Following our definition of sustainability, we found the intermediate defoliation level i. The fact that our C. Tolerance to defoliation was higher in males than in females as observed in other Chamaedorea palms e. Besides reduction in survival, reproduction flower and seed production of C. The HLUA and EPUA indices allowed us to explore the dynamic effects of different defoliation treatments on stock volumes and its potential economic returns over time. Nonetheless, the EPUA index represents an initial approach for exploring the immediate economic consequences of harvesting regimes.
Defoliation effects on mortality were the main determinant of leaf stock dynamics and profits.
By adjusting the index specifications, its elementary design would be suitable for different species with different habits or life histories. Furthermore, while we focused on the impact of defoliation intensity, future studies should include the effects of changing defoliation frequency to explore optimal harvesting regimes.
Future studies should examine potential interactive effects of defoliation intensity and frequency. Few studies assessing harvesting regimes of commercial NTFPs have considered spatial contexts, that is, metapopulation approaches. These studies indicate that an ecologically sustainable harvesting strategy should consider the protection of a subset of the population to function as source of seeds. By modifying the HLUA index, it could be possible to assess spatially structured harvesting strategies.
For example, different subpopulations i or patches can be subjected to contrasting harvesting levels leaving a fraction of the metapopulation as a source of seeds. Finally, leaf size, as a proxy for leaf quality, constitutes a critical trait that influences profits. Our results show that leaf size declines strongly at the most intensive defoliation levels, reducing the availability of marketable leaves.
This result emphasizes the need to incorporate not only stock size but also quality in sustainability assessments. Also, markets could premium leaf quality over leaf volume, fostering better harvesting practices and the preservation of natural populations.
Since the harvesting of leaves only implies the use of simple knifes and rustic bags, the capital investment in this activity is negligible. It would be important to estimate labour costs of harvesters on a spatial basis, so it could be subtracted from our EPUA index, which is spatially explicit.
All potential profit estimations, regardless of discount rate, were positive since the harvesting of leaves does not require significant monetary investments to initiate. However, it would be necessary to estimate labour and opportunity costs to obtain a more precise estimation of the potential economic return per unit area.
However, since in our study region, the harvesting of palms is carried out mainly within natural protected areas; the alternative productive activities would be restricted to the exploitation of other NTFPs. Our ecological and economic analysis enables us to highlight one of the central dilemmas that underlie the extraction of NTFPs, especially when dealing with common property and open access systems Ostrom To achieve a sustainable harvesting, pertinent scientific information and governmental regulation are necessary.
The current exploitation of Chamaedorea palms entails several difficulties for achieving such conditions. Harvesting areas are extensive making it very difficult to monitor extractive activities. The chain of commercialization is very large and is dominated by few trade companies. Finally, there exist several land tenure conflicts. Our results provide stakeholders with tools for making informed decisions about the rational use of important NTFPs.
It is fundamental a comprehensive perspective for designing sustainable NTFPs harvesting regimes. Data available from the Dryad Digital Repository: doi: Volume 52 , Issue 2. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Journal of Applied Ecology Volume 52, Issue 2. Standard Paper Free Access.
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Ecological Sustainability for Non-timber Forest Products: Dynamics and Case Studies of Harvesting - CRC Press Book. Ecological Sustainability for Non-timber Forest Products. Dynamics and Case Studies of Harvesting. Edited by Charlie M. Shackleton, Ashok K. Pandey and.
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Wynberg Eds. Enters, Methods Study species Mountain date palm is widely distributed across sub-Himalayan Asia, from India through southern China into Taiwan and the Philippines Barrow Correspondence to Lisa Mandle. Mahapatra, A. Terborgh, J.
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Actions Tools Choose a colour. There is growing knowledge about and appreciation of the importance of non-timber forest products NTFPs to rural livelihoods in developing countries, and to a lesser extent, developed countries. However, there is also an assumption on the part of policy-makers that any harvesting of wild animal Routledge, Abingdon, UK. Ecological sustainability for non-timber forest products: dynamics and case studies of harvesting.
Abstract : There is growing knowledge about and appreciation of the importance of non-timber forest products NTFPs to rural livelihoods in developing countries, and to a lesser extent, developed countries. However, there is also an assumption on the part of policy-makers that any harvesting harvesting Subject Category: Techniques, Methodologies and Equipment see more details of wild animal or plant products from the forests forests Subject Category: Vegetation Types see more details forests Subject Category: Habitats see more details and other natural and modified ecosystems must be detrimental to the long-term viability of target populations and species.
This book challenges this idea and shows that while examples of such negative impacts certainly exist, there are also many examples of sustainable harvesting systems for NTFPs. The chapters review and present coherent and scientifically sound information and case studies case studies Subject Category: Techniques, Methodologies and Equipment see more details on the ecologically sustainable use of NTFPs. They also outline a general interdisciplinary approach for assessing the sustainability sustainability Subject Category: Properties see more details of NTFP harvesting systems at different scales.
A wide range of case studies is included from Africa africa Subject Category: Geographic Entities see more details , Asia asia Subject Category: Geographic Entities see more details and South America south america Subject Category: Geographic Entities see more details , using plant and animal products for food, crafts, textiles, medicines and cosmetics.
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