For many tobacco users, the long-term brain changes induced by continued nicotine exposure result in addiction, which involves withdrawal symptoms when not smoking, and difficulty adhering to the resolution to quit. The pharmacokinetic properties of nicotine, or the way it is processed by the body, contribute to its addictiveness. But the acute effects of nicotine also dissipate quickly, along with the associated feelings of reward; this rapid cycle causes the smoker to continue dosing to maintain the drug's pleasurable effects and prevent withdrawal symptoms.
Withdrawal occurs as a result of dependence, when the body becomes used to having the drug in the system. Being without nicotine for too long can cause a regular user to experience irritability, craving, depression, anxiety, cognitive and attention deficits, sleep disturbances, and increased appetite. These withdrawal symptoms may begin within a few hours after the last cigarette, quickly driving people back to tobacco use. When a person quits smoking, withdrawal symptoms peak within the first few days of the last cigarette smoked and usually subside within a few weeks.
In addition to its pleasurable effects, nicotine also temporarily boosts aspects of cognition, such as the ability to sustain attention and hold information in memory. However, long-term smoking is associated with cognitive decline and risk of Alzheimer's Disease, suggesting that short-term nicotine-related enhancement does not outweigh long-term consequences for cognitive functioning.
In addition to the drug's impact on multiple neurotransmitters and their receptors, 30 many behavioral factors can affect the severity of withdrawal symptoms. For many people who smoke, the feel, smell, and sight of a cigarette and the ritual of obtaining, handling, lighting, and smoking the cigarette are all associated with the pleasurable effects of smoking and can make withdrawal or craving worse.
Nicotine replacement therapies such as gum, patches, and inhalers, and other medications approved for the treatment of nicotine addiction may help alleviate the physiological aspects of withdrawal 37—39 see " What are treatments for tobacco dependence? Behavioral therapies can help smokers identify environmental triggers of craving so they can use strategies to avoid these triggers and manage the feelings that arise when triggers cannot be. Research is showing that nicotine may not be the only ingredient in tobacco that affects its addictive potential. Smoking is linked with a marked decrease in the levels of monoamine oxidase MAO , an important enzyme that is responsible for the breakdown of dopamine, as well as a reduction in MAO binding sites in the brain.
Animal research suggests that MAO inhibition makes nicotine more reinforcing, but more studies are needed to determine whether MAO inhibition affects human tobacco dependence. Tobacco, Nicotine, and E-Cigarettes. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. September 20, Eastern Time. This series of reports simplifies the science of research findings for the educated lay public, legislators, educational groups, and practitioners. The series reports on research findings of national interest.
Skip to main content. Is nicotine addictive? Prev Index Next. Ultimately insiders say Apple may wish to bundle news, music and its new TV investments into a powerful alternative to Amazon Prime. Apple gears up for more bundling; Amazon Prime deals with the Washington Post.
With subscription unlikely to work for all, interest in alternative models is growing. Over a million people have given a one-off or continuing donation over the last three years and this could help the Guardian break even in Donations work well for organisations with a clear political ideology, providing a substantial amount of income for partisan UK websites like the Canary and Novara Media.
But giving money to a purely commercial organisation seems to be a harder sell. Newsrooms across Europe have started to employ dedicated fundraisers and set up philanthropic business units. In , we will see a lot more foundations move into supporting journalism. This will not be as part of a PR or communication strategy, but as an investment into an infrastructure they all rely on. Similarly, more news organisations will realise that philanthropic investment can give breathing space to revenue model experimentation, or fund under-resourced areas of reporting often science, health, or investigations.
Donation models could be supercharged this year by government initiatives to allow media companies to benefit from tax incentives when receiving charitable donations. The industry should do more to save itself. Commercial companies will increasingly have to deal with these dilemmas as it become clearer that parts of their traditional business are subject to market failure.
How to combine commercial and public models will be an increasingly important part of the next phase of the digital news journey. Where can the media expect most help in ?
Who do you think are most likely to provide significant additional support for journalism in ? The weakness of western media may not just be a problem for the companies themselves. It is striking that many authoritarian countries are investing directly in media and propaganda like never before. China, for example, is opening a new state of the art European TV hub in west London at the start of and will be pumping out news with a Chinese perspective in multiple languages — even as western news agencies and media companies are forced to scale back their foreign reporting:.
