Temperate Forests, Revised edition (Ecosystem)

Temperate Forests (Ecosystem)
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  1. Temperate Forest Ecosystems.
  2. Land Biomes: Temperate Forests.
  3. Facts On File, Inc., New York?

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TEMPERATE FORESTS Revised ykoketomel.ml i12/6/ 07 AM ykoketomel.ml Temperate Forests: Biomes and Ecosystems (Science Readers) [Yvonne Franklin] books with Prime Book Box, a subscription that delivers new books every 1, 2, or 3 Paperback: 32 pages; Publisher: Teacher Created Materials; 1 edition.

Children's Encyclopedia of Earth. Basics of Environmental Science. Oxford Dictionary of Earth Sciences. Oxford Dictionary of Plant Sciences. Oxford Dictionary of Ecology. Did you know that the papaya plant has 31 genders to choose from? Plant Love. Did you know there are flowers that never emerge above ground?

Did you know that avocado flowers are female one day and male the next? Furthermore, we hypothesized that the patterns of natural disturbances i. We expected disturbances in protected areas to be generally smaller and more complex in shape i. This hypothesis is based on the insights that disturbances outside protected areas are the result of both natural and human disturbances which can amplify each other, e. The alternative hypothesis was that high recent levels of natural disturbance activity supersede the signal of human land use, with similar disturbance patterns inside and outside protected areas.

Finally, based on local and regional studies highlighting the importance of climate variability 29 and landscape structure 30 for disturbance dynamics, we tested for a consistent global relationship among climate variability, relative topographic complexity, and the spatio-temporal dynamics of forest disturbances. If recent disturbance episodes are responding consistently to climatic and topographic drivers, we would expect to find a non-random signal in a regression analysis across our set of globally distributed landscapes H3. Alternatively, if responses vary among landscapes and cancel each other out at the global scale, the regression coefficients for these drivers would not differ significantly from zero.

Forest Ecology and Management

Disturbance dynamics between and varied strongly across the temperate forest biome. Approximately one-third of the landscapes studied representing The majority of the landscapes 23 landscapes, representing Disturbance patches in the moderate cluster were less complex i. Although only 9 of the 50 landscapes analyzed fell within the high disturbance activity cluster, they accounted for Characteristics of three global clusters of disturbance activity, determined based on satellite-derived disturbance metrics using Gaussian finite mixture models.

Landscapes from at least three continents were present in each cluster, and all three disturbance activity clusters were represented in both the southern and northern hemispheres. Disturbance activity clusters were associated with different major disturbance agents and tree genera Fig. Landscapes in the low disturbance activity cluster were frequently affected by multiple disturbance agents, with windthrow being the most prevalent agent.

Major bark beetle outbreaks were largely absent from this group of landscapes. In landscapes experiencing moderate disturbance activity in —, fire and bark beetle outbreaks were more prevalent compared to the low cluster. High disturbance activity was predominately associated with wildfire, with bark beetle outbreaks and drought also being important agents in highly disturbed landscapes.

Distribution of disturbance agents, tree genera, and tree species traits across three global clusters of disturbance activity cf. Bubbles are scaled relative to the occurrence of the two most important a disturbance agents and b tree genera within each cluster. Maximum tree height and wood density indicate a weighted trait distribution across landscapes in the respective disturbance activity clusters.

Boxplots denote the median center line and interquartile range box , with whiskers extending to three times the interquartile range and points indicating values outside this range. Test statistics and p -values are based on approximate Kruskal—Wallis tests with permutations. Dominant tree genera i. Low disturbance activity landscapes were largely dominated by broadleaved trees from the genera Nothofagus , Fagus , and Acer , i. The moderate disturbance activity cluster was characterized by both broadleaved and coniferous tree species, yet their average trait characteristics largely resembled those of the low disturbance activity landscapes.

Conversely, the high disturbance activity landscapes located in the southern hemisphere were mainly characterized by Nothofagus. The share of the single most dominant tree species on the overall species composition did not differ between landscapes in the low and moderate clusters. In high disturbance activity landscapes, however, the most important tree species was less dominant compared to landscapes in low and moderate clusters Fig.

For landscapes with high disturbance activity, however, the distribution of patch sizes and perimeter-area-ratios did not differ significantly between protected areas and their surroundings. Hence, there is a higher similarity between disturbances in protected and unprotected systems in areas that experienced high disturbance activity recently. Furthermore, patch size and patch complexity differed more strongly among disturbance activity clusters in protected systems compared to unprotected systems. Comparison of disturbance patterns inside and outside protected areas.

