Finishing the Figure

Grout enriched RCC at Deep Creek
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Tine texturing. Generally, finishing can be divided into floating and texturing: Floating.

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A flat surface is run across the PCC in order to eliminate high and low spots, embed larger aggregate particles beneath the surface, remove slight imperfections and to compact the mortar at the surface in preparation for texturing PCA, [1]. Floating can involve a number of different tools and may involve multiple passes over the same surface. After floating, fresh PCC is usually quite smooth. In order to create a slip resistant surface for traffic, a rough pattern is usually imparted by dragging a broom, rough-textured item, or tined instrument across the surface.

This is achieved by dragging a section of burlap or artificial turf behind the paver. Microtexture enhances friction between vehicle tires and the pavement surface , and enhances safety at low speeds. Macrotexture Figure 2. This is generally achieved by tining the pavement surface. Macrotexture permits water to escape from between tires and the pavement surface and enhances safety at high speeds. Typically, an average texture depth of 0. Tining practices vary by agency, but many states require transverse grooves on the order of 3 — 5 mm 0.

Grout enriched RCC at Deep Creek

Sometimes the area over the future joint locations is not textured in order to provide a good sawing and sealing surface. Surface roughness Ra as a function of the number of finishing cycle for different magnetic field rotation speeds with industrial magnetic abrasive tools. Figure 7 shows the correlation between surface roughness and finishing cycle number for different magnetic field vibration frequencies. To determine the optimal vibration frequency, the workpiece was improved at 5 Hz and 10 Hz at rpm with the industrial magnetic abrasive tools.

As with ecological magnetic abrasive tools, the greatest improvement in surface roughness is observed when a vibration frequency of 10 Hz was used. When a magnetic field vibration frequency of 10 Hz was used, the surface roughness decreased from 0. Conversely, at 5 Hz, the initial surface roughness of 0. Surface roughness Ra as a function of the number of finishing cycle for different magnetic field vibration frequencies with industrial magnetic abrasive tools.

Figure 8 shows the correlation between surface roughness and number of finishing cycles for the different magnetic abrasive tools. The surface roughness of L stent wires decreased with both conditions. However, the surface improvement by industrial magnetic abrasive tools is found to be better than that of ecological magnetic abrasive tools.

This could be explained by the excellent mechanical properties of CNT abrasives and light oil.

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CNT abrasives have a higher tensile strength and a higher elastic modulus than other abrasive particles e. Additionally, light oil was used as the grinding oil in this experiment. It has a lower viscosity and density than olive oil.

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Nurul et al. Table 4 shows the mechanical properties of grinding oils used in the wire magnetic abrasive finishing process. When the industrial magnetic abrasive tools were used, the surface roughness Ra of L stent wires decreased from 0. Correlation between surface roughness, Ra, and number of finishing cycles for different magnetic abrasive tools. As can be seen from Figure 9 , unevenness can be seen throughout the original surface of the L stent wire and the original surface roughness Ra before finishing was 0. Based on Figure 10 , it could be concluded that the ecological magnetic abrasive tools have the ability to achieve a high surface quality of L SUS wire workpiece.

The final surface roughness achieved by ecological magnetic abrasive tools was 0. As can be seen from Figure 11 , the finished surface of the workpiece is much smoother than the initial surface in Figure 9 and its surface topography is similar to that of the finished surface in Figure Figure 12 shows the chemical elements of L SUS wire before finishing with the ecological magnetic abrasive tools. The energy-dispersive X-ray EDX analysis determined a surface composition of Figure 13 shows the chemical elements of L SUS wire after finishing by the ecological magnetic abrasive tools; the energy-dispersive X-ray EDX analysis determined a surface composition of The results of the EDX analysis indicate that the components of the ecological magnetic abrasive tools were not detected at the surface of the L SUS wire workpiece.

In this paper, we develop a new ecological magnetic abrasive tool for finishing wire material using a wire magnetic abrasive finishing process. When the ecological magnetic abrasive tools were used, the initial surface roughness of L SUS wires decreased from 0.

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In contrast, the industrial magnetic abrasive tools decreased the surface roughness from 0. The least surface roughness was measured after treatment with the industrial magnetic abrasive tools. This can be attributed to the excellent mechanical properties of industrial magnetic abrasive tools when compared to the ecological magnetic abrasive tools. Based on the result of EDX analysis, it was confirmed that the components of ecological magnetic abrasive tools were not detected at the surface of L SUS wire workpiece.

Based on the results, it can be concluded that replacing industrial magnetic abrasive tools with ecological magnetic abrasive tools is achievable. Design experiment, methodology and Conceptualization, C.

