And African Americans and Latinos are increasingly more likely than whites to live in those communities. Today, low-income blacks are more than three times as likely as poor whites to be in "deep poverty" -- meaning below half the poverty line -- while poor Latinos are more than twice as likely. Modern and historical forces combine to keep many communities of color disconnected from networks of economic opportunity and upward mobility.
Among those forces is persistent racial discrimination that, while subtler than in past decades, continues to deny opportunity to millions of Americans. Decent employment and housing are milestones on the road out of poverty. Yet these are areas in which racial discrimination stubbornly persists. While the open hostility and "Whites Only" signs of the Jim Crow era have largely disappeared, research shows that identically qualified candidates for jobs and housing enjoy significantly different opportunities depending on their race. In recent studies in Milwaukee and New York City, meanwhile, live "tester pairs" with comparable qualifications but of differing races tested not only the effect of race on job prospects but also the impact of an apparent criminal record.
In Milwaukee, whites reporting a criminal record were more likely to receive a callback from employers than were blacks without a criminal record. In New York, Latinos and African Americans without criminal records received fewer callbacks than did similarly situated whites, and at rates comparable to whites with a criminal record.
Similar patterns hamper the access of people of color to quality housing near good schools and jobs. Research by the U. Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD shows that people of color receive less information from real-estate agents, are shown fewer units, and are frequently steered away from predominantly white neighborhoods. In addition to identifying barriers facing African Americans and Latinos, this research found significant levels of discrimination against Asian Americans, and that Native American renters may face the highest discrimination rates up to 29 percent of all.
This kind of discrimination is largely invisible to its victims, who do not know that they have received inaccurate information or been steered away from desirable neighborhoods and jobs. But its influence on the perpetuation of poverty is nonetheless powerful. These modern discriminatory practices often combine with historical patterns. In New Orleans, for example, as in many other cities, low-income African Americans were intentionally concentrated in segregated, low-lying neighborhoods and public-housing developments at least into the s. In , when Hurricane Katrina struck and the levees broke, black neighborhoods were most at risk of devastation.
And when HUD announced that it would close habitable public-housing developments in New Orleans rather than clean and reopen them, it was African Americans who were primarily prevented from returning home and rebuilding. This and other failures to rebuild and invest have exacerbated poverty -- already at high levels -- among these New Orleanians. In the case of Native Americans, a quarter of whom are poor, our government continues to play a more flagrant role in thwarting pathways out of poverty.
Unlike other racial and ethnic groups, most Native Americans are members of sovereign tribal nations with a recognized status under our Constitution. High levels of Native American poverty derive not only from a history of wars, forced relocations, and broken treaties by the United States but also from ongoing breaches of trust -- like our government's failure to account for tens of billions of dollars that it was obligated to hold in trust for Native American individuals and families.
After more than a decade of litigation, and multiple findings of governmental wrongdoing, the United States is trying to settle these cases for a tiny fraction of what it owes. The trust-fund cases, of course, are just the latest in a string of broken promises by our government. But focusing as they do on dollars and cents, they offer an important window into the economic status that Native American communities and tribes might enjoy today if the U.
Meanwhile, the growing diversity spurred by new immigrant communities adds to the complexity of contemporary poverty. Asian American communities, for example, are culturally, linguistically, and geographically diverse, and they span a particularly broad socioeconomic spectrum.
While the Asian American poverty rate mirrored that of the country as a whole, Southeast Asian communities reflected far higher levels. Hmong men experienced the highest poverty level Over the last 30 years, most of the Middle East countries have been engaged in some sort of war and unrest; it is why the process of globalization and its subsequent challenges in this region have always had a crucial value in the political and cultural studies conducted on this region.
For example, three major approaches of the international geopolitics regard globalization through different points of view; first, the neo-liberal approach observes that the international markets create balance between the interests of all nations, and then decrease the possible challenges of identity. Second, the neo-real approach holds that government is the core of the international system while it underestimates the issues surrounding ethnicity and identity. And the third one, the neo-Marxist approach suggests that globalization is a new version of colonialism which not only increases vulnerability and interdependency of the developing world, but also widens the existing gaps between the rich and poor countries.
