On Literacy and Its Teaching: Issues in English Education

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Please note that Subject Outlines and assessment tasks are updated each session. This subject assumes knowledge of core concepts and theory related to literacy and language education. It also assumes that students have successfully engaged in at least three professional experience opportunities. The University reserves the right to vary the information at any time without notice.

Toggle navigation. Availability Session 1 Duration One session. We joked a bit that I should have added a few more pitfalls into the game. Then one friend talked about how her pregnancy interrupted her tenure schedule. Another mentioned that being a Person of Color, she experienced discrimination and micro-aggression, which affected her path toward tenure. I then realized that more could be done to this game to reflect societal realities.

All technologies are inscribed by the values of their makers and shape the behaviors of the users. These models and frameworks provide helpful strategies for critical pathmaking in games. These games stand in contrast to games that have not been intentionally designed in such a way. Therefore, intentional consequences and constraints are important design features in games that are made to foster empathy and critical awareness.

Additional research has shown that critical pathmaking can also apply to app design. The development of this app changed the real opportunity pathway for students and had the effect of helping students see themselves as civic actors and leaders. One youth designer, Marina Malone , reflected on effects of the experience on her civic participation in a blog post:. As a part of this great community, I want to be the best I can be to help others be the best that they can be. In all these examples, designers must think not only about the technical design of the code, but also their own lives and the social context of the game play.

In the case of critical pathmaking, the connection to teaching English is more complex than the previous two themes. While this concept could serve to help students analyze the inherent values in a text or help writers think of their intentional framing, the agentive, dynamic aspects of the use of the game or app are unique to the realm of coding.

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Apperley and Beavis spoke to the difference between textual literacy and literacies linked to the action-based processes of digital game play. They wrote,. My final assignment was to design another, more complex game. This time, I decided to create a game that promoted civic understanding and used critical pathmaking to foster empathy and critical thought.

I created a game called Citizenville, in which the player is the mayor and has to make decisions that keep citizens happy and healthy and maintains a balanced budget easier said than done.

Department of Literacy Studies, English Education and History Education

Many of the scenarios that players encountered were based on real controversies, and historical effects of past decisions. Figure 3 shows code of one scenario and the result of one choice read the pseudocode for translation to understand each part. Peer craft was an important element for me in designing the game.

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On Literacy and Its Teaching. On Literacy and Its Teaching Issues in English Education SUNY series, Literacy, Culture, and Learning: Theory and Practice. The teaching of the English language has a long history in U.S. education; the Literacy education followed patterns of instruction that could also trace their ancestry to . Ongoing issues, problems, concerns, and debates over the English .

I found myself using several techniques that I had borrowed from other games I played in my quest to understand the genre. I taught consequences through game play rather than through explicit telling in order to help the player learn how to make good decisions and engage in a cycle of building expertise Bereiter and Scardemalia, , cited in Gee, I noticed that that narrative itself was important, so as the game went on, the story of Citizenville changed; statistics about the health of the citizens and budget shifted, and player decisions influenced the arc of the story. Like the textual poachers described in Pelletier et al.

Further, I asked multiple people to play the beta version of the game for peer review. Players gave me technical feedback as well as feedback on the content. For example, in the scenario in Figure 3, my son chose to give loans to private schools. When he learned that his decision ended up bankrupting all the public schools in the game, he began to ask questions about the issue in our own city, which led to a longer conversation about public education.

When a colleague and education scholar , played the game and got to the same scenario, she predicted the outcome more easily because of her knowledge of the issue and also stated out loud while she was playing the game what her own views were on the subject to explain her rationale and stance. By the time I finished designing the project and completed the course, I no longer felt I was learning to read and write commands and scripts.

I felt that I was learning how to make tools for social change. This understanding, of course, is what critical literacy educators hope their students will learn in English education; that learners see the power of words in shaping themselves and the world around them.

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This understanding came as a result of making and reflecting on that making, using the connected learning framework as a lens. The connected learning framework helped to reveal the themes of framing, peer craft, and critical pathmaking, which enabled me to take a more intentional approach to using code to design for critical thinking and civic engagement.

Furthermore, these themes bridged to the teaching of English and will help me to develop an integrative approach to teaching critical literacies of English and of code. The integration of code into literacy education under the framework of connected learning has several important implications for education. First, previous research has demonstrated the importance of digital texts and culture in the lives of youth.

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Further, new forms of digital communication and media-making also afford opportunities for students to participate more actively in civic discourse and work. Mirra and Garcia argued that educators must work to reimagine civic participation on the whole, given the role that digital tools for communication and production play in the lives of youth. Finally, the integration of coding into humanities disciplines like English may help to address not only the gender gap in STEM, but also the lack of representation of People of Color in in STEM and technology. At the time that I said it, I had meant that it represented some of my life experience.