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Published online Mar 1. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jan 28; Accepted Feb Keywords: wire magnetic abrasive finishing, L SUS wire, ecological magnetic abrasive tools, surface roughness. Introduction L SUS wire is a biomaterial that is commonly used for medical applications e. The limitations of these methods are as follows: Rough surface defects cannot be removed.

Processing Principles Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of the wire magnetic abrasive finishing process using ecological magnetic abrasive finishing. Open in a separate window.

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An understanding of color and the ability to use it effectively is of prime importance for the doll maker. Remember that "a figure is worth a thousand words. Figures should be: Centered on the page. You waited a month for the paper to come back from review, then two months re-doing experiments to satisfy a sadistic reviewer. A hexagon is polygon with six different sides. Any well-done piece provides a surprise and the challenge to be understood, appreciated, or at least experienced by the viewer. Example 1 Porcelain or breakable material.

Figure 1. Experimental Setup and Method In this study, the surface roughness of L SUS wire material was improved by wire magnetic abrasive finishing process. Figure 2. Ecological and Industrial Magnetic Abrasive Tools Magnetic abrasive tools play an important role in the magnetic abrasive finishing process because they are directly related to the finishing or machining of the surface of the workpiece [ 10 ]. Figure 3. Experimental Conditions In this study, our experimental work is separated into two processing stages.

Table 3 Experimental conditions for both finishing processes. Results and Discussions 4. Effect of Rotational Speed To understand the finishing characteristics of ecological magnetic abrasive tools, SUSL stent wires were improved by wire magnetic abrasive finishing process, which was performed with the ecological magnetic abrasive tools mixture under different rotational speeds , , and rpm. Figure 4. Effect of Magnetic Field Vibration Frequency Figure 5 shows the correlation between surface roughness and number of finishing cycles for different magnetic field vibration frequencies.

Figure 5. Effect of Rotational Speed To understand the finishing characteristics of industrial magnetic abrasive tools, SUSL stent wires were improved by the wire magnetic abrasive finishing process, which was performed with the industrial magnetic abrasive tools mixture under different rotational speeds , , and rpm. Figure 6. Effect of the Magnetic Field Vibration Frequency Figure 7 shows the correlation between surface roughness and finishing cycle number for different magnetic field vibration frequencies. Figure 7.

Comparison Figure 8 shows the correlation between surface roughness and number of finishing cycles for the different magnetic abrasive tools. Figure 8. Table 4 Mechanical properties of grinding oils used in ire magnetic abrasive finishing. Figure 9. Figure Conclusions In this paper, we develop a new ecological magnetic abrasive tool for finishing wire material using a wire magnetic abrasive finishing process.

Author Contributions Design experiment, methodology and Conceptualization, C. Conflicts of Interest The authors have no conflict of interest to declare. References 1. Hryniewicz T. Sojitra P. Electropolishing of LVM stainless steel cardiovascular stents: An investigation of material removal, surface roughness and corrosion behavior. Heng L. High Speed Mach. Olvera D. Rodriguez A. Maximal reduction of steps for iron casting one-of-a-kind parts.

Lee E. Development of ultra clean machining technology with electrolytic polishing process. Smick T. Hydrogen implantation with reduced radiation. Revankar G. Kala P. Comparison of finishing characteristics of two paramagnetic materials using double disc magnetic abrasive finishing. Jayswal S. Modeling and simulation of magnetic abrasive finishing process. Kim T. Application of magnetic abrasive polishing to composite materials.

Khairy A. Aspects of surface and edge finish by magnetoabrasive particles. Effect of carbon nano tube CNT particles in magnetic abrasive finishing of Mg alloy bars.

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Rahim E. An analysis of surface integrity when drilling inconel using palm oil and synthetic ester under MQL condition. Study on finishing characteristics of magnetic abrasive finishing process using low-frequency alternating magnetic field. Saraeian P. Study of magnetic abrasive finishing for AISI stainless steel.

Yoon S. Effect of the magnetic pole arrangement on the surface roughness of STS by magnetic abrasive machining. Micro machining of an STS bar by magnetic abrasive finishing. Wang R. Effect of temperature on the magnetic abrasive finishing process of Mg alloy bars. Characteristics of ultra-high-speed micro processing machines using magnetic abrasive machining methods. Tejral G. Carbon nanotubes: Toxicological impact on human health and environment. Park K. A study on droplets and their distribution for minimum quantity lubrication MQL Int. Tools Manuf. Cadman J.

Bionic Eng. Strength and breaking mechanism of multiwalled carbon nanotubes under tensile load. Treacy M. Nurul Adlina M. Basic Appl.