Inter-annual climate variability was an important driver of temporal disturbance dynamics in all three disturbance activity clusters. A 2-year and 3-year lag was most strongly supported by the data for the low and moderate disturbance activity clusters, respectively. Conversely, climate variability had an immediate influence on disturbances i. That is, warmer than average temperatures decreased the probability of disturbance in the following years Fig.

This effect of temperature was independent of variation in precipitation. In addition, disturbance probability increased following years with above average temperature and below average precipitation Fig. Predicted response of disturbance probability to temperature anomaly, modulated by precipitation anomaly.

Anomaly values are units of standard deviation with zero indicating the long-term mean. Y -axes are scaled differently across the three panels for clarity of presentation. Prediction uncertainty was estimated from model simulations, with the lower and upper limit representing the 2.

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We note that prediction intervals include both parameter and model uncertainty, and overlapping prediction intervals can occur despite significant differences in parameter values. The number of experimental replicates equals the number of study sites per cluster Low: 18, Moderate: 23, High: 9. We present a quantitative analysis of recent disturbance dynamics across the temperate forest biome. Variation in recent forest disturbance activity across the globe was considerable, spanning a large gradient of patch sizes and landscape area affected by disturbance.

Our results highlight that while extensive disturbances such as massive bark beetle outbreaks or severe large-scale fires have garnered considerable attention from researchers and the public recently, many temperate forests are dominated by small-scale disturbance events. This finding underscores the importance of a consistent quantification and analysis of disturbance dynamics across systems. The main disturbance agent affecting a system was more indicative of within-biome variation in disturbance activity than geographical proximity of landscapes or their location on the same continent or hemisphere H1.

Specifically, wind was an important agent responsible for small-scale disturbances in temperate forests Wildfires and bark beetle outbreaks, on the other hand, were the two most prominent agents associated with large and severe disturbances in recent years. However, the fact that both wind and wildfires occurred in all three clusters of disturbance activity highlights the considerable within-biome variability even within disturbance regimes characterized by the same agent.

Background

Tansley review Free Access. Temperate forests of North America occur in the eastern United States primarily as hardwood forests except for extreme high elevations and southeastern Coastal Plain pinelands and as conifer and mixed forests in parts of the western United States and Canada. Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed. Reis, F. Download the junior version pdf file. Heleno, S. Pretzsch, D.

Tree species composition was related to global differences in recent disturbances, with Northern Hemisphere temperate forests dominated by conifers experiencing elevated disturbance activity. This pattern can partly be explained by the general life-history strategy of conifers and their extensive coevolution with disturbances 32 , as many conifers are well adapted to either tolerate disturbances or swiftly recolonize disturbed areas.

An unexpected finding was that the dominance of the single most prevalent tree species was lower in landscapes with high disturbance activity compared to those with low and moderate disturbance activity. This contrasts with previous suggestions that disturbance risk increases if landscapes are dominated by a small number of tree species However, disturbances themselves can have a positive effect on tree species diversity 34 , Consequently, higher evenness in systems strongly affected by disturbances—as found here—could be a consequence of disturbances, rather than being causally related to them.

In large parts of the temperate forest biome, human disturbances dominate the landscape. Consequently, the disturbance patterns of unprotected systems differed from the natural disturbance regime observed in protected areas.

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In the majority of human-dominated landscapes outside protected areas, disturbance patches were larger and less complex than in protected areas, supporting our expectation H2. In landscapes affected by large-scale disturbances, however, the patterns in protected areas and their surroundings were similar. This suggests that large natural disturbances can override the effect of human land use and dominate landscape patterns in forest ecosystems.

As these events have been found to be particularly climate sensitive Fig. An important caveat associated with our analysis is that we could not consider vegetation structure and disturbance history as potential covariates in our analyses, resulting from the lack of a globally consistent data set on these variables. It therefore remains unclear whether the differences between protected and unprotected areas arise from a higher disturbance susceptibility of the latter systems, or whether they reflect management activities such as clearcutting in areas outside protected landscapes.

