MEMS Microelectromechanical Systems are a fusion of electrical and mechanical engineering and are typically used for sensors and for advanced microphones and even speakers. Metamaterials Artificial materials containing arrays of metal nanostructures or mega-atoms. Metastability Unstable state within a latch.
Methodologies and Flows Describes the process to create a product. Metrology Metrology is the science of measuring and characterizing tiny structures and materials. Mixed-Signal The integration of analog and digital. Models and Abstractions Models are abstractions of devices. Monolithic 3D Chips A way of stacking transistors inside a single chip instead of a package.
Mote A mote is a micro-sensor. Multi-Beam e-Beam Lithography An advanced form of e-beam lithography. Concurrent analysis holds promise. Multi-site testing Using a tester to test multiple dies at the same time. Multi-Vt Use of multi-threshold voltage devices. Multiple Patterning A way to image IC designs at 20nm and below. Nanoimprint Lithography A hot embossing process type of lithography. Nanosheet FET A type of field-effect transistor that uses wider and thicker wires than a lateral nanowire. Near Threshold Computing Optimizing power by computing below the minimum operating voltage.
Neural Networks A method of collecting data from the physical world that mimics the human brain. Neuromorphic Computing A compute architecture modeled on the human brain. Noise Random fluctuations in voltage or current on a signal. Off-chip communications. On-chip communications.
Operand Isolation Disabling datapath computation when not enabled. Optical Inspection Method used to find defects on a wafer. Optical Lithography. Overlay The ability of a lithography scanner to align and print various layers accurately on top of each other. Packaging How semiconductors get assembled and packaged. Patents A patent is an intellectual property right granted to an inventor. Pellicle A thin membrane that prevents a photomask from being contaminated.
People This is a list of people contained within the Knowledge Center. Phase-Change Memory. Photomask A template of what will be printed on a wafer. Photoresist Light-sensitive material used to form a pattern on the substrate. Picocells A small cell that is slightly higher in power than a femtocell.
Pin Swapping Lowering capacitive loads on logic. Power Consumption Components of power consumption. Power Cycle Sequencing Power domain shutdown and startup. Power Definitions Definitions of terms related to power. Power Estimation How is power consumption estimated. Power Gating Reducing power by turning off parts of a design. Power Gating Retention Special flop or latch used to retain the state of the cell when its main power supply is shut off. Power Isolation Addition of isolation cells around power islands. Power Issues Power reduction at the architectural level.
Power Management Coverage Ensuring power control circuitry is fully verified. Power Supply Noise Noise transmitted through the power delivery network. Power Switching Controlling power for power shutoff. Power Techniques. Power-Aware Design Techniques that analyze and optimize power in a design. Power-Aware Test Test considerations for low-power circuitry.
Process Power Optimizations power optimization techniques at the process level. Process Variation Variability in the semiconductor manufacturing process. Processor Utilization A measurement of the amount of time processor core s are actively in use. Property Specification Language Verification language based on formal specification of behavior. Quantum Computing A different way of processing data using qubits. Random Telegraph Noise Random trapping of charge carriers. Recurrent Neural Network RNN An artificial neural network that finds patterns in data using other data stored in memory.
Reliability Verification Design verification that helps ensure the robustness of a design and reduce susceptibility to premature or catastrophic electrical failures. RVM Verification methodology based on Vera. SAT Solver Algorithm used to solve problems. Scan Test Additional logic that connects registers into a shift register or scan chain for increased test efficiency. Scoreboard Mechanism for storing stimulus in testbench. Semiconductor Manufacturing Subjects related to the manufacture of semiconductors.
Semiconductor Security Methods and technologies for keeping data safe. Sensors Sensors are a bridge between the analog world we live in and the underlying communications infrastructure. Short Channel Effects When channel lengths are the same order of magnitude as depletion-layer widths of the source and drain, they cause a number of issues that affect design.
Shot Noise Quantization noise. Side Channel Attacks A class of attacks on a device and its contents by analyzing information using different access methods. Silicon Photonics The integration of photonic devices into silicon. Simulation A simulator exercises of model of hardware. Simulation Acceleration Special purpose hardware used to accelerate the simulation process.
Process Power Optimizations power optimization techniques at the process level. Skip to main content Skip to sections. E-Gift Coupon , click here. Wired communication, which passes data through wires between devices, is still considered the most stable form of communication. However, SES also uses the inactive period for transmitting data with the goal of minimizing the end-to-end delay of transmitted messages. Constant bit rate traffic is used with a transmission rate of 1 message each 0. Materials Semiconductor materials enable electronic circuits to be constructed.