The Governments in countries which are currently not [at] the forefront of liberalism show great interest in providing money for media. Digital and social media has incentivised poor quality, repetitive and shallow journalism — so say the critics. But how might this change if readers set the agenda rather than advertisers? Could less journalism be better for society and create more impact? It will largely ignore breaking news but tackle four or five stories each day through its website, app and newsletter.
Tortoise Media Thinkin, December Source: author photo. Tortoise is targeting 40, paying subscribers by the end of the year, but will supplement this with sponsorship and regular live events. De Correspondent is billed as an antidote to the endless scroll of digital platforms and the stream of news notifications. Like Tortoise, it taps into a desire to slow down, to consume deeper and more meaningful journalism, but also to connect with like-minded people.
Until now, the slow news movement has been limited in terms of its impact and scale — but there is no doubting the ambition of these two projects. It will be fascinating to see if these bold experiments in journalism can reach beyond a small number of concerned citizens and ultimately make enough money to survive. News organisations have traditionally been highly competitive at every level but could that change in ? More co-operation could help create the scale to counter platform power and defray the costs of ever more complex technology. International journalistic collaborations have also demonstrably created impact around subjects such as the Panama Papers, while Bureau Local in the UK has shown the value of combining centralised data collection and analysis with strong local reporting.
Fact-checking initiatives such as Comprova in Brazil and Verificado in Mexico have forced newsrooms to work together in new ways at election time. News organisations have traditionally been competitive, but should that change? To what extent do you agree that they should …? Broadly I think publishers should look to a model where we share technology which solves our common issues and then use our journalism to differentiate our output.
The Washington Post has been making the running on technology with its ARC Publishing Platform, which it has built from scratch to build pages, manage paywalls, test headlines, distribute content post to outside platforms, as well as collecting and analysing data. But lining up customers willing to pay six- and seven-figure sums for publishing technology may be a tall order in a digital media industry where money is in short supply. Meanwhile a range of other publisher initiatives is likely to progress further in The Ozone Project is a standalone non-profit business that is trying to solve issues that affect everyone — saving time and money for all.
The explosion of content and the intensity of the hour news cycle have put huge pressure on individual journalists over the last few years. This at a time when the relative status and pay of journalists has declined compared with other professions. Concern about talent and burnout in the newsroom.
Looking at the detailed results, burnout concerns were most keenly felt in editorial roles whereas talent attraction and retention issues applied particularly to product and technical roles. For technical and IT staff, we struggle to meet market levels pay, conditions, career opportunities. Swiss publisher. Leading a group of product, UX and tech, News and Media is a long way from first choice for most talented staff.
How to Lead Your Peers and Others Who Do Not Report to You FT Press Delivers Elements and Turbulent Times You Cant Expect Others to Save You In How to. How to Lead Your Peers and Others Who Do Not Report to You FT Press Delivers Elements. We find Turbulent Times You Cant Expect Others to Save You In.
Product Head, leading UK publisher. Some publishers report a growing tension between the pay levels of technical staff and those of journalists. Meanwhile radio broadcasters report difficulties in retaining editorial talent with the boom in podcasts opening up new opportunities for presenters and producers. The issue of gender equality has been a focus in the last year in the UK where media companies were forced to reveal pay gaps between men and women for the first time.
Press Gazette analysis showed that 91 per cent of UK-based media companies paid men more than women and that men occupied the vast majority of senior roles. And in the US, there is an increasing focus on political diversity with many newsrooms accused of anti-Trump bias and being out of touch with middle America. The vast majority of our industry is populated with liberals.
The world is not as overwhelmingly liberal as the news industry, making us a bit out of step with a good number of potential paying readers. What are we going to do about that? In expect to more awareness of the link between diversity and business success. Colleagues helped build up lists of high profile women in finance while Bloomberg launched a New Voices initiative to give media training to women executives.
