Senator from the State of Washington. Making Turkey Safe for Democracy? Policy on Eurasian Energy. With varying degrees of success, authoritarian regimes frequently co-opt their citizens to gather information on and undermine their domestic opposition.
According to Martin Dimitrov, communist Bulgaria's ability to suppress dissent was diminished from the s onward because the Western-led international human rights regime forced the government to replace harsher methods it had previously used with a system of rewards for volunteer informants and reprimands for dissidents. The ineffectiveness of these tactics contributed to the regime's eventual collapse. In contrast, Joseph Sassoon explained that Iraq's Ba'th Party—unable to rely upon a superpower for support and steeled by a series of wars—was able to remain in power for thirty-five years in part because it did not relax its efforts at co-optation and repression as the regime matured.
Uniting Against Terror: Cooperative Nonmilitary Responses to the Global Terrorist Threat (The MIT Press) [David Cortright, George A. Lopez, The Honorable Lee. Editorial Reviews. Review. "This valuable volume makes clear that national interests and Uniting Against Terror: Cooperative Nonmilitary Responses to the Global Uniting Against Terror argues that defeating the global terrorist threat.
Education for Democracy in Ukraine. Membongkar Teks Ambigu. Semua Bahasa English. Unfortunately, terrorist attacks continued to persist. These latest attacks are indeed a worrying sign of rising Islamist terrorist activity not only on the main island of Java but also in other parts of the archipelago. It is significant to note that Indonesian terrorist groups, as the International Crisis Group ICG has reported, have built their institutional and personal networks not only in towns around Java but also in Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Maluku.
The Surakarta-based terrorist cell Tim Hisbah has been accused of being behind a series of recent terrorist activities in the country, including the bombing of a church in Surakarta last year. But the latest attacks in the city, as National Police chief Gen. Timur Pradopo said, were possibly committed by a new radical group The Jakarta Post, September 1, Rather, they target police posts and a police mosque, as was the case in Cirebon of West Java.
It is, therefore, obvious that these terrorist groups have now changed in terms of actors, interests, motives, objectives, financial resources, or perhaps even the ideology behind their deadly activities. The new terrorism emerged as part of a larger set of related problems associated with the cold war's end and with accelerated economic globalization.
This "problem cluster" encompasses: the proliferation of failed and fragile states, the post-Cold War rise in communal violence, the uncontrolled profusion of light military weapons, the failure to reintegrate large numbers of demobilized military personnel and guerilla veterans, the increased transnational flow of refugees and illicit materials, and the spread of underground economies and black markets. Viewing al-Qaeda and similar formations historically also provides critical lessons about the limits and risks of proxy warfare, arms transfers, and military assistance programs.
Significant attention has been focused on the problem of state support or toleration of terrorist organizations. More relevant to the emergence of al-Qaeda and the legion of "Afghan Arab" guerillas, however, is the common practice of states pursuing their national objectives through the provision of arms and support to "third party" military establishments, insurgent movements, ethnic militias, and other armed irregulars. Under some conditions, this diffusion of military power can have serious inadvertent consequences, as the Afghan case suggests.
It is a problem exemplified by the threat to US assets and forces presently posed by Stinger anti-aircraft missiles originally provided by the United States to anti-Soviet Afghan guerillas. An essential part of threat abatement is reviewing the protocols governing foreign military assistance and relationships. Developing a historical perspective on al-Qaeda and the Afghan crisis will help illuminate this review. In summary: specifying the terrorist challenge and contextualizing it is essential to the development of a strategy and program that can effectively combat the current threat and reduce the potential for future ones to arise.
As important as seeing and gauging the threat correctly is the need to address it systematically. As noted in the introduction, the post September anti-terrorist effort is multi-faceted and multi-national involving a dizzying array of agencies and measures worldwide. Since 11 September US policy has been largely guided by a simple moral compass.
This is an essential, but insufficient instrument. What is notably lacking is a well-articulated strategy -- a concept and plan that might unify disparate efforts and reconcile them with the full range of important national goals. Strategy is like a map that can facilitate movement through complex terrain and toward a desired end. Without it, the effort against terrorism will be, at best, scatter-shot and inefficient; at worst, it will be ineffective and perhaps counter-productive or even self-defeating. Without a strategic vision it is hard to gage the progress of the anti-terrorist campaign, except in the most myopic ways.
