Tribology In Chemical-Mechanical Planarization

Chemical mechanical polishing of steel substrate using aluminum nanoparticles abrasive slurry
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Abstract: Chemical mechanical polishing CMP has become the preferred technology to achieve global planarization of wafer surfaces. Especially in oxide CMP, mechanical factors have a greater effect on the removal rate than chemical factors.

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So, the effects of mechanical parameters in CMP can be expressed as friction force and heat caused by friction. The friction force can be evaluated by a CMP friction force monitoring system and process temperature can be obtained by an infrared rays IR sensor. Furthermore, friction energy can be calculated from the friction force monitoring system. In this paper, research on the correlation between frictional and thermal characteristics of SiO2 slurry and CMP results was conducted.

This data, which was obtained by using integrated monitoring system for CMP, will lead to the efficient prediction of CMP results.

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Login Register. During these polishing processes, tribology is one of the important factors. Jui-Chin C, Wen-Ta T Effects of hydrogen peroxide and alumina on surface characteristics of copper chemical-mechanical polishing in citric acid slurries. Rosales-Yeomans and T. Teramoto, A.

Abstract: Polishing pad plays a key role in determining polish rate and planarity of a chemical mechanical planarization CMP. The properties of the pad would deteriorate during polishing because of pad surface grazing, which results in reduced removal rates and poorer planarity of wafer surface. Pad conditioning and its influence on pad surface structure and CMP process is introduced and discussed in this paper. Tribology is concerned with the study of friction, lubrication and wear its name comes from the Greek "tribo" meaning to rub and corrosion is concerned with the chemical and electrochemical interactions between a material, normally a metal, and its environment.

As a field of research tribocorrosion is relatively new, but tribocorrosion phenomena have been around ever since machines and installations are being used.

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Wear is a mechanical material degradation process occurring on rubbing or impacting surfaces, while corrosion involves chemical or electrochemical reactions of the material. Corrosion may accelerate wear and wear may accelerate corrosion.


Both these phenomena, as well as fretting corrosion which results from small amplitude oscillations between contacting surfaces fall into the broader category of tribocorrosion. Erosion-corrosion is another tribocorrosion phenomenon involving mechanical and chemical effects: impacting particles or fluids erode a solid surface by abrasion, chipping or fatigue while simultaneously the surface corrodes.

Tribocorrosion occurs in many engineering fields. It reduces the life-time of pipes, valves and pumps, of waste incinerators , of mining equipment or of medical implants , and it can affect the safety of nuclear reactors or of transport systems. On the other hand, tribocorrosion phenomena can also be applied to good use, for example in the chemical-mechanical planarization of wafers in the electronics industry [4] or in metal grinding and cutting in presence of aqueous emulsions.

It is important to understand material degradation processes for joint implants to achieve longer service life and better safety issues for such devices. While tribocorrosion phenomena may affect many materials, they are most critical for metals, especially the normally corrosion resistant so-called passive metals. The vast majority of corrosion resistant metals and alloys used in engineering stainless steels, titanium , aluminium etc.

These metals are thermodynamically unstable in the presence of oxygen or water and they derive their corrosion resistance from the presence at the surface of a thin oxide film, called the passive film , which acts as a protective barrier between the metal and its environment.

Chemical Mechanical Planarization and PID Controllers

Nevertheless, they can provide excellent corrosion protection because if damaged accidentally they spontaneously self-heal by metal oxidation. Further, post CMP characteristics such as dishing, erosion and metal loss on patterned samples were shown to decrease with increase in slurry flow rate. This research then concentrates on the development of novel low defect slurry using polymer hybrid abrasive particles.

Several varieties of surface functionalized polymer particles were employed to make oxide CMP slurries. These novel slurries proved to be potential candidates to reduce surface damage during CMP as they resulted in low coefficient of friction and much less surface scratches as compared to conventional abrasives.

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Thus, this research helps to reduce defects and non-planarity issues during CMP process thereby improving yield and reducing the cost of ownership. Mudhivarthi, Subrahmanya R. Graduate Theses and Dissertations.

Fluid Pressure, Friction and Wear

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