Simultaneous Switching Noise Disturbance in ground voltage. Small Cells Wireless cells that fill in the voids in wireless infrastructure.
Software-Driven Verification Verification methodology utilizing embedded processors. Spread Spectrum A secure method of transmitting data wirelessly. Standard Essential Patent A patent that has been deemed necessary to implement a standard. Standards Standards are important in any industry. Stimulus Constraints Constraints on the input to guide random generation process. Substrate Biasing Use of Substrate Biasing. Substrate Noise Coupling through the substrate.
System on Chip SoC A system on chip SoC is the integration of functions necessary to implement an electronic system onto a single substrate and contains at least one processor. SystemVerilog Industry standard design and verification language. Test How semiconductors are sorted and tested before and after implementation of the chip in a system. Testbench Software used to functionally verify a design.
Thermal Noise Noise related to heat. Transistors Basic building block for both analog and digital circuits. Transition Rate Buffering Minimizing switching times. Triple Patterning A multi-patterning technique that will be required at 10nm and below. UL — Standard for Safety for the Evaluation of Autonomous Products Standard for safety analysis and evaluation of autonomous vehicles.
Unified Coverage Interoperability Standard Verification The Unified Coverage Interoperability Standard UCIS provides an application programming interface API that enables the sharing of coverage data across software simulators, hardware accelerators, symbolic simulations, formal tools or custom verification tools. User Interfaces User interfaces is the conduit a human uses to communicate with an electronics device.
Utility Patent Patent to protect an invention. Vera Hardware Verification Language. Verification Methodologies A standardized way to verify integrated circuit designs. Verification Plan A document that defines what functional verification is going to be performed. Verilog Hardware Description Language in use since Verilog Procedural Interface Procedural access to Verilog objects. Virtual Prototype An abstract model of a hardware system enabling early software execution.
VMM Verification methodology built by Synopsys. Volatile Memory Memory that loses storage abilities when power is removed. Voltage Islands Use of multiple voltages for power reduction. Von Neumann Architecture The basic architecture for most computing today, based on the principle that data needs to move back and forth between a processor and memory.
Wafer Inspection The science of finding defects on a silicon wafer.. Wired communications Wired communication, which passes data through wires between devices, is still considered the most stable form of communication. Wireless A way of moving data without wires. X Architecture IC interconnect architecture. How semiconductors are sorted and tested before and after implementation of the chip in a system. A type of transistor under development that could replace finFETs in future process technologies. The Unified Coverage Interoperability Standard UCIS provides an application programming interface API that enables the sharing of coverage data across software simulators, hardware accelerators, symbolic simulations, formal tools or custom verification tools.
The basic architecture for most computing today, based on the principle that data needs to move back and forth between a processor and memory. Wired communication, which passes data through wires between devices, is still considered the most stable form of communication.
Search for:. Knowledge Center Navigation. Knowledge Center. Description IEEE A brief history of design We start with schematics and end with ESL. A brief history of logic simulation Important events in the history of logic simulation. A brief history of logic synthesis Early development associated with logic synthesis. Acronyms Commonly and not-so-commonly used acronyms.
Advanced Smart Fill At newer nodes, more intelligence is required in fill because it can affect timing, signal integrity and require fill for all layers. Advanced Packaging A collection of approaches for combining chips into packages, resulting in lower power and lower cost. Agile An approach to software development focusing on continual delivery and flexibility to changing requirements.
Agile Hardware Development How Agile applies to the development of hardware systems. Air Gap A way of improving the insulation between various components in a semiconductor by creating empty space. Ambient Intelligence A collection of intelligent electronic environments. Analog Semiconductors that measure real-world conditions. Analog circuits Analog integrated circuits are integrated circuits that make a representation of continuous signals in electrical form. Analog Design and Verification The design and verification of analog components. Application specific integrated circuit ASIC A custom, purpose-built integrated circuit made for a specific task or product.
Artificial Intelligence AI Using machines to make decisions based upon stored knowledge and sensory input. Assertion Code that looks for violations of a property. Automatic Test Pattern Generation The generation of tests that can be used for functional or manufacturing verification. Automotive Issues dealing with the development of automotive electronics. Avalanche Noise Noise in reverse biased junctions.
AVM Verification methodology created by Mentor. Band gap. Batteries Devices that chemically store energy. BEOL Backend-of-line processes. Biometrics Security based on scans of fingerprints, palms, faces, eyes, DNA or movement. Blech Effect A reverse force to electromigration.
Bluetooth Low Energy Also known as Bluetooth 4.
