This research focuses on transitions near freeway choke points i. Results form this research will support adaptive management of forests by land managers and policy makers and help bridge local efforts to maintain forest biodiversity and ecosystem services to regional and global mitigation plans. The investigators will test the hypothesis that microenvironments exert a strong influence on macroecological patterns of forest dynamics. Preliminary experiments in the laboratories of Professor Andino have shown promise for a composite catalyst of RGO-TiO 2 , reduced graphite oxide and titania.

The RGO can potentially assist in minimizing charge recombination when TiO 2 is activated by light, thereby making more electrons available for a surface CO 2 reduction reaction. This research will transform scientific understanding of an important and increasingly common ecosystem type "suburbia" and the consequences to carbon storage and nitrogen pollution at multiple scales.

In addition, it will advance understanding of how humans perceive, value and manage their surroundings. Through these workshops, the teachers learn about global sustainability issues and their role as sustainability change agents in their own community. This project will determine if the introduction of the biocontrol agent tamarisk leaf beetle, Diorhabda spp. The study will provide fundamental information on how the timing of floods and droughts across years influences water quality nitrate inputs to rivers , primary production, and the production of animals higher in the food web, such as fish.

The researchers will produce a synthesis of research in hydrology and ecology to improve the management of arid land rivers. Professor Tao and his students will develop new methods to measure and control electron transport properties at the single molecule level. In this project the PIs will utilize recently developed information-theoretic tools from complex systems research, typically applied to artificial life systems, to assess how a real biological system manages distributed information to perform a collective computational task.

This research will provide new applications of mathematical and computational tools for use by scientists and will provide important insights in issues of broader concern such as colony collapse disorder observed in honeybees. The Science Environment for Ecological Knowledge SEEK is an initiative designed to create cyberinfrastructure for ecological, environmental, and biodiversity research and to educate the ecological community about ecoinformatics.

A team of archaeologists, computer scientists, ecologists, and modelers designed and prototyped a knowledge-based archaeological data-integration system KADIS encompassing both new and legacy datasets. This project examines energy ethics issues for the responsible conduct of science and engineering and in the intersections of science, engineering, technology, and society, emphasizing potential scenarios for the U. It develops new research and educational activities involving graduate students in interdisciplinary research programs.

This project will conduct holistic energy sustainability analysis using a comprehensive building energy data set in a city Phoenix that is typical of energy use patterns in many of the world's rapidly growing hot and dry urban areas. This collaborative project aims to adapt the hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor MBfR , now used for water treatment, to deliver the low-solubility gases directly to a biofilm that grows on the outer surface of a hollow-fiber membrane and utilizes the gas as a substrate.

The membrane-based biofilm avoids direct gas-liquid mass transfer, which normally slows the rate of H 2 and CO delivery. The over-arching goal is to adapt the MBfR for the production of valuable chemicals from syngas. Although microorganisms can be engineered to convert renewable biomass into an array of useful chemicals, the same products often inhibit the productivity of the producing microbes.

This project seeks to explore strategies for engineering more tolerant microbes in support of enhanced chemical production. This interdisciplinary case study is investigating the spatial and temporal dynamics of environmental-equity patterns and processes in Baltimore, a large, postindustrial city that has undergone profound socioeconomic change. Enzymes are widely used in a large number of diverse applications, from laundry detergents to biosensors.

As apparent in nature, enzymes associated with surfaces have additional abilities that soluble enzymes lack. The outcome of this proposal will be of particular interest for understanding and designing multi-enzyme reaction pathways in which the ability of one enzyme to directly pass a product to the next is critically dependent on the relative positions of the enzymes involved. This project represents an initial effort to study the cultural, emotional and social factors that contribute to forgiveness for mass atrocities.

An evaluation of the materials that have been prepared for an e-book for use in teaching control system engineering is being conducted. The overall goals of this study are to better understand how water use by crop type responds to drought conditions and to use this knowledge to support adaptive management in the agricultural sector and foster sustainable water use in an era of climate uncertainty and change. The central focus of the Learning Science Research Lab at Arizona State University is to explore and innovate technologies designed to enhance interactive learning environments and ultimately improve student learning.

The project proposes to obtain high-resolution trace metal geochemical profiles from organic-rich sedimentary rocks to examine the evolution of climate and biospheric oxygenation in the Late Archean to Middle Proterozoic. The overall objective of the proposed research is to use solar radiation to photocatalytically reduce CO 2 to fuels CO, methane, methanol, and other hydrocarbons at high conversion efficiency through manipulation of catalyst composition and nanostructure.

The Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network: A New In-Situ Data Network For Agriculture

In this project, the investigators are deploying and assessing a large-enrollment undergraduate general education science course that places scientific reasoning and multidisciplinary perspectives at the heart of the experience. Society's response to climate change and many other challenges hinges on public understanding that science is not a body of facts and certainties in tidy disciplines, but rather a process of reasoning which often crosses disciplines and which narrows the uncertainties of knowledge.