In a Twitter thread, Bartenstein argues 48 that this has given him a competitive advantage and leads to more interesting and higher impact stories. Gender awareness thread; gender equality tracker United States. Diversity metrics: More newsrooms will start to use automated tools like Prognosis see figure above that monitor gender and ethnic diversity of content on websites by counting the names of interviewees 49 or analysing pictures.
This awareness in turn will make editors more aware of their own biases. The Financial Times has created a dashboard that monitors the reading habits of existing female subscribers to encourage editors to create more content that might appeal to women. One unexpected by-product was that this newsletter also proved a hit with disengaged male readers. Publishers tell us that they are planning to invest more this year in harnessing the potential of Artificial Intelligence AI and Machine Learning ML — but not at the expense of editors and journalists.
Editors still matter more than machines, say editors. To what degree do you agree with the following statements? We always need more journalists. However we must also invest in technology to help those journalists be as efficient as possible so they can pursue the work with the highest impact. In addition, AI investments will help us serve our audiences and combat misinformation. This will fall into three main categories:. Toutiao has around m users with average dwell times of over an hour each day. Engagement may be high, but the dangers of this approach are also becoming apparent.
Popularity based algorithms are encouraging clickbait, a surfeit of viral videos and other sensationalist material. The Chinese government suspended a number of apps including Toutiao in April for carrying vulgar and untrue material. Personalisation of the news service is critical, but does not mean just handing over editorial judgement to algorithms …. The big question for traditional publishers is how to use AI responsibly and transparently within their own websites and apps and how to communicate what is going on to users.
The Finnish broadcaster YLE has spent a lot of time thinking about these issues as it develops its Voitto intelligent assistant left. This collects feedback on AI-driven recommendations directly on the lockscreen — the first app to do so — and aims to build an on-going dialogue with users about the choices they make. This will mean educating listeners about the benefits of algorithms and how to use personalisation options without unintended consequences such as removing views that may challenge your own.
Charlie Beckett, who runs the Polis project at the LSE, will also be exploring these issues for a new Google-supported project focused on research and AI training for newsrooms. The last thing journalism needs now is to further dilute trust and transparency in its work.
News agencies have been automating news stories around company earnings for years, but the next step seems to be virtual newsreaders. Computer programmes have modelled the voices, lip movements and expressions of real Xinhau presenters to create these simulations. These early versions tend to show a lack of warmth, but experts believe that eventually even a sense of humour could be programmed in.
Which news anchor is real? Could Anime reporters replace humans? The latest NHK experiment, Yomiko, was designed by a leading manga artist and has the personality of a fresh-faced cub reporter. She has featured within the main news bulletin above but also has a presence of her own reading the news via Amazon Alexa and Google Home. These technologies have significant potential to make existing processes quicker and more efficient, but also to create output that was previously not viable.
News agencies are ramping up their production too with the Finnish news agency STT translating news into English and Swedish automatically. By the end of this year, AP aims to have produced 40, automated stories, primarily in business news and sports. Next steps will be to make the labelling and captioning process easier using image recognition software for the newsroom. The speed and amount of news now make it increasingly necessary for journalists to use algorithms to help find stories and verify them in real time.
DataMinr used AI to sift through millions of tweets. Its algorithms help spot unusual patterns that help newsrooms to keep on top of breaking news. AP has developed an internal verification tool, which helps journalists verify multimedia content in real time. The Reuters news agency is taking a different approach, building an AI tool to help journalists analyse big data sets and suggest story ideas. It may also help write part of the story, though the aim is not to replace reporters. In the year ahead, it is likely that these tools might increasingly scoop journalists as patterns in data provide new areas to explore.
A Finnish university is offering a free course, open to anyone in the world, as part of a drive to increase public understanding. It takes around 30 hours to complete and international students will get a certificate that they can post to their LinkedIn profile. Expect more public and private initiatives in Audio looks set to be one of the hottest topics in media during , driven by the growing popularity of podcasts and the sale of hundreds of millions of new audio devices aka smart speakers — now spreading rapidly across the world.
It is estimated that up to 40million people own smart speakers in the United States and about 7million in the UK. Publishers think audio represents a big opportunity in Which, if any, of the following devices do you ever use for any purpose? Showing smart speaker code. Base: All approx. Which of the following devices do you own and use nowadays?
