Arthritis

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It's often related to aging or to an injury. Autoimmune arthritis happens when your body's immune system attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common form of this kind of arthritis. Juvenile arthritis is a type of arthritis that happens in children.

Infectious arthritis is an infection that has spread from another part of the body to the joint. Psoriatic arthritis affects people with psoriasis. Gout is a painful type of arthritis that happens when too much uric acid builds up in the body. It often starts in the big toe. Start Here. Diagnosis and Tests. Arthritis can make it very difficult for individuals to be physically active and some become home bound.

Each year, arthritis results in nearly 1 million hospitalizations and close to 45 million outpatient visits to health care centers. Decreased mobility, in combination with the above symptoms, can make it difficult for an individual to remain physically active, contributing to an increased risk of obesity, high cholesterol or vulnerability to heart disease.

Diagnosis is made by clinical examination from an appropriate health professional, and may be supported by other tests such as radiology and blood tests, depending on the type of suspected arthritis. Pain patterns may differ depending on the arthritides and the location. Rheumatoid arthritis is generally worse in the morning and associated with stiffness lasting over 30 minutes.

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The Arthritis Foundation is the leading nonprofit organization dedicated to the prevention, control and cure of arthritis in the United States. Actually, “arthritis” is not a single disease; it is an informal way of referring to joint pain or joint disease. Common arthritis joint symptoms include swelling, pain, stiffness and decreased range of motion. When the cartilage – the slick, cushioning surface on the ends of.

Osteoarthritis , on the other hand, tends to be associated with morning stiffness which eases relatively quickly with movement and exercise. In the aged and children, pain might not be the main presenting feature; the aged patient simply moves less, the infantile patient refuses to use the affected limb. Elements of the history of the disorder guide diagnosis. Important features are speed and time of onset, pattern of joint involvement, symmetry of symptoms, early morning stiffness, tenderness, gelling or locking with inactivity, aggravating and relieving factors, and other systemic symptoms.

Physical examination may confirm the diagnosis, or may indicate systemic disease. Radiographs are often used to follow progression or help assess severity.

What is Arthritis?

Your doctor may also recommend blood tests to determine which type of arthritis you have. Help us improve NHS inform. The knee may "lock" or "stick" during movement. Case Studies - Making packaging easy to open. Treating arthritis There's no cure for arthritis, but there are many treatments that can help slow down the condition.

Blood tests and X-rays of the affected joints often are performed to make the diagnosis. Screening blood tests are indicated if certain arthritides are suspected. These might include: rheumatoid factor , antinuclear factor ANF , extractable nuclear antigen , and specific antibodies. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. The disease is essentially one acquired from daily wear and tear of the joint; however, osteoarthritis can also occur as a result of injury.

In recent years [ when? Osteoarthritis begins in the cartilage and eventually causes the two opposing bones to erode into each other. The condition starts with minor pain during physical activity, but soon the pain can be continuous and even occur while in a state of rest. The pain can be debilitating and prevent one from doing some activities. Osteoarthritis typically affects the weight-bearing joints, such as the back, knee and hip. Unlike rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis is most commonly a disease of the elderly.

The strongest predictor of osteoarthritis is increased age, likely due to the declining ability of chondrocytes to maintain the structural integrity of cartilage. Other risk factors for osteoarthritis include prior joint trauma, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle.

Rheumatoid arthritis RA is a disorder in which the body's own immune system starts to attack body tissues. In rheumatoid arthritis, most damage occurs to the joint lining and cartilage which eventually results in erosion of two opposing bones. RA often affects joints in the fingers, wrists, knees and elbows, is symmetrical appears on both sides of the body , and can lead to severe deformity in a few years if not treated. RA occurs mostly in people aged 20 and above. In children, the disorder can present with a skin rash , fever , pain , disability, and limitations in daily activities.

Bone erosion is a central feature of rheumatoid arthritis. Bone continuously undergoes remodeling by actions of bone resorbing osteoclasts and bone forming osteoblasts. One of the main triggers of bone erosion in the joints in rheumatoid arthritis is inflammation of the synovium , caused in part by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand RANKL , a cell surface protein present in Th17 cells and osteoblasts.

Lupus is a common collagen vascular disorder that can be present with severe arthritis. Other features of lupus include a skin rash, extreme photosensitivity , hair loss , kidney problems, lung fibrosis and constant joint pain. Gout is caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint, causing inflammation. There is also an uncommon form of gouty arthritis caused by the formation of rhomboid crystals of calcium pyrophosphate known as pseudogout. In the early stages, the gouty arthritis usually occurs in one joint, but with time, it can occur in many joints and be quite crippling.