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The goal of this Faculty Early-Career Development CAREER award is to support research, education, and related activities that will develop a reusable and behaviorally founded computer model of pedestrian movement and crowd behavior amid dense urban environments. This interdisciplinary research project focuses on people, community organizations, and the long-term health of natural ecosystems that support people's livelihoods.

The mission of the Flexible Display Center is to advance full-color, video rate, flexible display technology and catalyze development of a vibrant flexible display and flexible electronics industry to produce integrated electronic systems with advanced functionality. The FDC collaborates with government, academia and industry to provide comprehensive flexible electronics capabilities that bridge the high risk, resource intensive gap between innovation and product development in an information-secure environment for process, tool, and materials co-development and evaluation.

Integral to the Center's mission is integrating the concept of sustainable microelectronics processing into all FDC activities. This project builds upon the extensive expertise and proven track record of the research team at ASU's GeoDa Center for Geospatial Analysis and Computation to develop a flexible methodological framework, integrating new techniques for geospatial visual analytics and spatial econometrics with state of the art geocomputation technologies to yield the basis for an enhanced decision support system for criminal justice interventions.

The Astrobiology Team at Arizona State University "follows the elements" to help guide the exploration for life beyond Earth, in our Solar System and on planets orbiting other stars. Throughout the southwestern US, multiple efforts are underway to improve food systems in relation to sustainability and food security. These efforts are meant to contribute to resilience of food production amidst change, sustainable livelihoods for those working in the food sector, and healthy food availability for underserved populations.

The Food Systems Transformation Initiative supports the development of more equitable, diverse and resilient food systems at all scales — from local to global — that can adapt to evolving uncertainties and opportunities, and enable sustainable societies.

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Arizona State University will convene a workshop to advance an operational, national-scale definition of food-energy-water FEW systems complexity and outline a portfolio of basic research questions and programs needed to improve efficiency and resilience across the components of the FEW systems on the local and national scale. The workshop will create new synthetic knowledge that will contribute to the definition of necessary research programs.

The Foresight Initiative will examine how climate change affects resources and contributes to political unrest, as well as articulate sustainability and resilience strategies. This project is to develop training materials for the Fort Mohave Indian Tribe to train public health volunteers to setup and operate a Point of Dispensing site to distribute vaccinations.

Arizona State University's Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering with the Maricopa County Community Colleges District and K school districts along with industry partners, Honeywell, Intel, and Texas Instruments, and the Helios Education Foundation will implement an NSF Design and Development Launch Pilot to address the broadening participation objectives of enhancing entry and persistence of underrepresented groups in engineering.

This Building Innovation Capacity PFI:BIC project from Arizona State University focuses on building a platform that will integrate data from multiple sources and explore data analysis techniques that can more accurately detect indications of financial fraud. The research targets fundamental work in sensor networks. Specifically the work addresses the central problem that distributed inference systems need to be robust to a wide variety of sensing, and channel impairments.

This multi-site research project examines how fundamental motives such as mating, self-protection, status-seeking, and affiliation influence basic cognitive processes such as perception and memory. This collaborative research project studies an underexplored semiconductor materials system that involves boron incorporation in the four-element alloys of BAlGaN. This program has proposed a systematic and comprehensive approach to address defect issues ranging from fundamental theory up to advanced device structures to mitigate the adverse impacts of defects.

GeoDa develops state-of-the-art methods for geospatial analysis, geovisualization, geosimulation, and spatial process modeling, implements them through software tools, applies them to policy-relevant research in the social and environmental sciences, and disseminates them through training and support to a growing worldwide community. This Research Coordination Network grant brings together an international, multi-disciplinary team of scientists and educators to better mobilize cases of long term human ecodynamics on the century to millennial scale to aid national and global efforts to develop effective future sustainable development and to create resources for Education for Sustainable Development.

The objective of this GOALI proposal is the fabrication of high mobility, ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor, with both n-type and p-type doing, on polymer or glass substrate for transparent and flexible electronics applications. This project addresses the following two most prominent challenges: 1 disparity in information-sharing among people with visual impairment and its limited understanding by the research community; and 2 lack of methods and tools for effectively addressing the disparity. This Doctoral Dissertation Enhancement award will support field research on grasshopper migration in China by Ph.

Greater Phoenix GP is a network of Arizona State University and community researchers dedicated to using knowledge to create better lives for future generations. The Hazardous Waste Management Certification Program taught classes required by federal regulation for the health and safety of hazardous waste workers. Classes continue today at the Arizona State University Polytechnic campus. This research will advance a novel technological approach that relies on machine learning techniques in general and Natural Language Processing NLP in particular to develop models and support for creativity during collaborative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics STEM educational activities.

This project - officially titled Health Performance, Benefit-Cost, and Cost Effectiveness of Green Retrofit Housing for Low-Income Seniors in Phoenix, Arizona - examined how incorporating an array of building changes of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Green Retrofit Program resulted in improved indoor environmental quality and health of elderly residents. Rather than reviewing individual building features, the study assessed a green retrofit package in its entirety, and incorporated formal benefit-cost and cost effectiveness calculations on individual health and healthcare costs.