This approach, therefore, warns about the domination of identity and ethnic crises across the multi-cultural and multi-ethnic context of the Middle East.
A probable reason why globalization faces so many pitfalls in the Middle East, as one of the world's challenging regions, is that it has failed to keep pace with the global economic race which in turn results from the current socio-political conflicts including the identity and ethnic crises and challenges which make obstacle in this region's path to achieve development. The present paper attempts to evaluate the process of globalization as well as ethnic identity in the context of the Middle East while taking a critical sociological perspective; in doing so, it will take advantages of the attitudes of the protagonists and antagonists of globalization and ethnic identity, then, the internal and external forces that leverage these matters will be discussed in a parallel manner.
This introduction is followed by the section of definitions. In this section, we are going to provide the definitions of those essential terms applied afterwards. Following this part, several controversial and influential questions, which have weight in the geopolitical debates of the region, will appear to continue our discussion. Subsequent to these questions, our broad, yet flexible, theoretical perspective in relation with globalization and the identity and ethnic issues of the Middle East will be explained. We hold the opinion that the strength of our paper lies in its simultaneous addressing both the positive and negative consequences of globalization as a double-edged sword and their possible impacts on identity issues in general and ethnic identity in particular.
After this section, however, the fears and hopes of this discussion will be presented while we shortly look at the mechanisms and challenges imposed by globalization to ethnic identity in the region. The conclusion of our debates will come afterwards. The paper's recommendations for developing the possibilities of solving the current structural conflicts flaming in the region will terminate the discussion. These recommendations seem to be what the civilized democracy-based strivings of the contemporary elites of the Middle East share.
This paper poses several questions, which revolve around the process of globalization as well as its ensuing impacts on identity, especially ethnic identity, in the region under study. From now on, we take a double approach, and then discuss both the positive and negative consequences that globalization has brought for ethnic identity; yet we think it does not suffice and go on to explore the fears and hopes of this dominant process for ethnic identity in the Middle East.
How have the diverse ethnicities of this region reacted to the wave of globalization? Has globalization spurred the region's identity crises? What are the impacts of globalization on ethnicity in general and ethnic identity in particular? Do these impacts trigger ethnicalism or make it weaker against the greater identities, nationality and national or regional identities, for instance? Can we argue that the cultural diversities in the era of globalization, which are laden with technological achievements, maintain along with the national identities? Can the globalization of culture influence the progress of cohesive cultural identities or it results in undermining the ethnic, racial, and local linkages?
Finally, does globalization generally threaten the unity of the multi-ethnic countries and how is the influence of this process on the ethnicities of a given cohesive country? In the social sciences, identity is a general concept that is free of a certain space and time. The correlation between identity and culture is the main cause of this limitation, and the diversity of the current societies is due to this fact.
Eyvazi, In our era, due to the growth and spread of the communication technologies, different identities have been challenged, as across the modern communication spaces e. The very question that rises here is that " What is the relationship between information and communication technologies and cultural achievements ethnic identities, for instance and can we suppose it as an independent variable?
With respect to the artificial separations among the peoples which have appeared in form of limited geographical boundaries called "nation-states", it seems that the similarities and differences among the influential civilizations of the world have their roots in the culture and history of these civilizations, as a result, they are not the vintages of the fake and imposed distinctions of the colonial powers. Wallerstein, Ethnicity refers to a sometimes rather complex combination of racial, cultural, and historical characteristics by which human groups are sometimes divided into separate, and probably hostile, political families.
Ethnicity rises the whole socio-political question of national identity, which is why ethnic politics are often at their most virulent and important in Third World and other countries whose geographical definition owes, often, far more to European empire-builders than to any ethnic hegemoneity. It was precisely such problems, which led to conflict in Yugoslavia and the former Soviet Union in the early s once the power of communism, which had maintained artificial boundaries, collapsed.
