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To make our appeal to common decency we recount how Machiavelli, through no fault of his own, came to the planet of the apes. Whiten, Andrew, and Richard Byrne. The insults to Machiavelli are not limited to the words. Published by Oxford Clarendon Press Published by OUP Oxford
In , Machiavellian Intelligence was the first book to assemble the early evidence suggesting a new answer: that the evolution of intellect was primarily driven by selection for manipulative, social expertise within groups where the most challenging problem faced by individuals was dealing with their companions. Since then a wealth of new information and ideas has accumulated. This new book will bring readers up to date with the most important developments, extending the scope of the original ideas and evaluating them empirically from different perspectives.
It is essential reading for reseachers and students in many different branches of evolution and behavioral sciences, primatology and philosophy. Product Details Table of Contents. Table of Contents Preface; 1. Machiavellian Intelligence Richard W. Byrne and Andrew Whiten; 2. Gardner proposes that seven varieties, two of which pertain directly to marketplace skills.
In addition to linguistic, musical, mathematical-logical, kinesthetic and spatial intelligences, Gardner proposes two "social psychological" intelligences. In a nutshell, intra personal intelligence is an ability to form an accurate valid mental model of oneself, and to use it for internal regulation and to operate effectively in everyday life. A second line of recent work comes from developmental psychology. Work here has focused on the way in which infants, children and adolescents develop and refine a "theory of mind".
We review some of this work as it pertains to persuasion and social influence in Friestad and Wright, , Another is the hypothesis advanced by evolutionary psychologists that human intelligence has evolved primarily to cope with the complexity of the social world, not the physical world.
And that in this evolution the psychological mechanisms have become functionally specialized for solving particular classes of adaptive problems see Buss ; Gigerenzer ; Wilson, Near and Miller Hence, the cognitive system and its psychological mechanisms are domain-specific, at least to enough of an extent to warrant treating them that way.
The mechanisms are richly-structured in a content-specific way. Because social problems represent the most challenging general type of problem, the domains of import are defined by te central social tasks. Tasks often cited are mate selection, family relations, and cooperation. In addition to the domains of courting, parenting, and getting along, it seems quite likely that successfully doing marketplace exchanges as both buyer and seller is a central and vital enough task to be treated as a plausible intelligence domain.
In summary, I invite you to consider a marketplace intelligence that includes a mindreading module of processing devices and knowledge specific to the marketplace, a Machiavellian module of conditional social influence strategies specific to the marketplace, and a "practical magic" module apologies to Alice Hoffman. The magic module includes inferential devices, heuristics and knowledge for implementing marketplace influence tactics in ways that will to others i.
And the countervailing devices, heuristics and knowledge for " seeing through" intended magic, the diversions, sensory illusions, logical-traps, and whatnot that others execute to achieve marketplace influence. If a marketplace intelligence of this sort seems plausible, is it also plausible that human culture offers tutoring on this to its children? Out of curiousity about this, I went back and looked for this in our American culture over the last century.
I can share some of what I found. Prompted by a serendipitous discovery of a full-length article on the psychology of selling in a Saturday Evening Post with an N. Wyeth cover illustration , I poured through all issues of magazine in the first two decades of this century. To my surprise and delight, the topics of everyday selling and buying behaviors were the subject of scads of articles in this, the most popular of American magazines.
When photocopied, the stack of articles is about three inches high! If so, it indicates that then, like now, children were faced with the task of learning to cope with advertisements, i. Note that the children of that era grew up to become the parents and teachers of my generation, and my generation likewise passes on market-related wisdom to our children, and so on.
Nicholas were in fact filled with advertising aimed at the children of the times. Lots of the adventure and mystery series for children, such as Nancy Drew, The Radio Boys, Tom Swift, Hardy Boys and Ruth Fielding, are ripe with allusions to persuasion strategies, con artists, and other social tactic stuff.
Hence, these offer a learning laboratory pertinent to marketplace behaviors. These are books for kids five to eight in age. The chapters often began with a little poem or homily. It turns out that these often conveyed tutorings about strategies for social influence.
Buy Machiavellian Intelligence II: Extensions and Evaluations (Bk.2) on Amazon. com ✓ FREE SHIPPING on qualified orders. This book aims to explain the intelligence of monkeys and apes, and the huge brain expansion that marked human evolution. In , Machiavellian Intelligence.
So, it has indeed been the case that American children of the last, say, years have had ample opportunity and necessity to develop marketing savvy. We suspect such has always been the case. The updating and diffusion of folk knowledge about persuasion and marketplace tactics has been commonplace in every culture, consistent with the argument that the marketplace task domain is vital and challenging, and could evoke a rich knowledge domain tailored to it.
The theme I have presented here has an implication beyond the research opportunity I have emphasized so far. We cannot highlight marketplace knowledge and marketplace intelligence without also being drawn to education about marketplace tasks and tactics. Relatively few members of the consumer research community have invested in either studying how to educate youngsters about marketplace tactics or in constructing effective tutoring programs and materials to get this done.
We have almost unilaterally serviced the "marketer" side of the marketplace game.
Perhaps we should consider how history will view this. Reading what he actually says reveals that he offers a fairly balanced and not wholly mean-spirited discussion of effective tactics. But he frames it only in terms of how the already-powerful in society, in his case the nobility, can effectively influence the less powerful, the everyday folks. It seems time for members of the consumer research community to face our responsibility to, and opportunity to, educate all segments of our population about the marketplace, not only the marketers whom we have traditionally serviced.
Buss, David M. Byrne, Richard W. Gardner, Howard New York: Basic Books. Wilson, David S. All Rights Reserved. Developed by aleksey cherfas.