archon.cardiffwomensaid.org.uk/quick-reference-clinical-chiropractic-handbook.php Tourists visit the U. Americans seek similar attractions as well as recreation and vacation areas. Tourism competes in the global market, so it is important to understand current trends in the U. Therefore, this article offers insight into important trends and suggests strategies for policy makers involved in the travel and tourism industry.
Keywords: travel and tourism industry; destination management; travel behavior. It has been noted that it is humankind's most appropriate metaphor.
The notion of travel is hard-wired into the human experience. In ancient times, travel was motivated by the desire for exploration, discovery, and enrichment, and times have not changed much. A longing to explore, to discover, and to become enriched still drives people to travel today.
The desire to travel has made travel and tourism the number one industry in many countries of the world and the largest service sector for the United States. The travel and tourism industry is one of the few industries credited with producing a positive trade balance for the U. It is one of the largest employers, developing workers at all levels and areas of expertise. Outside the U. The average overseas visitor to the U. But the travel and tourism industry is exceedingly complex. In fact, it has been called the "industry of industries," in recognition of the fact that travel-related firms range in size from multinational enterprises operating out of high-rise towers to individuals selling travel products and services from their homes.
Furthermore, the tourism industry still faces the challenge of cautious consumers due to current economic, social, and political realities. Tourism competes in a global market, and it is important to understand the current trends in the industry. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are: to offer insight into important trends in the U. The U. The benefits of the U. The tourism industry produces the following benefits.
It stimulates the economy. Foreign tourists often spend three times that of domestic travelers - an extraordinary investment in the U. While the tourism industry has suffered in today's rough economic climate, additional taxes, such as the one proposed under the Travel Promotion Act, threaten to exacerbate the challenges faced by the industry. The money would be used to create marketing campaigns to help bring visitors to the United States. However, the more visitors spend in taxes, the less they have to spend in the United States on everything from hotels to cabs and souvenirs.
It promotes America's image abroad. When foreign travelers come to America, interact with Americans, and gain an understanding of what makes America great, they share these positive experiences with members of their own society, helping to improve America's image. It keeps Americans safer. Programs like the Visa Waiver Program VWP - which allows visitors from member countries to come to the United States for up to 90 days without a visa - bring more tourism dollars into the United States.
Furthermore, the information-sharing agreements that go along with country membership in the VWP help the U. Arrival records were set by 72 countries, nine of which were among the top 10 inbound markets Otti, U. Therefore, last year, the growth in arrivals was driven more from the emerging markets than the top arrival markets. For adventure companies with U. Europe is second at The top 10 countries that sent the most visitors to the U.
Canada; 2. Mexico; 3. The United Kingdom; 4. Japan; 5. Germany; 6. France; 7. South Korea; 8. Australia; 9. Brazil; and This growth came entirely in travel to overseas regions, excluding Canada and Mexico, which experienced declines of one percent and three percent respectively Otti, U.
While Canada, Mexico, and Europe are still the dominant destinations of choice for Americans, other regions of interest are growing rapidly, most particularly Central America and Africa, followed by the Middle East and South America. For adventure travel companies, knowledge of where in the U.
Despite a fairly optimistic picture compared with last year, in the last two decades, the U. In addition, outbound travel continues to lag when compared to other nations, most particularly those in Europe. Alarmed by this deteriorating situation, the U.
While some individual destinations and private sector businesses from the U. Current trends in the global tourism industry. In response to current economic, social, and political realities, the current trends in the travel and tourism industry are:. By the year , tourism will be the world's largest industry.
We collected data from as many sources as possible: the grey and published literature, personal contacts, and especially the World Wide Web. Advanced Book Search Browse by Subject. But nr. Learn more about collecting Little Golden Books. They were asked to motivate their answers in order to develop an understanding of their perceptions. Blue A drive for quality is what distinguishes the blue company. On the basis of above study it is clear that the travel and tourism industry has growth potential and nowadays the trends for the future development are very high.
Travel and tourism is the third largest retail industry in the U. However, there has been a significant change in the industry since , with various sectors of the industry struggling and adjusting to the future marketplace. Therefore, change is needed. Change in the context of sustainability has been the subject of dedicated studies.
With reference to business organizations, the point is that these tend to have a clear commercial goal: profit. If value creation on the people and planet dimension of sustainability is added as a goal, then the company will act differently, i. It is essential of course that this change is not superficial and that sustainability goals are deeply embedded in the organizational goals Meadows, ; Doppelt, A vision is commonly defined as a powerful description of a desired future.
In the context of sustainability, the future component should be long term, where long term means looking further than the next five to ten years Meadows, ; Doppelt, ; Destatte, Here a difficulty arises: uncertainty increases with the length of the time considered. When uncertainty increases, developing a compelling vision and setting concrete goals to stimulate people to act sustainably becomes a daunting enterprise.