Robertson, Ethnicity, however, is a term used to refer to the insights and methods of cultural interactions, which differentiates a certain community from the others. Suizi, The common feature and function of all the ethnic communities has been development and diversity at the level of human social cooperation. The sense of having a shared ethnicity by now has been a major core for individuals' identity-seeking. Held, Not only do ethnic phenomena differ in practical terms with each other, but also they are contradictory.
At one hand, we are facing a losing respect, and at the other hand, however, we notice the rise of the new ethnicities, the decline of the older ones, and the mobile cultural developments happening for these ethnicities. In the turn of the 21st century, we observed a widespread split among ethnicities and mobility in ethnic identity-seeking across the Middle East. The literature is abundant with samples of multiple identities, which not only include the peoples, but also other different classifications such as gender, region, religion, and class.
Ethnic identity is composed of some objective and subjective cultural, social, and political components that realize in a certain humane group Burton, which distinguish it from other counterpart groups, as identity should be consistent with the reality of that given group. Castles writes that ethnicity, as the source of identity, is becoming paler, not against the ethnicities, rather against nation and gender However, the concept of ethnic identity, in spite of its vanishing nature, reveals a series of imposed limitations on the roles one can apply for, and the parts that are eligible for making exchanges with.
Through its global aspects, the international system relates all the societies in form of a global social order. This can be simply considered as a "single global unit". Giddens, International system has been formed once the western societies experienced their extensive development that partly coincides with the seventeenth century, but at our era, the existence of an ever-connected system is amidst the compounds influencing people's life more than ever.
The Middle East is a term of European, chiefly British origin, with a wide and rather inexact scope. Its maximum definition comprises the countries along the southern and eastern coastlines of the Mediterranean Sea, from Morocco to Turkey, plus Sudan, the countries of the Arabian Peninsula, Jordan, Iraq, and Iran.
Human beings want the recognition of other human beings in order to become self-conscious—to know themselves as autonomous individuals. Academia purports to embrace the elusive goals of objectivity, but in reality we are all aware that the position and role of an observer often leads a researcher to espouse sympathy or a critique of a specific ideological perspective on a topic. The cultural milieu of Boston at the turn of the nineteenth century would increasingly be marked by the conflict between its older conservative values and the radical reform movements and social idealists that emerged in the decades leading up through the s. Becker, Marc. Sterling, Dorothy. Modern and historical forces combine to keep many communities of color disconnected from networks of economic opportunity and upward mobility.
In this paper, the term "the Middle East'', has got a functional dimension in its broader meaning. The borders of the new countries characterize this region, and albeit they have share features, they are believed to be of basic socio-economic systems. The end of the Cold War was thought to offer some hope for a more peaceful future in the region, and some progress was indeed made, but the region's internal sources of conflict proved sufficiently enduring for the Middle East to remain the world's principal source of insecurity.
Robertson, Putting these threats aside, still this region has had so much of rapid social, political, and cultural changes that have turned to a crucial opportunity for socio-political studies. Although this region has kept its various strategic significances, yet it should be regarded as a less-developed region. The deep-rooted decays which have afflicted this region for centuries, at one hand, and the recent revolutionary movements across the region for reviving the socio-political life, at the other hand, have situated this region at the core of the international debates.
Globalization has proved to be one of the hardest concepts to define, however, in the literature, numerous definitions have been suggested to the term" globalization'', among which we just point to those that cover the presented subjects of our paper. Globalization- the ongoing process of greater interdependence among countries and their citizens- is complex and multi-faceted. Many of the problems the critics of globalization point to are real.
Some of them relate to economics. Others relate to non-economic, but no less important, aspects of life. And while some of the problems do stem from the process of global integration, others do not.
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Fischer, Giddens, in his turn, tries to define the term as follow: " I would have no hesitation…in saying that globalization, as we are experiencing it, is in many aspects not only new, but also revolutionary… Globalization is political, technological, and cultural, as well as economic.