BSIM Transistor model. Built-in self-test BiST On-chip logic to test a design. Bus Functional Model Interface model between testbench and device under test. Cache Coherent Interconnect for Accelerators CCIX Interconnect standard which provides cache coherency for accelerators and memory expansion peripheral devices connecting to processors. CAN bus Automotive bus developed by Bosch. Cell-Aware Test Fault model for faults within cells. Checker Testbench component that verifies results. Chip Design Design is the process of producing an implementation from a conceptual form.
Chip Design and Verification The design, verification, implementation and test of electronics systems into integrated circuits. Clock Gating Dynamic power reduction by gating the clock. Clock Tree Optimization Design of clock trees for power reduction. CMOS Fabrication technology. Cobalt Cobalt is a ferromagnetic metal key to lithium-ion batteries. Code Coverage Metrics related to about of code executed in functional verification.
Combinatorial Equivalence Checking Verify functionality between registers remains unchanged after a transformation. Communications The plumbing on chip, among chips and between devices, that sends bits of data and manages that data. Communications systems. Compiled-code Simulation Faster form for logic simulation. Contact The structure that connects a transistor with the first layer of copper interconnects.
Coverage Completion metrics for functional verification. Crosstalk Interference between signals. Crypto processors Crypto processors are specialized processors that execute cryptographic algorithms within hardware. Dark Silicon A method of conserving power in ICs by powering down segments of a chip when they are not in use.
Data Analytics. Data processing Data processing is when raw data has operands applied to it via a computer or server to process data into another useable form. De Facto Standards A standard that comes about because of widespread acceptance or adoption. Debug The removal of bugs from a design. Deep Learning DL Deep learning is a subset of artificial intelligence where data representation is based on multiple layers of a matrix. Design for Manufacturing DFM Actions taken during the physical design stage of IC development to ensure that the design can be accurately manufactured.
Design for Test DFT Techniques that reduce the difficulty and cost associated with testing an integrated circuit. Design Patent Protection for the ornamental design of an item. Design Rule Checking DRC A physical design process to determine if chip satisfies rules defined by the semiconductor manufacturer.
Design Rule Pattern Matching Locating design rules using pattern matching techniques. Device Noise Sources of noise in devices. Diamond Semiconductors A wide-bandgap synthetic material. Digital Oscilloscope Allowed an image to be saved digitally. DNA Chips Using deoxyribonucleic acid to make chips hacker-proof. Double Patterning A patterning technique using multiple passes of a laser. Double Patterning Methodologies Colored and colorless flows for double patterning. E-Beam Lithography using a single beam e-beam tool. Edge Computing. Educational Establishments Educational establishments from which technology has been spawned into the EDA field.
Electromigration Electromigration EM due to power densities. Emulation Special purpose hardware used for logic verification. Energy Harvesting Capturing energy from the environment. Environmental Noise Noise caused by the environment. Epitaxy A method for growing or depositing mono crystalline films on a substrate.
Ethernet Ethernet is a reliable, open standard for connecting devices by wire. Fan-Outs A way of including more features that normally would be on a printed circuit board inside a package. Fault Simulation Evaluation of a design under the presence of manufacturing defects.
Femtocells The lowest power form of small cells, used for home WiFi networks. Fill The use of metal fill to improve planarity and to manage electrochemical deposition ECD , etch, lithography, stress effects, and rapid thermal annealing. FinFET A three-dimensional transistor. Flash Memory non-volatile, erasable memory. Flicker Noise Noise related to resistance fluctuation. Formal Verification Formal verification involves a mathematical proof to show that a design adheres to a property.
Functional Coverage Coverage metric used to indicate progress in verifying functionality. Functional Design and Verification Functional Design and Verification is currently associated with all design and verification functions performed before RTL synthesis. Functional Verification Functional verification is used to determine if a design, or unit of a design, conforms to its specification.
Gate-Level Power Optimizations Power reduction techniques available at the gate level. Generation-Recombination Noise noise related to generation-recombination. Graphene 2D form of carbon in a hexagonal lattice. Graphics processing unit GPU An electronic circuit designed to handle graphics and video. Guard Banding Adding extra circuits or software into a design to ensure that if one part doesn't work the entire system doesn't fail.
Hardware Assisted Verification Use of special purpose hardware to accelerate verification. Hardware Modeler Historical solution that used real chips in the simulation process. Heat Dissipation Power creates heat and heat affects power. High-Bandwidth Memory HBM A dense, stacked version of memory with high-speed interfaces that can be used in advanced packaging.