Podcasts got newsier over the last year as more publishers looked to follow the success of The Daily from the New York Times , a broadcast which has over 5m listeners a month and has now extended its footprint to linear public radio. The Guardian Today in Focus , and the Washington Post Post Reports are two other publishers that are investing heavily in audio, partly because they see a good business opportunity and partly as a way of reaching younger audiences.
Our own research shows that unders are between three and five times more likely to consume podcasts compared with traditional speech radio. With music streaming becoming more competitive, leading players could be looking at exclusive podcasts as a way of driving growth and reducing churn. Podcasts may not offer a pot of gold, but easier access, better discovery and millions of new audio devices suggests there is considerable growth left in the market.
Though millions of smart speakers were unwrapped at Christmas, the story of the coming year is likely to be the spread of voice assistants outside the home and to many more languages. New iOS and Android operating systems have made voice more prominent on mobile phones, headphone manufacturers like Bose are embracing them while car manufacturers are launching their own assistants as well as making it easier to access Alexa, Google Assistant and Siri.
All this will make it easier to access existing linear radio, podcasts, audio books and streaming music services in more places and in more convenient ways. Not just smart speakers. This is why smart speakers are increasingly coming with screens that can display accompanying images such as weather maps as well as enabling video calling and picture display.
The Google Hub October is a screen-based smart speaker that adds a visual layer to voice-driven experiences, competing with the existing Amazon Show. Facebook also entered the market in October with Portal, a new screen-based device, which contains Alexa voice functionality as well as its proprietary voice recognition for video calling.
US public launch June India, Canada, Japan Nov. The number of supported languages doubled in and we can expect the number of supported languages to grow further this year as the platform wars intensify. Samsung will join the party with its own range of speakers and screens powered by Bixby while Chinese, Korean and Russian tech giants have also developed their own range of branded devices with underlying AI assistants.
While publishers recognise that voice will be a major disruption, they are not clear about whether now is the right time to invest. Our own study suggested that the take up of news content was disappointing. In general broadcasters are bullish and newspapers more cautious.
I think voice has the potential to fundamentally change the way people interact with our journalism. Australian broadcaster. UK newspaper publisher. Publishers, who already fear their brands will be devalued in a voice environment, will be worried about this development. Publishers like the BBC prefer to create their own destinations these are called skills or actions in a voice world where they can offer more personalised and controllable audio — as well as offering onward journeys to other content. Voice news search gets better: Voice searches for cinema listings or celebrity birthdays work pretty well because the data is both limited in scope and well structured.
News search is a much bigger problem and the platforms want publishers to create readable snippets of content that answer current questions. Multi-modal voice experiences: Watch out for more experiences that mix voice inputs with smartphone outputs — and vice versa. You can already ask about movie showtimes using your Amazon Echo or Google Home, but then the booking is completed via a message sent to your phone.
Similarly you may be able to save articles in your favourite news app and then ask your speaker to read them out when you are ready. Voice confusion sets in, some abandonment: The growing number of platforms could slow the take up of these technologies — especially given the subtle differences in how to ask for content — and even what content is available. Given current levels of hype, it also inevitable that some disenchantment will set in. A bit like Chinese bikes for hire, many of these relatively cheap devices will be cast aside, or just left to gather dust.
Screen-based speakers in particular will sell poorly with many models discontinued. In this section we explore emerging technologies that could be extremely powerful in the future but are unlikely to hit the mainstream in Much has been written about cryptocurrencies and the blockchain technology that underpins them. This is essentially a system in which a number of different computers contribute to a time-stamped, secure, permanent and public ledger — thus allowing for automated transactions that many believe will make business radically cheaper and easier.
So far the system is best known for facilitating speculative currencies, but could it do more? Could it help secure the future of journalism? Civil Media is a non-profit start up that aims to do just that, to help news outlets raise money from readers and investors while also providing new tools to monetise journalism. Civil is currently supporting more than a dozen newsrooms with significant grants, including local and investigative news outlets, even though its initial token sale spectacularly failed to reach its target.
