The Encyclopedia of Christian Literature, Volume 2: Biographies H-Z

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Imagine the horror of the females. Family members dead, homes and possessions are now gone, they are in the total power of their captors. The captives are distributed amongst the Muslim men as slaves, husband and wife captives are separated. As soon as a female has her menstrual cycle her owner appears.

He has been separated from his wife for a while out on the field of battle, sexually hungry, and he proceeds to have sex with his female slave.

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Do you think that this female slave willingly has intercourse with him? Is that her wish? She has just experienced one of the most horrible events in her life, - the destruction of her tribe and family, the taking of her possessions, and being made someone's slave, and now she willing consents to have sex with the very men who brought this disaster upon her!? Of course not! What women would look upon with loving eyes the men that brought destruction upon her family and tribe! Would Jesus Christ allow soldiers to rape female slaves?

What would the world say if Israel allowed its soldiers to take Palestinian females prisoner and rape with them? There would be a horrible outcry! Examine the events in Kosovo and Bosnia. Here the same situation occurred. The Muslims were defeated by the Serbs and some Serbs raped Muslims. It is a horrible crime and we all condemn it. But if we examine what Muhammad allowed his soldiers to do we see that their actions are identical.

Muhammad's standards were no better and actually worse than Serbs who raped Muslim women. It is worse because Muhammad gave it religious sanction and validity for all Muslim men. The Germans did likewise to the Russian women. In a similar way the Muslim soldiers only waited a few weeks to do likewise to their female captives. Muhammad and his soldiers treated these female slaves just like the Japanese did to their female captives.

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THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF C H R I ST I A N L I T E R AT U R EGeorge Thomas Kurian The Encyclopedia of Christian Literature, Volume 2: Biographies H-Z. Volume 2, Biographies H-Z. [George Thomas Kurian; James D Smith;] -- Covering years, The Encyclopedia of Christian Literature is the first encyclopedia.

Some attention needs to be paid to the Quranic term used here for slave. Let's examine a fuller definition of this term. Starting with the Encyclopedia of Islam, Published by E. Brill, Vol. On the other hand, the Quran frequently uses the term "rakaba", literally "neck, nape of the neck", and still more frequently, the periphrasis "ma malakat aymanukum - "that which your their right hand possesses".

So, the Quran uses the phrase "that which your right hand possesses" as a term for slave. Moving to the Shorter Encyclopedia of Islam , we find similar. Under "mamluk" it says:. Referencing Hughes Dictionary of Islam, page on slavery , it says:. There is no doubt that 'right hand possesses' is a phrase used to describe a slave, whether newly captured or not. Some Muslims may feel that I have taken the Quran and Hadith out of context.

Here is supporting material from famous Islamic scholars. Abdul Latif, from Al-Azhar writes "The second reason to take slaves is the sexual propagation of slaves which would generate more slaves for the owner. Being the master of the mother makes him the owner of her children whether they were born to a husband or they were illegitimate children. Therefore, the master has the right to have sexual intercourse with the daughters of his maid slave because they are the daughters of his property, provided he does not sleep with the mother at the same time" In effect, during his fast, he noticed an attractive slave girl.

He used her sexually.

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There is no mention of her being his "wife". There is no mention that he ever "married" her. She looked good, and he took her. He willingly allowed those women to be raped! Why do Muslims follow such a man if they know he did such evil actions? Would they allow the rape non-Muslim slaves in the Muslim world today? Even in Mecca in there were black slave markets in operation. If Muhammad were really the final prophet, why were his standards to poor?

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Why did he allow, even support such, abusive actions? Wouldn't we call a man who did this a criminal today? So, all three main sources of Islam - the Quran, the Hadith, and the Sirat all support Muslim men, including Muhammad, having sex with female slaves. Also, both prior and present Islamic scholars also declare that Muslim men can have sex with female slaves. No true prophet of God would willing allow this.

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The icing on the cake is that Muhammad claimed to receive "revelations" from Allah permitting this. One has to ask what kind of god Muhammad really worshipped. And it shall be, if thou have no delight in her, then thou shalt let her go whither she will; but thou shalt not sell her at all for money, thou shalt not make merchandise of her, because thou hast humbled her.

DT When you go to war against your enemies and the LORD your God delivers them into your hands and you take captives, 11 if you notice among the captives a beautiful woman and are attracted to her, you may take her as your wife. After she has lived in your house and mourned her father and mother for a full month, then you may go to her and be her husband and she shall be your wife.

You must not sell her or treat her as a slave, since you have dishonored her. It is obvious that God is speaking to His people about marriage to a woman who was captured as a slave. And kindness, protection and marriage is the context of the passage. Looking at the passage there is not even the hint of a rape. In fact, just the opposite is given. When a woman who is not a Jew is made a captive, and the Israelite falls in love with her because of her beauty, he is not allowed to touch her for those 30 days so that she may mourn the loss of her family and country.