This study by the National Center for Excellence on Sustainable Materials and Renewable Technologies quantifies several values and the effect of color and texture over time and its impact on the urban heat island of different pavements including Arizona Department of Transportation's Asphalt Rubber — Asphaltic Concrete Friction Course.

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Biodiversity in Drylands, the first internationally based synthesis volume in the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network Series, unifies the concepts of. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Moshe Shachak is at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. Biodiversity in Drylands: Toward a Unified Framework (Long- Term Ecological Research Network Series) - Kindle edition by Moshe Shachak.

The Center supports collaborative and creative research in design and the arts. Some of the Center's work includes creating consumer-driven product concepts that improve society and the environment, understanding the interconnections between urban design and energy demand and on emerging models for the post-petroleum city, and supporting organizations, neighborhoods, and professionals in their efforts to improve the growth of quality affordable homes and sustainable communities.

The purpose of the fellowship is to expand the Co-PI's dissertation research, which is on the ecologist, environmentalist, and public figure L. The objective of this project is to identify the reasons why microorganisms can live where they live. The focus is on identifying livable conditions in the environment, with the goal of explaining how temperatures and geochemical compositions combine to allow and support microbial life.

This research carries out a series of high temperature and pressure experiments to C and 70 to MPa, respectively in which well-characterized, dissolved, isotopically labelled, aqueous organic and chiral compounds are reacted with a variety of common seafloor hydrothermal oxide and sulfide minerals to examine the resulting changes in organic compounds and their rates of transformation.

NSF Innovation Corps I-Corps Sites are NSF-funded entities established at universities whose purpose is to nurture and support multiple, local teams to transition their technology concepts into the marketplace. Sites provide infrastructure, advice, resources, networking opportunities, training and modest funding to enable groups to transition their work into the marketplace or into becoming I-Corps Team applicants. I-Corps Sites also strengthen innovation locally and regionally and contribute to the National Innovation Network of mentors, researchers, entrepreneurs and investors.

This Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship IGERT award will train a new generation of doctoral graduates to become future leaders in the field of disabilities through an integrated and interdisciplinary education-research-practice model. This Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship IGERT award focuses on the energy transition from the current fossil-fuel-based economy to one where solar energy harvested by means of photovoltaics, solar-thermal, and photosynthesis-driven bioenergy approaches will become a keystone in global human energy use. This research is unique and ground breaking, as few researchers have targeted students' emotion in classrooms, gathered fine grained data on emotions during learning, or assessed the impact of specific affective treatments on a moment-to-moment basis.

Students using the tutoring systems have already shown statistically significant gains and learning outcomes, as well as increased positive affect and attitudes. The new affective interventions will greatly increase the broad impact of these systems. This research will help identify sources of surface water and groundwater nitrate contamination in arid and semi-arid deserts. This project introduces a novel strategy for bioavailability determination of sediment-borne contaminants featuring a wide range of chemical structures, properties and physical-chemical behaviors.

The project addresses the pressing need of Superfund stakeholders to determine in a convenient and reliable fashion both human health risks from contaminated sediments and the effectiveness of implemented remediation strategies. The primary goal of this project is to create, distribute, and study a set of three integrated activities that involve current and enduring science-in-society themes, building on these themes as first presented in Mary Shelley's novel, Frankenstein , which will be celebrating in the th anniversary of its publication in This work will improve the understanding of the development of summer monsoonal thunderstorms in central Arizona and how they are affected by their interaction with urban and terrain induced thermal circulations.

This conference at Arizona State University is an early-stage activity inspired by the upcoming bicentennial of the conception, writing and publication of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein - or The Modern Prometheus. The two goals of the project are to 1 understand how local and regional emergency management communities function so that climate science knowledge can be effectively infused into their decision processes, and 2 develop a framework for identifying products and services that can deliver needed knowledge about climate extremes, threats, impacts, and resulting risk in order to prioritize mitigation and adaptation efforts.

This project aims to develop a next-generation understanding: what makes groups successful in changing the institutional rules that govern behavior related to common resources. The project will establish a repository and a research system based on computational tools and digital sources, and it will develop education and training modules. The goal is to move beyond separate small collections that reside on individual computers in dispersed places, and bring together the objects of study as well as scholarly interpretations of those objects.

Recognition Tunneling is a new analytical tool that generates a distinct electronic signal for each of the four bases in DNA, as well as identifying a modification that underlies the epigenetic code. Here, we propose to use Recognition Tunneling to develop an instrument to read the sequence of DNA as it emerges from a nanopore. This project asks: Why are some socioecological systems more successful in navigating environmental disturbances and change than others?

The purpose of this research is to use an interdisciplinary approach to investigate paleoceanographic conditions during the deposition of Pennsylvanian cyclothems of Midcontinent North America and to test the "superestuarine circulation hypothesis. This engineering education research award to Arizona State University will employ researchers to develop cyber infrastructure to infuse sustainability concepts into electrical engineering courses.