Participating newsrooms below also sign up to the Civil Constitution, which defines the values and standards expected of the community. Civil credibility labels provide further detail about processes and sourcing of a particular story. The Civil initiative is just one way of using blockchain technology, In theory, it could also unlock micropayments for individual stories or authors by doing away with credit card and inter-banking fees that currently make these impractical.
Another media-focused start-up, po. This could make it easier to syndicate and manage content for different territories, with the process of managing rights effectively automated. And then there is the Holy Grail of verification. In theory it might be possible to construct and crowd-source real-time ledgers of the truthfulness of an individual piece of content, perhaps by getting the community to vote on it.
This is much more contentious and the association with volatile crypto currencies is likely to distract from the potential of these technologies — a situation which is likely to persist through The market is close to saturation and consumers are holding on to their phones for longer. One consequence of this is higher prices. It has consistently been losing ground to Chinese rivals like Huawei and Xiaomi. Other innovations this year are likely to be fingerprint sensors build into screens and hole punch camera mounts. Huawei hole-punch camera screen. Folding phones could double screen size.
Meanwhile phone companies will be looking to shift their business models away from volatile hardware sales towards subscription packages. Expect to see more phones essentially leased using services like the Apple upgrade programme. This will enable quicker browsing, high quality video streaming but also make it possible to connect more devices at the same time. In most countries the handsets will be available before widespread network coverage.
This may involve using 5G to live stream CCTV coverage from buses to enable traffic police to respond more quickly to incidents. For news organisations, 5G will eventually enable reliable high-definition mobile reporting and access to the cameras of citizen journalists in breaking news situations.
Faster speeds and better screens will also accelerate the push to personalised news, mobile formats and visual journalism. NHK launched its 4K and 8K channels in Japan in December , delivering eye-opening ultra-high-definition programming on schedule. Initial programming includes classical music concerts, works of art, dramas and nature programmes and scenes from the International Space Station in cooperation with NASA.
VR headset sales continue to disappoint while more accessible AR technologies are beginning to gain traction, especially in e-commerce. Some large media companies continue to experiment with both these technologies, notably the New York Times and the BBC, but for many other publishers the level of usage does not yet justify significant investment. The majority of consumption is for content that can be easily viewed on mobile devices without additional plugins — such as video and 3D experiences. In November the New York Times immersive team captured the Statue of Liberty torch, ahead of its move for restoration.
Commercial models are also emerging. In some cases, platforms are paying for content but Quartz has integrated AR ads into its pioneering chat app, while the New York Times has explored branded content creating a Hidden Figures AR experience for IBM to promote unrecognised doctors, mathematicians and scientists. This year will see the first commercial self-driving taxi services — even if these services are extremely limited at first in terms of scope and location.
General Motors GM is planning a commercial service in San Francisco via its Cruise Automation subsidiary and plans to go into production with cars that have no pedals or steering wheels this year left. Uber remains interested in a commercial service, despite a fatal crash involving one its vehicles in But in the long term these technologies are likely to have a considerable impact not just on transportation, but also on media. Audio currently has a stranglehold in cars, but with eyes no longer needing to be fixed on the road, screen based activities like TV, films, emails and social media are likely to gain ground.
Despite, or perhaps because of, tough times there is no shortage of start-ups looking to capitalise on new tech and audience trends. Here are five of the best:. Kinzen is a new subscription-based news app that is built on user curation and recommendation. Tapping into the idea that people want to spend time with more meaningful media, it aims to create daily routines that are time limited, personalised, and mind broadening.
Given the number of free aggregators, Kinzen, which launches in early , may have its work cut out persuading enough people to pay, but the founding team have a good track record. Curio is a paid for app that curates high quality audio content from the Guardian , FT , The Economist , and the Washington Post amongst others. Selected stories are professionally read. High-quality audio from Curio. Easy payment for premium content from Agate. Agate is a digital wallet that allows you to pay for premium articles as you go. Publishers like Popbitch see figure above and the New European can set their own pricing at a story level or for a period of time.