The intention of this law is to protect her against any rude passion on the part of the man i. This law provided protection from her against rape. This is not to be simply a thing of passion, but of true love and care. It is a compassionate law for this foreign woman taken in war. Remember this woman was a Gentile, and as such was not expected to have the covenant protection as a Jewish woman would have been. But this law is giving her that protection. She is to be given the status of a woman in Israel and is not to be regarded as a slave, or simply as contraband from the battle.

She was to be treated with dignity. Now the question comes at verse 13 where at the end of the 30 days the man is then allowed to go into her i. Is this verse suggesting rape? Not at all. It is upholding the normal sexual union permitted a man and a wife. Kline perhaps one of the leading Old Testament theologians of the last century commented on Deut. This first of three stipulations concerned with the authority of the head of the household cf. The case of a captive woman vv. On the purificatory acts of verses 12b, 13a, which signified removal from captive-slave status, compare Lev.

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For it is a madness of that kind, as wanteth terms to express it. In the case of Book 1, chapters and Book 3, chapters 3 and following, the material in Appendices 2 and 3 will help but can not be treated as substitutes for the text of TL or as furloughs from having to think about the text. And while the growing stress of the strife between the ecclesiasticism of the Crown and the forces of nonconformity more and more thrust to the front religio-political issues, there began alongside of those strifes the new and [ 25 ] powerful propaganda of deism, which, beginning with the Latin treatise, De Veritate , of Lord Herbert of Cherbury , was gradually to leaven English thought for over a century. Trained as a mathematician, astronomer, and physician, he showed a keen and competent interest in the practical problem of currency; and one of the two treatises which alone he published of his own accord was a sound scheme for the rectification of that of his own government. There is no mention of her being his "wife".

You are Flash check out your url similar and debate sent to exist this protein became. You can be this on the lutzandcarr. You need Flash discover this info here hip and content was to manage this soil saw. You can share this on the lutzandcarr. Umar is reported to have warned those in the House that unless Ali succumbed to Abu Bakr, he would set the House on fire [41] and under these circumstances Ali was forced to capitulate. This version of events, fully accepted by Shia scholars, is generally rejected by Sunni scholars who, in view of other reports in their literature, believe that Ali gave an oath of alliance to Abu Bakr without any grievance.

But then other Sunni and Shia sources say that Ali did not swear allegiance to Abu Bakr after his election but six months later after the death of his wife Fatimah putting into question al-Tabari's account. Either way the Sunni and the Shia accounts both accept that Ali felt that Abu Bakr should have informed him before going into the meeting with the Ansar and that Ali did swear allegiance to Abu Bakr. Western scholars tend to agree that Ali believed he had a clear mandate to succeed Muhammad, [ citation needed ] but offer differing views as to the extent of use of force by Umar in an attempt to intimidate Ali and his supporters.

For instance, Madelung discounts the possibility of the use of force and argues that:. Isolated reports of use of force against Ali and Banu Hashim who unanimously refused to swear allegiance for six months are probably to be discounted. Abu Bakr no doubt was wise enough to restrain Umar from any violence against them, well realizing that this would inevitably provoke the sense of solidarity of the majority of Abdul Mannaf whose acquiescence he needed.

According to Tom Holland, Umar's historicity is beyond dispute. Rather than ape the manner of a Caesar, as the Ghassanid kings had done, he drew on the example of a quite different kind of Christian. Umar's threadbare robes, his diet of bread, salt and water, and his rejection of worldly riches would have reminded anyone from the desert reaches beyond Palestine of a very particular kind of person. Monks out in the Judaean desert had long been casting themselves as warriors of God.

The achievement of Umar was to take such language to a literal and previously unimaginable extreme. Due to the delicate political situation in Arabia [ vague ] , Umar initially opposed military operations against the rebel tribes there, [ citation needed ] hoping to gain their support in the event of an invasion by the Romans or the Persians. Later, however, he came to agree with Abu Bakr's strategy to crush the rebellion by force. By late CE, Khalid ibn Walid had successfully united Arabia after consecutive victories against the rebels. During his own reign later, Umar would mostly adopt the policy of avoiding wars and consolidating his power in the incorporated lands rather than expanding his empire through continuous warfare.

Abu Bakr appointed Umar as his successor before dying in CE. Umar was well known for his extraordinary willpower, intelligence, political astuteness, impartiality, justice and care for the poor.


His Umar's strictness was there because of my softness when the weight of Caliphate will be over his shoulders he will remain no longer strict. If I will be asked by God to whom I have appointed my successor, I will tell him that I have appointed the best man among your men. Abu Bakr was aware of Umar's power and ability to succeed him. His was perhaps one of the smoothest transitions of power from one authority to another in the Muslim lands. In his will he instructed Umar to continue the conquests on Iraqi and Syrian fronts.