Yet, looking back now, there is deeper meaning to what I said. The game I designed is an expression of myself to the world; my values, my thinking, and my funds of knowledge. A human life inscribed in the program. From the perspective of a literacy educator who has now learned the basics of coding and game design, it seems that the humanity of code can be revealed through the lens of critical literacy. Additionally, bridging critical literacies of English and computer code has potential to foster greater civic participation and agency.

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Adler, P. Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. Academy of Management Journal , 27 1 , 17— Alvermann, D. Popular culture in the classroom: teaching and researching critical media literacy. New York, NY: Routledge. Ames, M. Apperley, T. Literacy into action: Digital games as action and text in the English and literacy classroom.

Pedagogies: An International Journal , 6 2 , — A model for critical games literacy. E-Learning and Digital Media , 10 1 , 1— Apple, M. American Educational Research Journal , 27 2 , — Transformative teachers: Teacher leadership and learning in a connected world. Bali, M. Where is the humanity in the computer science curriculum? Barab, S. Transformational play: Using games to position person, content, and context. Educational Researcher , 39 7 , — Beede, D. Belman, J. Designing games to foster empathy. International Journal of Cognitive Technology , 15 1 , Buechley, L.

Textile messages: Dispatches from the world of e-textiles and education. Bullough Jr, R. Guidelines for quality in autobiographical forms of self-study research. Educational Researcher , 30 3 , 13— Clandinin, D. Navigating sites for narrative inquiry. Journal of Teacher Education , 58 1 , 21— Coleman, E. Coding freedom: The ethics and aesthetics of hacking. Connelly, F. Stories of experience and narrative inquiry.

Educational Researcher , 19 5 , 2— Cope, B.

Ten trends and innovations in English language teaching for 2018

Pedagogies: An International Journal , 4 3 , — Filipiak, D. English Journal , 5 , Fisher, K. Flanagan, M. Values at play: Design tradeoffs in socially-oriented game design. A game design methodology to incorporate social activist themes. Freire, P. Literacy: Reading the word and the world. London, UK: Routledge. Garcia, A. Teaching in the connected learning classroom. Gee, J. ED What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. Computers in Entertainment , 1 1 , 20—???? Video games and embodiment. Games and Culture , 3 3—4 , — Developing a sociocritical literacy in the third space.

Reading Research Quarterly , 43 2 , — Hayes, E. Making computer games and design thinking: A review of current software and strategies. Hsu, H. Using gaming literacies to cultivate new literacies. Hull, G. Ito, M. Connected learning: An agenda for research and design. Learning connected civics: Narratives, practices, infrastructures.

Curriculum Inquiry , 45 1 , 10— Jenkins, H. Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. MacArthur Foundation. Fans, bloggers, and gamers: Exploring participatory culture. Textual poachers: Television fans and participatory culture. By any media necessary: The new youth activism. Jewitt, C. Multimodality and literacy in school classrooms. Review of Research in Education , 32 1 , — Kafai, Y. A crafts-oriented approach to computing in high school: Introducing computational concepts, practices, and perspectives with electronic textiles.

Kanpol, B.

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The concept of eBooks has many positive applications in a classroom environment, as Pace asserts, but, as with any technology, regardless of its simplicity or complexity, concerns accompany its introduction into the classroom. A thorough review of that body of research is beyond the scope of this discussion, but meta-analyses by Lindsay and Mol and Bus are useful as starting points. Relationship of metalinguistic capabilities and reading achievement for children who are becomming bilingual. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96 2 , In compiling this issue, we contacted as many past editors as we could find and asked them to nominate at least one article for inclusion- ideally from their own period as editors - and write a short piece explaining why they felt this article was significant. English in classrooms: only write down what you need to know: annotation for what?.

Issues and trends in critical pedagogy. Kellner, D. Toward critical media literacy: Core concepts, debates, organizations, and policy. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education , 26 3 , — Kow, Y. Connected Learning Working Papers , 1— Larson, K. Safe space and shared interests: YOUmedia Chicago as a laboratory for connected learning. Latour, B.

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Where are the missing masses? The sociology of a few mundane artifacts. Law Eds. Studies in sociotechnical change pp. Luke, A. Critical literacy: Foundational notes. Theory into Practice , 51 1 , 4— Malone, M. Mawhinney, L.

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Coping with the crickets: A fusion autoethnography of silence, schooling, and the continuum of biracial identity formation. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education , 26 10 , — Mirra, N. Civic participation reimagined: Youth interrogation and innovation in the multimodal public sphere. Review of Research in Education , 41 1 , — Morrell, E.

The Reading Teacher , 66 4 , — Pelletier, C. Game design as textual poaching: media literacy, creativity and game-making. E-Learning and Digital Media , 7 1 , 90— Peppler, K. What videogame making can teach us about literacy and learning: Alternative pathways into participatory culture.

Retrieved from ERIC database. Peppler, Kylie A, Maltese, A.