Consumers can top up when they run out cash. These schemes aim to make it easier to consume premium content from multiple brands without hitting paywalls; the problem will be getting a critical mass of publishers to take part. It brings together thousands of US public records databases in real time, making it easier for journalists to find stories. It is also starting to form the basis of new automated products like news alerts based on that data.
Spaceship Media 57 focuses on creating a dialogue across political divides and generating original journalism from the process. Its latest high profile project was running a Facebook group that brought together women with very different political views ahead of the US mid-term elections. The model is to work with that community, and produce original stories that come out of the conversation for partner news organisations.
These ideas are gaining traction around the world — see also My Country Talks, originally an initiative by Die Zeit to get communities to listen to those with opposing views, now expanding as an international platform for political dialogue. This will be a critical year for both publishers and platforms in terms of rebuilding trust and credibility after years of self-inflicted wounds around quality, privacy, and user experience.
A number of fundamentals are beginning to shift and these will be much clearer by the end of The labelling and prioritising of trusted content is well underway in third party networks, supported by emerging standards around ethics and fact-checking that can help to distinguish reputable news from rumour and spin.
At the same time platforms are reconfiguring their algorithms to be more respectful of signals of meaningful content. These changes will not solve the problems of misinformation overnight but they provide a basis by which that might eventually happen. The shift to reader payment as a core business model, clearly signalled in our digital leaders survey, should also deliver more distinctive content and discourage low quality clickbait that has devalued journalism in the recent past.
Even news publishers that continue to rely on advertising are refocusing on loyalty and on building relationships over time. It is encouraging to see a number of start-ups this year Civil, Tortoise, De Correspondent, and Kinzen focusing on building strong communities from the start — as well as emphasising values and principles that will underpin their journalism. Co-operation between publishers is also creating more impact and reducing costs, even if this requires a huge leap of faith for many journalists. Meanwhile new opportunities are opening up for visual storytelling, while audio is showing signs of promise with a younger generation that is discovering quality speech content for the first time.
But none of these developments are panaceas for a media industry that will remain in a fragile state through and beyond. More news organisations will go to the wall as economic headwinds bite. Tech platforms will remain cautious and defensive in the light of regulatory threats. And the pace of technological change shows no sign of slowing down. Artificial Intelligence offers the possibility of more personal and relevant news services, new ways to uncover stories, as well as more efficient ways of packaging and distributing content.
An expression found in everyday language since the early s, meaning a heavy handed unrefined solution to a problem especially fixing something - like bashing an electrical appliance to get it working again. For all those executives who haven't got a clue what's really going on in their companies, and think that a quick stroll among the workers will boost morale and uncover some great idea how to save or make the next million. The advent of changing circumstances is not an excuse for poor planning. No one wants to be called names or to be called out in a negative way, or to hear all the bad things they have done in the past. Remember that a key feature of the Recognition and Response system is not necessarily trying to change a students' behavior, but rather making modifications to the program, tailoring instructional strategies, and providing appropriate supports to meet the needs of all children, including those who struggle with learning. Barbara A.
The blockchain will ultimately open up new forms of payment and verification, while voice assistants could become a major new gateway for accessing media of all types. In this context, news organisations will be need to be clearer than ever about what they stand for — and about the audience they are serving. Participants were selected because they held senior positions editorial, commercial, or product in traditional or digital-born publishing companies and were responsible for aspects of digital strategy.
Participants filled out an online survey with specific questions around strategic digital intent in He is also a consultant on digital media, working actively with news companies on product, audience, and business strategies for digital transition. He has produced a media and journalism predictions report for the last twelve years. This is the fourth to be published by the Reuters Institute. As Head of Product Development he led digital teams, developing websites, mobile, and interactive TV applications for all BBC journalism sites.
Acknowledgements The author is grateful for the input of digital leaders from 29 countries, who responded to a survey around the key challenges and opportunities in the year ahead. Survey input and answers helped guide some of the themes in this report and data have been used throughout. Many quotes do not carry names or organisations, at the request of those contributors.
Additional thanks are due to a number of other experts who have contributed themes and suggestions for this report. Where relevant, these are referenced in the text itself or in footnotes. As with many predictions reports there is a significant element of speculation, particularly around specifics, and the paper should be read bearing this in mind.