Even though almost all of the Muslims had given their pledge of loyalty to Umar, he was feared more than loved.

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According to Muhammad Husayn Haykal , the first challenge for Umar was to win over his subjects and the members of Majlis al Shura. Umar was a gifted orator, and he used his ability to improve his reputation among the people. Muhammad Husayn Haykal wrote that Umar's stress was on the well-being of the poor and underprivileged. He followed Abu Bakr's decision over the disputed land of Fidak, continuing to treat it as state property.

In the Ridda wars, thousands of prisoners from rebel and apostate tribes were taken away as slaves during the expeditions. Umar ordered a general amnesty for the prisoners, and their immediate emancipation. With the necessary public support on his side, Umar took the bold decision of recalling Khalid ibn Walid from supreme command on the Roman front. The government of Umar was a unitary government , where the sovereign political authority was the caliph.

Provinces were further divided into about districts. Each district or main city was under the charge of a junior governor or Amir, usually appointed by Umar himself, but occasionally also appointed by the provincial governor. Other officers at the provincial level were:. In some districts there were separate military officers, though the Wali was, in most cases, the Commander-in-chief of the army quartered in the province.

Every appointment was made in writing. At the time of appointment an instrument of instructions was issued with a view to regulating the Wali's conduct. On assuming office, the Wali was required to assemble the people in the main mosque , and read the instrument of instructions before them. Remember, I have not appointed you as commanders and tyrants over the people. I have sent you as leaders instead, so that the people may follow your example.

Give the Muslims their rights and do not beat them lest they become abused. Do not praise them unduly, lest they fall into the error of conceit. Do not keep your doors shut in their faces, lest the more powerful of them eat up the weaker ones. And do not behave as if you were superior to them, for that is tyranny over them.

Various other strict codes of conduct were to be obeyed by the governors and state officials. The principal officers were required to travel to Mecca on the occasion of the Hajj, during which people were free to present any complaint against them. In order to minimize the chances of corruption, Umar made it a point to pay high salaries to the staff. Umar was first to establish a special department for the investigation of complaints against the officers of the State.

This department acted as the Administrative court , where the legal proceedings were personally led by Umar. In important cases Muhammad ibn Maslamah was deputed by Umar to proceed to the spot, investigate the charge and take action. Sometimes an Inquiry Commission was constituted to investigate the charge. On occasion, the officers against whom complaints were received were summoned to Medina, and charged in Umar's administrative court. Umar was known for this intelligence service through which he made his officials accountable. Another important aspect of Umar's rule was that he forbade any of his governors and agents from engaging in any sort of business dealings whilst in a position of power.

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An agent of Umar by the name of Al Harith ibn K'ab ibn Wahb was once found to have extra money beyond his salary and Umar enquired about his wealth. Al Harith replied that he had some money and he engaged in trade with it. Umar said: By Allah, we did not send you to engage in trade! Since Medina, with a rapidly growing population, was at risk of recurring famines when crops were lacking, Umar sought to facilitate the import of grain. He ordered the building of a canal connecting the Nile to the Red Sea and an improvement of port infrastructure on the Arabian coast.

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When Basra was established during Umar's rule, he started building a nine-mile canal from the Tigris to the new city for irrigation and drinking water. These two canals were the basis for the agricultural development for the whole Basra region and used for drinking water. Umar also adopted a policy of assigning barren lands to those who undertook to cultivate them. This policy continued during the Umayyad period and resulted in the cultivation of large areas of barren lands through the construction of irrigation canals by the state and by individuals. Under Umar's leadership, the empire expanded; accordingly, he began to build a political structure that would hold together the vast territory.

During his rule, the garrison cities amsar of Basra and Kufa were founded or expanded. He also permitted Jewish families to resettle in Jerusalem, which had previously been barred from all Jews. Umar also forbade non-Muslims from residing in the Hejaz for longer than three days. Umar was founder of Fiqh , or Islamic jurisprudence. In , he established Bayt al-mal , a financial institution and started annual allowances for the Muslims. As a leader, 'Umar was known for his simple, austere lifestyle. Rather than adopt the pomp and display affected by the rulers of the time, he continued to live much as he had when Muslims were poor and persecuted.

Umar's visit to Jerusalem is documented in several sources. A recently discovered Judeo-Arabic text has disclosed the following anecdote: [71]. Umar oversaw the work. The Jews who had come sent letters to the rest of the Jews in Palestine and informed them that Umar had permitted resettlement of Jerusalem by Jews.

Umar, after some consultation, permitted seventy Jewish households to return. They returned to live in the southern part of the city, i. Their aim was to be near the water of Silwan and the Temple Mount and its gates. Then the Commander Umar granted them this request. The seventy families moved to Jerusalem from Tiberias and the area around it with their wives and children.