The joints in gout can often become swollen and lose function.

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Gouty arthritis can become particularly painful and potentially debilitating when gout cannot successfully be treated. Infectious arthritis is another severe form of arthritis. It presents with sudden onset of chills, fever and joint pain. The condition is caused by bacteria elsewhere in the body. Infectious arthritis must be rapidly diagnosed and treated promptly to prevent irreversible joint damage. Psoriasis can develop into psoriatic arthritis.

With psoriatic arthritis, most individuals develop the skin problem first and then the arthritis. The typical features are of continuous joint pains, stiffness and swelling. The disease does recur with periods of remission but there is no cure for the disorder. A small percentage develop a severe painful and destructive form of arthritis which destroys the small joints in the hands and can lead to permanent disability and loss of hand function. There is no known cure for either rheumatoid or osteoarthritis.

Treatment options vary depending on the type of arthritis and include physical therapy , lifestyle changes including exercise and weight control , orthopedic bracing , and medications. Joint replacement surgery may be required in eroding forms of arthritis.

Medications can help reduce inflammation in the joint which decreases pain. Moreover, by decreasing inflammation, the joint damage may be slowed.

What are the causes and types of arthritis?

In general, studies have shown that physical exercise of the affected joint can noticeably improve long-term pain relief. Furthermore, exercise of the arthritic joint is encouraged to maintain the health of the particular joint and the overall body of the person. Individuals with arthritis can benefit from both physical and occupational therapy. In arthritis the joints become stiff and the range of movement can be limited. Physical therapy has been shown to significantly improve function, decrease pain, and delay need for surgical intervention in advanced cases.

Exercise often focuses on improving muscle strength, endurance and flexibility. In some cases, exercises may be designed to train balance. Occupational therapy can provide assistance with activities. Assistive technology is a tool used to aid a person's disability by reducing their physical barriers by improving the use of their damaged body part, typically after an amputation. Assistive technology devices can be customized to the patient or bought commercially. There are several types of medications that are used for the treatment of arthritis. Treatment typically begins with medications that have the fewest side effects with further medications being added if insufficiently effective.

Depending on the type of arthritis, the medications that are given may be different. For example, the first-line treatment for osteoarthritis is acetaminophen paracetamol while for inflammatory arthritis it involves non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs like ibuprofen. For more severe cases of osteoarthritis, intra-articular corticosteroid injections may also be considered. The drugs to treat rheumatoid arthritis RA range from corticosteroids to monoclonal antibodies given intravenously.

Due to the autoimmune nature of RA, treatments may include not only pain medications and anti-inflammatory drugs, but also another category of drugs called disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs DMARDs. Once the cartilage lining starts to roughen and thin out, the tendons and ligaments have to work harder. This can cause swelling and the formation of bony spurs, called osteophytes. Severe loss of cartilage can lead to bone rubbing on bone, altering the shape of the joint and forcing the bones out of their normal position.

In the UK, rheumatoid arthritis affects more than , people. It often starts when a person is between 40 and 50 years old.

Conditions

Women are three times more likely to be affected than men. Rheumatoid and osteoarthritis are two different conditions. Rheumatoid arthritis occurs when the body's immune system targets affected joints, which leads to pain and swelling. The outer covering synovium of the joint is the first place affected. This can then spread across the joint, leading to further swelling and a change in the joint's shape.

People with rheumatoid arthritis can also develop problems with other tissues and organs in their body. In the UK, about 15, children and young people are affected by arthritis. Most types of childhood arthritis are known as juvenile idiopathic arthritis JIA. The main types of JIA are discussed below. Arthritis Research UK has more information about the different types of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

Oligo-articular JIA has good recovery rates and long-term effects are rare. Polyarticular JIA, or polyarthritis, affects five or more joints. It can develop at any age during childhood. The symptoms of polyarticular JIA are similar to the symptoms of adult rheumatoid arthritis. The condition is often accompanied by a rash and a high temperature of 38C Systemic onset JIA begins with symptoms such as a fever, rash, lethargy a lack of energy and enlarged glands.

Enthesitis-related arthritis is a type of juvenile arthritis that affects older boys or teenagers.

About arthritis

It can cause pain in the soles of the feet and around the knee and hip joints, where the ligaments attach to the bone. There's no cure for arthritis, but there are many treatments that can help slow down the condition. Recommended treatments include:. Living with arthritis isn't easy and carrying out simple, everyday tasks can often be painful and difficult.

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However, there are many things you can do to make sure you live a healthy lifestyle. A range of services and benefits are also available.