Others assert that globalization is mobility and transformation at the scale of human organizing Held, Naderpoor defines the term as an ever-increasing coordination for solving the problems of human society. In other words, globalization equals with Americanization of the international economy.
Miz, Globalization, as a process, is assumed the continuation of the experiences of modernism. The developments that were made in thought and techniques in the preceding century joined hands with the extension of the communication systems as well as trying different economic systems and gave rise to this idea that globalization will determine the fate of every society; the cultural dimension of this fate is characterized by accepting the modern values i.
Finally Martin et al have pointed out that, "To speak freely of globalization tends to show that, due to the expanded economic, financial, informational, human inflows, we are aiming at an integrated world, and that this evolution is new and unavoidable. Every researcher of geopolitics and the socio-political issues takes a different approach to regional studies. Among the common approaches in regional studies, however, we adopt the theory of systems for our paper.
First, we think it better to present a short definition for the terms region, region divisions, and the significance of regional studies. In strategic literature, region compromises several countries, which due to their shared geographical linkages or common interests are related to each other.
Cantori and Spiegel observe region as containing several countries that are geographically close to each other while having interconnected foreign policies. Regions have been divided in numerous different manners. A famous classification made of regions, for examples, suggests that the world is dividable into three categories:. Central regions: The regions that are characterized with political stability, developed economy, and capability in intervening in the affairs of other regions Europe and North America, for example ;.
Middle regions: Regions with characteristics like close relationship with their central counterparts and rapid shift toward political stability and economic development central Europe, East Asia, and Latin America, for example ; and. Sub-regions: The regions that are encountering political conflicts, developing economy, and widespread identity challenges Balkan, south Asia, and the Middle East, for example.
It was believed for a while that the regional and national studies have lost their importance for the benefit of the continental and international studies; however, the recent developments and democracy-seeking movements of the Middle East which took place in search of more democracy and justice, proved that the regional studies, at least for the crisis-stricken region of the Middle East, have still maintained their strategic importance. Regions are supposed to be an important aspect of the international politics. Since the end of the Cold War, however, the importance of regional relationships has grown and in light of that, nowadays we notice more regional conflicts and collaborations.
Morgan, ; Ja'afari, Regional systems will take a great part in the controversies of the future for example, Persian Gulf Cooperation Council has taken the first steps in establishing a collective security system in the region. Lake and Morgan, Making grounds for promoting regional collaborations: The recent initiatives made for inter-regional dialogues for example, the dialogues held between Arabs and the Europeans or Europe talks with North Africa. The significance of such provisions has doubled in recent years in shaping the developments of the Middle East. Spiegel, Cantori and Spiegel propose three different systems: global system the dominant system ; subordinate system regional ; and internal system nation-states.
According to them, the regional systems are located between the global and internal systems. Moreover, each subordinate system consists of several interactive neighboring countries that have common cultural, social, historical, ethnical, and lingual characteristics. They add that the sentiments of assimilation and identity are sometimes triggered by the interventions from the side of external countries.
Thompson identifies the following features for the subordinate systems: a the presence of common historical, social, cultural, and lingual backgrounds for convergence; and b active mutual interdependence among the members that provides the necessary sensitivity for the appearance of convergence among them. Geographical status: with characteristics like borders and weather e. Historical, cultural, lingual, ethnic, religious, and racial connections; the oil-producer countries of the Middle East, for example, are extremely dependent on each other in oil production and its pricing.
During the 20 th century, the world experienced, among others, two major phenomena: globalization and regionalism. An approach believes that globalization and regionalism are contradictory, because globalization removes the conventional borders. Morgan, ; Ziegler, Another approach suggests, however, that these two phenomena bolster each other and accordingly, the efforts of this region's countries to get out of this deadlock and walking into the way of development are intellectual and rational. Buzan, The different approaches to globalization have their own followers in the intellectual circles, and with respect to the emphasis that cultural approaches put on cultural particularism against universal generalism of globalization, it has drawn the attentions of the protagonists of cultural particularism and ethnic identities.