The implementation of sustainability has suffered greatly from this difficulty, or in other words from the complexity of the future Cavagnaro and Curiel, As it has been concluded above, the notion of sustainable development focusses on the long-term future and organizations need to develop a long-term, future-oriented vision to engage in it.
The future, especially the long-term future, is difficult to grasp. This is due to a number of reasons. Tourism is very much intertwined with other demographic, economic, social, technological, ecological and political and institutional developments in the highly globalized and hyperconnected society; it is composed of a number of domains that are highly interconnected and interdependent such as sports, hospitality, recreation, culture and arts, events, and travel , each with its own dynamics and perspectives Cooper and Hall, ; the services and facilities in the tourism opportunity spectrum are owned, managed or influenced by a diversity of public, semi-public and private parties Postma and Jenkins, In this study, foresight has been applied to sustainable tourism development in Europe by means of expert consultation.
Foresight has developed as an alternative to forecasting since the s, both in business practice e. Shell and in science e. Bergman et al. Contrary to conventional forecasting, foresight embraces the complexity, dynamics and non-linearity of the contemporary world. In this approach, it is not the past and present that are projected into the future, but it is the future that is projected into the present.
The driving forces of change and the key uncertainties are explored, and based on the outcomes scenarios are developed.
Such scenarios are not statistical predictions but lively descriptions of plausible futures, and in this respect they reflect a vision as intended by Meadows , Doppelt and Destatte as discussed in the previous section. As the scenarios are built upon the key uncertainties, all of the scenarios could materialize. Together the scenarios give an impression of how the world could look on the long term.
Essentially, the challenge for businesses and organizations is to be prepared for all of these futures. By anticipating the future in this way business will be more future proof. It implies a change from reactive to proactive behaviour. Varum and Melo and Buhalis and Costa regards this essential for the competitive power of tourism organizations and tourism businesses.
Give a concise description and explanation of why you consider it a driving force. An analysis of the answers to these questions resulted in a preliminary list of driving forces of change that was used as input for the next consultation round of these experts. By means of e-mail each expert was asked to select and rank the driving forces that are the most uncertain regarding its outcome or impact on sustainable tourism in They were asked to motivate their answers in order to develop an understanding of their perceptions.
The experts were also asked to add new associations to the descriptions if needed. This second consultation round gave insight in the level of uncertainty of the various driving forces and the nature of these uncertainties. Through an analysis of the results of both consultation rounds, two critical uncertainties were identified that, according to the experts, drive sustainable development of the tourism industry till together with the opposite directions towards which these uncertainties could develop.
Critical uncertainties refer to those driving forces of change that are both very important and very uncertain regarding its outcome. The uncertainty of these factors was expressed by describing the two extreme directions to which both could plausibly develop by The geopolitical situation could either lead to a relatively strong economic position of the EU or an economic position that is lagging behind. The resource base could either lead to complete reliance on conventional resources or complete reliance on new sustainable resources.
The two aforementioned critical uncertainties with their opposite directions of development form the basis of a cross with two axes that frame four possible scenarios. These were labelled as: back to the s, captured in fear, shoulders to the wheel and unique in the world. Figure 1 shows the scenarios cross. On the basis of the outcomes of the expert consultation and the causal loop diagram the scenarios were elaborated in consistent descriptions.
These descriptions are given in Table I. Business strategy is about creating long-lasting competitive advantage over competition Porter, To be successful businesses need to maximize the relevancy of the offering for their customers and the distinctiveness of the offering compared to other players in the market. In other words, they need both to meet the basic conditions necessary to compete in a market — the critical success factors — and to develop distinctive unique selling points that set them apart from the competition Daniel, ; Levitt, ; Johnson and Friesen, The specific mix of relevance and distinctiveness created by a business determines its position in the market, the so-called positioning Trout, ; Ries and Trout, Positioning offers the starting point to develop competitive advantage Trout and Rivkin, It has been stated that when the positioning is clear, the strategy — including a sustainability strategy and policies — will follow Van Eck et al.
In line with the definition of a sustainable organization reminded above Elkington, , Porter and Kramer , propose that sustainability policies can only be successful in the long run if they simultaneously create value for society and for the organization itself.
Addressing sustainability from a strategic perspective does not only imply redistribution of value, through, for example, philanthropy, but through shared value creation Porter and Kramer, , Concluding the discussion so far, it can be argued that in integrating sustainability into the core strategy, organizations face two challenges. The first is how to make sustainability relevant for the customers; the second how to use sustainability as a distinguishing factor related to the competition. Research shows Gfk Panel Services Benelux, ; Trendbox, that people generally have a positive attitude towards sustainability, but that sustainability is only relevant as a buying motive for a small, stable group representing per cent of sales per category.