It is also reported in the name of the Alexandrian Bishop Eutychius — CE that the rock known as the Temple Mount had been a place of ruins as far back as the time of the Empress Helena , mother of Constantine the Great, who built churches in Jerusalem. According to lexicographer David ben Abraham al-Fasi died before CE , the Muslim conquest of Palestine brought relief to the country's Jewish citizens, who had previously been barred by the Byzantines from praying on the Temple Mount.

The military conquests were partially terminated between and during the years of great famine in Arabia and plague in the Levant. According to one estimate more than 4, cities were captured during these military conquests. At his death in November , his rule extended from present day Libya in the west to the Indus river in the east and the Oxus river in the north.

In CE, Arabia fell into severe drought followed by a famine. Soon after, the reserves of food at Medina began to run out. Umar ordered caravans of supplies from Syria and Iraq, and personally supervised their distribution. His actions saved countless lives throughout Arabia. Later, Abu Ubaidah paid a personal visit to Medina and acted as an officer of disaster management , which was headed personally by Umar. For internally displaced people, Umar hosted a dinner every night at Medina, which according to one estimate, had attendance of more than a hundred thousand people.

While famine was ending in Arabia, many districts in Syria and Palestine were devastated by plague. While Umar was on his way to visit Syria, at Elat , he was received by Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, governor of Syria, who informed him about the plague and its intensity, and suggested that Umar go back to Medina. Umar tried to persuade Abu Ubaidah to come with him to Medina, but he declined to leave his troops in that critical situation. Abu Ubaidah died in of the plague, which also cost the lives of 25, Muslims in Syria.

After the plague had weakened, in late , Umar visited Syria for political and administrative re-organization, as most of the veteran commanders and governors had died of the plague. To be close to the poor, Umar lived in a simple mud hut without doors and walked the streets every evening. After consulting with the poor, Umar established the first welfare state, Bayt al-mal. The Bayt al-mal ran for hundreds of years, from the Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century through the Umayyad period — and well into the Abbasid era.

Umar also introduced a child benefit and pensions for the children and the elderly.

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Local populations of Jews and Christians, persecuted as religious minorities and taxed heavily to finance the Byzantine—Sassanid Wars , often aided Muslims to take over their lands from the Byzantines and Persians, resulting in exceptionally speedy conquests. In , Umar was assassinated by a Persian slave named Abu Lulu by later accounts.

His motivation for the assassination is not clear. In October , Umar undertook a Hajj to Mecca, during which the assassins pronounced Umar's imminent death that year, and the massive crowd of the congregation was used by the conspirators as a veil to hide themselves. During one of rituals of Hajj, the Ramy al-Jamarat stoning of the Devil , someone threw a stone at Umar that wounded his head; a voice was heard that Umar will not attend the Hajj ever again.

The Persian slave Piruz Nahavandi also known as Abu Lulu brought a complaint to Umar about the high tax charged by his master Mughirah. Umar wrote to Mughirah and inquired about the tax; Mughirah's reply was satisfactory, but Umar held that the tax charged to Abu Lulu was reasonable, owing to his daily income. Umar then is reported to have asked Abu Lulu: "I heard that you make windmills; make one for me as well. It was Piruz who was assigned the mission of assassinating Umar. According to the plan, before the Fajr prayers the morning prayers before the dawn Piruz would enter Al-Masjid al-Nabawi, the main mosque of Medina where Umar led the prayers and would attack Umar during the prayers, and then flee or mix with the congregation at the mosque.

On 31 October , Piruz attacked Umar while he was leading the morning prayers, stabbing him six times in the belly and finally in the navel, that proved fatal. Umar was left profusely bleeding while Piruz tried to flee, but people from all sides rushed to capture him; in his efforts to escape he is reported to have wounded twelve other people, six or nine of whom later died, before slashing himself with his own blade to commit suicide. On his deathbed, Umar vacillated on his succession. However, it has been reported that he said that if Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, Khalid ibn Walid or Salim , the mawla and freed Persian slave, were alive he would have appointed one of them his successor.

All six are among the ten people promised paradise according to Sunnis. He was excluded on the basis of being related by blood and of the same tribe as Umar. Umar had a policy of not appointing anyone related to him to a position of authority even if they were qualified by his standards. Umar appointed a band of fifty armed soldiers to protect the house where the meeting was proceeding. Until the appointment of the next caliph, Umar appointed a notable Sahabi and mawla, Suhayb ar-Rumi Suhayb the Roman , as a caretaker caliph. A night before Umar's assassination, reported Abdur Rahman bin Awf, he saw Hurmuzan, Jafina and Abu Lulu, while they were suspiciously discussing something.