IC Types. Impact of lithography on wafer costs Wafer costs across nodes. Effective date : An apparatus with a first information decoder and an information encoder operates in at least one of a lossless and a lossy encoding modes to re-encode original information decoded by the first information decoder A transmitter is coupled to the information encoder and to at least one receiver which is coupled to a second information decoder The second information decoder operates in the at least one of the lossless and the lossy decoding modes to recover information substantially representing content associated with the original information.
In conventional wireless indications systems, information is communicated between a transmitter and receiver. This operation is commonly referred to as half duplex operation, where information is communicated only in a single direction over a communication link. With the need for more advanced control mechanisms, including the negotiation of communication link parameters, and the recognition of receiving device characteristics for rendering content, full duplex systems have become the desired architecture for use in today's modern consumer electronic devices.
Simply, in a full duplex system, information may be simultaneously communicated in both directions, enabling more sophisticated error correction capabilities and ensuring the highest quality of service relating to be delivered information. Recently, several attempts have been made to build systems for consumer use that transports both high fidelity and multi-channel audio and high quality and high definition video using wireless protocols such as IEEE After several companies built and deployed such systems, customers almost completely rejected the implementations because IEEE Moreover, the intrinsic system architecture of an IEEE Normally, an IEEE In the infrastructure operating mode, the IEEE From a performance standpoint, the access point acts as a bottleneck because it must share processing bandwidth between each connected station and typically a single wired network connection.
Although IEEE Moreover, ad hoc IEEE Therefore, a better solution is needed for the wired and wireless communication of multimedia information between respective components in today's multimedia entertainment systems. In a landmark decision, the United States Federal Communications Commission approved the operation of devices using technology known as ultra-wideband.
This ultra-wideband technology carries with it the promise of using over 7 GHz of radio spectrum to robustly communicate high-speed information. Such a technology forms the basis as an enabler for applications such as real-time streaming of both standard- and high-definition television, as well as multi-channel audio. Recognizing the potential of this new ultra-wideband technology, the IEEE, with relevant inputs from industry leaders, authorized a project for high-speed personal area networks. That project resulted in two issued standards, designated IEEE These two standards were specifically designed to support high-speed communication between wireless devices in an organized network.
Furthermore, the above IEEE standards support isochronous data communication which is essential in applications where information representing for instance, continuous audio or video playback, is communicated from a source device to its target. Examples of typical source devices are DVD players, audio CD players, digital set-top boxes used in cable and satellite communications, or possibly a digital media server.
The IEEE, by creating the standards, has provided an enabler for the consumer electronics industry to develop products that operate using proprietary ultra-wideband implementations as the PHY or physical layer commonly known as layer 1 in conjunction with the IEEE Consequently, if a communication system is implemented using one of the IEEE However, conventional digital transport protocols and encoding techniques such as the discrete cosine transform DCT based MPEG-2 Motion Picture Experts Group coding scheme which is used in the majority of conventional digital video rendering devices today, require extremely low channel bit error rates in order to maintain a watchable digital picture.
When the channel bit error rate and an MPEG-2 based system exceeds a critical threshold, the picture being rendered pixelates in large blocking patterns that correspond to the original MPEG-2 encoding matrix and transform. As the bit error rate rises further, small random regions of pixelation turn into large blocking patterns that completely obscure the relevant information attempting to be communicated and reconstructed by the MPEG-2 decoder. Eventually, most MPEG-2 decoders, after reaching a bit error rate of approximately , will completely turn off their rendering output and substitute a solid color screen indicating that no recoverable information can be processed.
Therefore, one cannot just build an IEEE Steps need to be taken that ensure the integrity of the transported information in its application space, as well as over a wired or wireless channel. In the previous paragraph, a case was illustrated with respect to MPEG-2 coded information that shows the rapid nonlinear breakdown associated with increasing information bit error rates.
Thus, what is needed, is a system that takes advantage of a communication system including a well-designed MAC and PHY, as well as a judiciously chosen information encoding scheme that optimally and effectively protects the information content being communicated, preferably degrading in a linear fashion as with conventional legacy analog systems, as measured by the ability of a target device to properly render the content without the undesirable dramatic degradation seen in today's DCT based digital communication systems.
Referring to FIG. Input connector is coupled to a first information decoder that may decode either analog or digital information. The first information decoder both receives and decodes information into a form that can be coupled to the information encoder The information decoder further may comprise elements necessary to implement control of signaling passed by a physical media coupled to the input connector For example, it is conventional to use standardized input connectors that relate directly to selected physical media and corresponding digital or analog signaling schemes.