Disturbance history and ecological legacies can exert an important influence on current disturbance activity 37 , This is important as most of our study landscapes have been protected only for a few decades, and legacies from former land use might still persist. Furthermore, although our 50 protected landscapes cover the climatic envelope of temperate forests well Fig. Selecting areas with a long history of forest dynamics research enabled us to consistently compare patterns and responses across locally well-researched systems, but might also be a source of bias that should be considered in interpreting our results.

The finding of similar disturbance patterns inside and outside of protected areas in the high disturbance activity cluster may, for instance, partly result from the generally remote location of these particular landscapes, with limited human activity in their surroundings. Future analyses explicitly contrasting disturbances inside and outside protected areas could help to better understand the effect of human activity on disturbances, and quantify the impact of anthropogenically altered disturbance regimes on biodiversity 25 , Consequently, low severity disturbances and understory tree mortality were not considered, potentially leading to an underestimation of forest disturbance activity.

Science to Sustain the World’s Forests

Furthermore, Borelli et al. We are thus confident that the data set used here is able to capture the variability in severe canopy disturbances across the temperate forest biome. A remaining limitation of our analysis is the relatively short duration of our study period. The currently available disturbance time series from satellite data remain too short to characterize disturbance regimes 1 satisfactorily, and preclude the assessment of temporal trends in disturbance 7 , Consequently, we focused only on the effect of inter-annual climate variability rather than on long-term trends, using temperature and precipitation anomalies as predictors.

Future work should also consider the effect of climatic extremes and intra-annual climate patterns for refining our understanding of climate—disturbance relationships In addition, process-based simulation modeling 43 could be employed to obtain a more dynamic and long-term perspective on global disturbance regimes and their responses to a changing climate. Here we provide evidence that high recent disturbance activity in temperate forest ecosystems across the globe was strongly related to the joint occurrence of warmer and drier than average climate conditions H3.

These global scale findings are in general agreement with local studies 4 , 14 , 42 , 44 , 45 , particularly considering that our high disturbance activity cluster was dominated by wildfires, bark beetle outbreaks, and drought. Our results therefore suggest that a warming climate could facilitate large-scale disturbances in temperate forest ecosystems in the future 2 , Interestingly, our analysis suggests that both the effect of climate and the effect of topography reversed for landscapes characterized by low disturbance activity, compared to those with high disturbance activity.

For the former, which are predominately driven by wind disturbance, cooler and wetter conditions as well as higher relative topographic complexity increased disturbance probability 31 , which is consistent with decreased tree anchorage soil wetness and increased wind susceptibility exposed ridges, funnel effects under such conditions. However, the signals detected for low disturbance activity areas were generally weak, underlining the highly stochastic nature of small-scale mortality events in forest ecosystems.

We conclude by emphasizing the importance of protected areas for understanding changes in forest landscapes in the absence of direct human influences. Furthermore, our work highlights the importance of consistent global information for characterizing patterns and identifying drivers of important ecological processes such as disturbances. Quantitative baselines acknowledging the substantial spatio-temporal variability in ecosystems are needed to identify, monitor, and attribute changes in ecological processes.

The analyses presented here are an important step towards such an improved quantitative characterization of forest disturbances at the global scale, combining large-scale remote sensing data with ecological context information from local experts. An improved quantitative characterization of forest disturbances at the global scale can, for instance, inform the development and application of global vegetation models, which largely ignore the impacts of disturbances to date, or only consider a highly simplified representation of disturbance processes 18 , An improved consideration of disturbance processes in future projections is important as our results highlight the considerable sensitivity of disturbances to the ongoing changes in the climate system.

We conclude that the resilience and adaptive capacity of ecosystems to disturbances remain important priorities of forest research and management. We compiled a network of study landscapes distributed throughout the temperate forest biome as defined by Olson et al. Selection criteria were that the landscapes are protected i. I and Cat. Studying protected areas allowed us to largely control for anthropogenic disturbances and focus our main analyses on natural disturbances. We analyzed 50 landscapes distributed across 16 countries on five continents, representing a forest area of 3.

We acquired forest cover and annual disturbance maps — from Hansen et al. Only disturbance events that occurred between and were considered. To characterize disturbance patterns, we calculated two landscape-level metrics and two patch-level metrics for each study landscape, using an eight-neighbor rule for defining adjacency and considering disturbances throughout the entire study period. To identify differences and similarities in recent disturbance patterns across the temperate forest biome, we used Gaussian finite mixture models, as implemented in the R package mclust 48 version 5.

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