In order to make sustainability relevant for the majority of customers, it should be integrated with existing buying motives Willems, The first question posed above has been at least tentatively answered. In this context, it should be noted first that organizations that have a clear sense of identity and use it as a starting point to shape all their policies and activities perform significantly better than companies that do not Harter et al.
The Herrmann Brain Dominance Model is widely used to support organizations in analysing and further strengthening their identity Herrmann, Using this model, Driessen describes four archetypal entrepreneurs, and consequently, four types of organizations that he labels as: the pioneer, the salesman, the manager and the professional. When applying the Hermann Brain Dominance model to the concept of organizational identity, four quadrants can be derived from two axes. The horizontal axis represents a continuum between seeking risk vs the need for control.
Some companies are more focussed on creating and chasing opportunities, and others more on bringing under control and managing their existing position in the market. The vertical axis represents a continuum between the tendency to rely on logical frameworks to support decision making vs the tendency to rely on the social context. The four quadrants are illustrated in Figure 2.
The DNA framework offers a typology of businesses that can be used in order to integrate sustainability at the core of a company, without jeopardizing the uniqueness of its business identity. In Table II , the four types of DNA are briefly described together with the strategic questions concerning sustainability. Each of the four DNA profiles can be used as a starting point for developing a distinctive positioning in connection with sustainability.
During the annual conference of the European Tourism Futures Research Network in , a workshop was provided for the entire network plus a few other experts. During the workshop, the participants were asked to discuss the links between the scenarios and the four types of business identity. Table III was made on the basis of the results of this workshop.
The table shows which direction tourism businesses with a certain identity have to take in making their company more sustainable, within the context of four different scenarios. Thus, future points were identified that describe the key strategic guidelines to achieve competitive advantage in relation to sustainable development. The future points can be used as guidelines to develop a compelling, future-directed, company-specific vision to foster change towards sustainability. The aim of the study that is described in this paper is to emphasize how sustainable development could guide tourist businesses to become more competitive, while contributing to better quality of life now and in the future.
The emerging scenario planning approach of foresight was used to develop four scenarios that paint a picture of four plausible futures of a sustainable tourism industry in Within the framework of each of the scenarios for four distinct types of organizational identity a vision and actionable strategic propositions are formulated. For four types of organizations, the study offers concrete and tailor-made suggestions for strategic action. The outcomes should form the input for further discussion of individual companies.
For a sustainable future they should be prepared for all scenarios and develop courses of action accordingly. Ideally this requires a process-oriented approach in which various stakeholders are involved. This allows the business to explore future uncertainties collectively, to exchange and discuss different interests, opinions and experiences, to learn from each other, and to stretch and challenge the thinking process, break paradigms and develop skills and competencies to deal with the complex future. Such a process-oriented approach to strategic planning fits into broader developments of democratization, knowledge development and learning c.
The approach has foresight and offers a valuable way to be applied to geographical areas other than the EU, and to other industries. Framework with four scenarios for a sustainable tourism industry by Future points for achieving competitive advantage in relation to sustainability, for four DNA profiles within the context of four scenarios for a sustainable tourism industry in Becken , S. Bergman , A. Buhalis , D. Eds , , Tourism Business Frontiers. Cavagnaro , E. Cooper , C. Daniel , D. Destatte , P.
Doppelt , B. Driessen , M. Elkington , J. Hall , C. Harter , G. This information can help hotel relation to hotels that do not use them. For both years Europe has the lowest show great interest: Table 4. China 9. Montenegro 8. India 7. Croatia 7. Republic of Congo 7. Vietnam 7. Romania 7. Namibia 7. Hong Kong 7.
Chad 7. United States 3,, 2.
China 1,, 3. Japan , 4. Germany , 5. United Kingdom , 6. France , 7. Spain , 8. Italy , 9. Russian Federation , China 75, 2.
India 28, 3. United States 16, 4. Japan 9, 5. Brazil 7, 6. Indonesia 6, 7.
Mexico 5, 8. Germany 4, 9. Spain 4, Of networks will be the best distribution these worldwide arrivals in , 1. The basic figures of the Greek tourism for are the following: 4. This situation the last 50 years for the Greek economy. The recession is expected to continue positive impact on the number of arrivals in in in the country. A number of reasons were behind occupancy levels as well as in prices. Discounts offered by hotels and travel retailers to attract customers reduced 6 Conclusions the average expenditure per arrival.
Moreover, due to the decline in arrivals in There is a global increase in tourism and the first six months of the year several luxury hospitality both in tourist arrivals and tourism resorts did not open before June. In addition, expenditure. As a result the year Montenegro and India, whereas the countries to date numbers turned positive as well.
The hotel capacity in reached the the necessary efforts in order to attract them and References Akbaba, A. Volume 25, Issue 2, pp. Gretzel, U. Barsky, J. Blum, S. Brownell, J. Clark, R. Managing Service Quality, 18 6 , pp. Claycomb, C. October Johnston, R. Jonsson, C.