What defines a real success or a serious reversal? How do we know when we have won the war or even if we are winning? How do we distinguish between wasted or counter-productive effort and sound investment? These questions are fundamental, but impossible to answer outside the context of a strategic discourse on combating the present danger. Among the factors weighing against the development of a well-integrated and coherent counter-terrorism strategy and program is the competition among disparate bureaucratic, parochial, and political interests.
Normally, under conditions of scarcity, this competition might stimulate and serve a debate on strategy which, after all, concerns the allocation of scare means among competing ends. In the present circumstance, however, the sense of public emergency has removed many resource and other constraints.
Specific case studies, focusing on recent conflicts in Haiti, Iraq, South Africa, and the former Yugoslavia, demonstrate the principal aspects of economic sanctions" Account Options Their three-prong strategy included self-reflection and learning, peer advice, and policy advice Wils and Dudouet, , p. The staff of the nonproliferation committee reviews reports from states on their efforts to implement prohibitions on the proliferation of deadly weapons to nonstate actors. Smart sanctions : targeting economic statecraft Book 13 editions published in in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. As editors and researchers with multiple administrative and teaching tasks, our work on the chapters here and the wider volume has been sustained throughout the past few years by a team of close colleagues. It also place legal obligations on member states requiring them to freeze any financial assets of terrorist and supporters, deny travel means or safe havens for terrorists, and prevent their weapon supply and recruitment. The fight against terrorism is constantly in the news, and NATO has committed to the mission of c….
Also relaxed have been the typical public reservations concerning unilateral action abroad and the use of force. In this context, the development of a thoughtful and far-sighted strategic discourse requires special intervention. Public policy is seldom led by a well-integrated or fully coherent strategy.
Indeed, this may be unachievable in any complex, vibrant, pluralistic polity. Nonetheless, strategic discourse plays a vital role by informing choice and enabling evaluation. It brings to the fore issues of scarcity, priorities, short- and long-term goals, and inadvertent effects. It brings options and choices into public view, illuminates the tension between competing goals, and fosters a fuller consideration of the risks, costs, benefits, and opportunities associated with different paths of action.
With regard to building a campaign against terrorism, there are multiple options to consider: Effective action against the new terrorism might combine direct and indirect measures.
Direct measures are those aiming to uncover and engage terrorists, their activities, and their supporters. These include active efforts at detection, disruption, apprehension, interdiction, and emergency response. Direct measures also include passive or routine efforts at screening and protection. Indirect measures would address the conditions that facilitate the growth, activity, power, and influence of terrorist organizations.
An effective counter-terrorism program might employ a variety of military and non-military instruments. The former include covert, special, and conventional operations as well as military cooperation and assistance efforts.
Non-military efforts would include intelligence, law enforcement, civil protection, and emergency response activities. Indirect non-military measures might include arms control, conflict resolution, development assistance, and "nation building".
An effective counter-terrorism program would also have national and international or global components. Some actions would be undertaken on a unilateral basis, others multinational, and others global. New international and global efforts may entail the need for new partnerships and for new "international regimes" if not new institutions.
Each of these sets of options poses the same question: How should the United States choose among, balance, and integrate the available measures and instruments for dealing with terrorism?
This would be the subject matter of a strategic discourse on terrorism. And while a firm and final answer may not be possible, exploring the question will provide the nation and its leadership with better criteria for assessing the results of the campaign.
The events of 11 September themselves suggest the first, essential step toward developing an effective counter-terrorism strategy: a thorough and dispassionate examination of the circumstances leading to the catastrophe. This bears directly on the effort to find an appropriate balance among the various types of counter-terrorist measures. Given the singular gravity of the attack, one would think that - a year later -- the investigative faculties of the nation would be fully engaged.
But examination of the multiple failures of intelligence and protection that litter the road to 11 September has been temperate and constrained -- as though there was little to be learned. In fact, there is quite a lot worth examining. Even before the attack, increased US military activity in the Persian Gulf had generated new concerns about the potential for terrorist attacks on the US homeland.