Golmohammadi, Regarding the attitudes of European researchers and some supporters of the flourishing and development of ethnic identity toward this cultural approach, there are some disagreements. Some researchers believe that the core of discussions on globalization in the Middle East is often the resistance of this region to this process Ahmadi, which has showed itself mainly in the form of growing national identities within the national states instead of growing ethnic identities against national identity.
As Mohamed El-Shibiny puts it:" There is real fear of globalization in this part of the world, and it is seen as a threatening force in many quarters. In addition to make distinction between the current terms in this field, we should present different theoretical approaches to globalization and the way they are going to challenge ethnicity and ethnic groups in the Middle East.
The following is a quadruplet classification of the common theoretical approaches regarding the interactions between globalization and ethnicity or ethnic identity:. World system approach, which is based on the famous division of the world into center, periphery, and quasi-periphery. Reconstruction radicalism, however, had its limits.
Nonetheless, Reconstruction witnessed a remarkable political revolution in the South.
In , African American men in the defeated Confederacy were given the right to vote and hold office—a radical departure from pre-Civil War days, when blacks could vote only in a handful of northern states. A politically mobilized black community joined with white allies to bring the Republican Party to power throughout the South, and with it a redefinition of the purposes and responsibilities of government. For the first time in American history, black men held positions of political power, ranging from the US Congress to state legislatures, and local sheriffs, school board officials, and justices of the peace.
The Reconstruction ideal of interracial democracy and color-blind citizenship eventually succumbed to a counterattack from violent organizations like the Ku Klux Klan and the progressive abandonment of the principle of equality in the North and the idea of federal intervention to protect the rights of the newly freed slaves. Not until the "Second Reconstruction"—the civil rights revolution of the s—would the United States once again seek to come to terms with the political and social consequences of the destruction of slavery.
With the overthrow of biracial state governments in the South and the withdrawal of the last federal troops from the region by President Rutherford B.
Hayes in , the era of the Civil War and Reconstruction came to an end. But conflict continued in the arena of historical interpretation and public memory. In the North, the Grand Army of the Republic, the organization of war veterans, became a fixture of Republican politics and a presence in every northern community. Even as the Republican Party abandoned its earlier idealism, the loyalties created by the war helped it retain national dominance well into the twentieth century.
In the South, the Confederate experience came to be remembered as the Lost Cause, a noble struggle for local rights and individual liberty with the defense of slavery conveniently forgotten. By the turn of the century, as soldiers from North and South fought side by side in the Spanish-American War, it seemed that the nation had put the bitterness of the s behind it. With northern acquiescence, the Solid South, now uniformly Democratic, effectively nullified the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments and imposed a new racial order based on disenfranchisement, segregation, and economic inequality.
Historical accounts of Reconstruction played an important part in this retreat from the ideal of equality. For much of the twentieth century, both scholarly and popular writing presented Reconstruction as the lowest point in the saga of American history. Supposedly, Radical Republicans in Congress vindictively fastened black supremacy upon the defeated Confederacy and an orgy of corruption and misgovernment followed, presided over by unscrupulous "carpetbaggers" northerners who ventured south to reap the spoils of office , "scalawags" white southerners who cooperated with the Republican Party for personal gain , and ignorant and childlike freed people.
More recently, in the wake of the civil rights revolution of the s, scholars have taken a far more sympathetic approach to Reconstruction, viewing it as an effort, noble if flawed, to create interracial democracy in the South. The tragedy was not that it was attempted, but that it failed. Overall, the era of the Civil War and Reconstruction raised questions that remain central to our understanding of ourselves as a nation.
What should be the balance of power between local authority and the national government; who is entitled to American citizenship; what are the meanings of freedom and equality in the United States? These questions remain subjects of controversy today. In that sense, the Civil War is not yet over.
David H. Donald New York: Touchstone, , 93— Headquarters: 49 W. Skip to main content. History Now. Time Period. Content Type.
Fulltext search. AP Curriculum Period 5: Coverage Geographical North South. Creator Eric Foner.