It is well understood that wired cables terminating with S-video connectors are used to communicate electrical signals that correspond with S-video content. Therefore, there can be said that a one-to-one correspondence exists between a specific input connector and selected first information decoder such that the selected first information decoder implements functions necessary to receive and decode original information.
In a preferred embodiment, the information encoder comprises an encoder that is compliant with digital compression schemes such as the JPEG motion encoding standard for video. Alternatively, the information encoder may comprise any digital video or multimedia encoder having properties favorable for the wired or wireless transmission of information with high quality of service. In developing the preferred embodiment of the present invention, many conventional video encoding techniques were investigated. The findings revealed that conventional MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 coded source material experienced distracting and undesirable visual artifacts as information channel error rates increased only slightly.
As information channel error rates continue to increase, the MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 decoders created presentation signals that did not resemble the original content because the inherent decoding process reaches a sharp threshold where the codec experiences a complete breakdown and a corresponding catastrophic decoding failure.
This phenomena is due to the transform process associated with implementation of the discrete cosine transform used in MPEG coding, and the fact that in MPEG coding only one of several frames are completely captured and independently coded, with intervening frames depending on the prior independently coded frame. Therefore, if an error occurs that significantly degrades the quality of the prior independently coded frame, all succeeding frames referenced from the corrupted independently coded frame will be negatively affected.
Accordingly, it was determined that in the mid-to low signal-to-noise channel environments, MPEG coding is not desirable for wireless signal distribution. Essentially, choosing the wrong digital video coding scheme results in a binary event from the user perspective, that is, either the current rendition looks perfectly like the original source, or there is significant degradation or no rendition at all. Additionally, the information encoder may comprise an audio processor capable of logically channelizing one or more channels of audio information. Note that one of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that there are many other methods for encoding digital audio in both single- and multi-channel applications that may be used in conjunction with the present invention.
As one or ordinary skill in the art would further appreciate, if the received information is already in an acceptable digital format, no re-encoding is required and it may be passed to the information encoder in it's native digital format for insertion in an encoded data stream for transmission.
Once the information has been encoded by the information encoder , an encoded data signal is coupled to the transmitter for transmission. Note that in the simplest embodiment of the present invention, the only elements required to implement the essential features of this invention are the first information decoder , the information encoder , transmitter , a transmission path , at least one receiver , and a second information decoder In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, a controller operates to selectively activate and deactivate system elements such as the information decoder , information encoder , transmitter , and receiver to conserve system power when necessary.
Moreover, the controller functions to manage interactions between system elements such as the information decoder , information encoder , transmitter , and receiver Most importantly, each respective controller , implements media access control MAC architecture that comprises a set of operating rules which govern operation of the respective transmitter , and receiver , elements, such that either a uni- or bi-directional communication link can be established.
There are several MAC architectures that may be used to implement this preferred embodiment of the present invention which are discussed in the following text. IEEE Std A second embodiment of a MAC can be implemented using IEEE and it's progeny as well as enhancements derived from the Trade Association TA which include a high-speed serial MAC architecture comprising time division multiple access communication slots, isochronous data transport, and industry accepted digital rights management features.
ECMA additionally creates a distributed control architecture that under certain conditions allows devices other than a piconet controller to assign TDMA timeslots and generally configure device operation in the network. The One of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that other media access control methods may be used in conjunction with the present invention without the loss of performance or features necessary for operation.
As with all multimedia transport mechanisms, the key attributes are timely, synchronized delivery of information components comprising video and audio, as well as other related content. Therefore, any delivery mechanism that can facilitate time aligned scheduling and delivery of the preceding information components may be substituted for one of the preceding media access control and corresponding information delivery mechanisms.
In a wireless implementation of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, wireless signals are coupled between source and destination devices via antennas , The source antenna is coupled to the output of transmitter , receiver , via a multiplexer MUX , and the destination antenna is coupled to the receiver , transmitter , via a multiplexer MUX One of ordinary skill in the art will also appreciate that in a real-world implementation of the communication system described in reference to FIG. Accordingly, digital signals can be communicated either without error or at acceptably low error rate.
Examples of such error detection and correction components are structures such as a Viterbi codecs, turbo-codecs, BCH codecs, or low density parity check codecs. The error correction and detection techniques implemented by the preceding components are generally referred to as forward error correction. This list is by no means exhaustive, but gives several practical examples of codecs which may be used.
One of the unique aspects of the present invention is the ability to use multiple forward error correction schemes, each one being selected based on the error characteristics of the communication medium. For instance, in a wireless communication system over a very short distance, the effective communication channel error rate is typically very low.