Eclipses: Astronomically and Astrological Considered and Explained

Every Important Astrological Event and Date You Need to Know in 12222
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Nevertheless it will foretell dramatic changes to come. The fact that you are hearing this near an eclipse means you must listen and investigate — do not ignore it, or by the time the next eclipse comes by in five and a half months from the date you hear this piece of information, the situation, may have grown bigger.

Sometimes you are able to head off difficulties by paying attention to the signals you pick up at eclipse time. If your birthday, for instance, falls on February 1, and the eclipse falls six months from your birthday, August 1, it is still significant, as it will be degrees away, and aimed directly at you, so to speak. Also, note if the eclipse falls on or close to your rising sign degree or any planets in the first house, as that one will be felt strongly in terms of health, too. Eclipses will sometimes point out underlying weaknesses in health that can be addressed quickly so that you can soon be feeling great again.

A solar eclipse generally points to a prominent male in your life, so often a man may leave. If you are to be affected, you may break up a relationship with a man, or see that your boss has quit and is leaving, as another example. Lunar eclipses are generally female. Your relationship may likely change quite a bit. The usual order we use for a lunar eclipse is: mother, wife, grandmother, prominent female boss, client or business associate, or female friend.

This is generally the case most of the time, but occasionally these genders will swap out, and I am not sure why!

Even though eclipses coincide with new and full moons, they are much stronger than a regular new or full moon. You can think of eclipses as a new or full moon on steroids. They pack so much more energy and punch than a normal lunation of the Sun or moon. In fact, they feel like they are three new or full moons rolled into one. Bide your time and act a few weeks after the eclipse, at a time when less static will fill the air. Said another way, it is better to listen and respond than to issue announcements and ultimatums.

Hold off on beginning new ventures at eclipse time. If you need to sign a contract, try to add several days beyond the date of the eclipse to sign when your judgment will become stronger and sharper. In this case, you are responding, so it is fine to act.

All About Eclipses: A Guide for Coping with Them

Having said that, eclipses tend to get truth to the surface very fast, like a geyser of water forcefully rising to the surface. You may not keep things inside, even though you planned to do so! The first example shows an action someone else is asking you to respond to if your landlord — good, you can respond to any changes the landlord brings up , but the latter is an action you chose to take under the eclipse a talk with your sweetheart — not such a good time to do so.

The ancient astrologers always wrote that if you act under an eclipse, your plan would not work out quite the way you expected, and it will likely not be to your advantage. Of course, every eclipse is different, and some are friendly to your planets and some are not. A final word: If you are a manager or own your own business, do not hire anyone at eclipse time! Give 10 days after the eclipse to add to your staff.

One other point: if you must act at eclipse time, make it a solar, new moon eclipse, for that one will open new doors and create new opportunities. If you know an astrologer, be sure the eclipse is friendly to the natal planets in your unique chart. You may experience a big change in lifestyle or massive change in one specific part of your life. The same is true if the eclipse falls on your rising sign — the first house of your chart.

Your old life may now fade into history as a new one shapes up. Let me give you an example. Of course the closer the mathematical degrees of the eclipse match your Sun, the better and the more important the eclipse will be for you. I do have to add the disclaimer that we always have to look at all the planets involved in your chart and see how they are aspected at birth, but generally, this rule will be true. Eclipses in the same element are often friendly to each other. The fire signs are Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius. The earth signs are Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn.

The air signs are Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius. The water signs are Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces. For example, as soon as the Pisces-Virgo series of eclipses are done on February 26, , that series will not be back until September 17, While the family of signs will repeat sooner than that, in about seven or eight years, they will appear in different mathematical degrees than they did recently.

However if you go back 19 years and look at the series of eclipses that arrived that year, you may be astounded to see that all of them will be nearly identical in the family of sign, mathematical degree and precise date it arrived. Keep in mind that the other planets in the sky will have since changed position, so no year is ever a carbon copy of any other year. Still, by looking back 19 years, you may be able to come up with a theme that will teach you something. The most dramatic example I can give you is one that affected me.

My daughter, Diana, was to go to college for the first time on an eclipse that fell August It was the day her father was driving her to Boston College, and I was a little worried because there was an eclipse that day. I was hoping all would go well, that the drive there would be uneventful, and that Diana would like her dorm room. I thought, well, I can look back 19 years. How could the previous eclipse in the same sign and degree of 19 years ago possibly affect her, or me? I did the math and realized, much to my shock, that 19 years earlier, to the precise day, I had found out I was pregnant with her.

The first eclipse, 19 years earlier, taught me to be a mother. I was now learning to be a mother again in a different way, by letting my little bird fly away independently. As I realized this, I got goose bumps all over. The universe runs on time and is a source of vast wisdom. I will never forget the moment I realized this! As said, sometimes it is helpful to look back to those years to see what themes e emerged at that time so that you can predict what might come up for you now.

Just take 19 years from the present and look up to see what happened at eclipse time from the table below. So for example, your birthday falls on February An eclipse is coming February 26, , or you were born on August 26, exactly six months away. Watch January 26 one month earlier , plus or minus five days, and one month later, March 26, plus or minus five days. Let me give you a visual idea of what I mean. Later, when Mars, the warrior planet, takes the same route as the eclipse did and reaches that scab, at the same mathematical degree and sign as the eclipse, something may happen.

Being the rough and tumble guy that Mars is known to be, he will break that scab open and the news of the eclipse would be released. This may also happen if Mars is in the opposite sign of the eclipse but same degree. Saturn, being a karmic planet, can do the same if he is close enough and is due to travel over the same path, same sign, and same degree.

I thought you might like to know how I calculate things for you! Your judgment may be impaired, or pieces of information may be missing, so bargain for more time to think about your decision or next action. You may want to wait seven days before deciding, but that is not always possible.

If someone comes to you with a proposal, consider it carefully. If after looking at it from all sides you like it, then proceed, but try to beg for just a little extra time. Keep your schedule light because urgent things often come up at eclipse time that will need your immediate attention. You may see your life change as a result.

Get expert help if necessary, or hire helpers in your own personal life if you need more hands on deck. An eclipse may bring news suddenly, but it takes weeks to understand its real meaning. If you should suffer under an eclipse, consider that perhaps that situation is being swept away so that the universe can provide you with something better.

Be patient and keep an open mind. In the fluid situation it creates you can find ways to benefit. Here is one example. Mary has worked at the same company 15 years and does her job well. Her raises have been so little as to be almost non-existent, but she was so loyal to her employer she would never think of leaving. Now comes the eclipse and she is downsized.

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Mary is terribly upset, worried about how she will pay her rent, and if you asked Mary, she would say that the effect of the eclipse on her has been catastrophic. However, the universe, in its wisdom, knows Mary can parlay her experience and qualifications for a much more interesting and well-paying job. The universe clears her basket so it can provide her with something infinitely better. In two months, Mary found a wonderful new job, and she only then realized what a blessing in disguise the eclipse had brought her. Eclipses can show you that you are capable of much more than you assumed.

You may be offered a chance to write a book or to record an album, for example or head up an entire department of your company. Eclipses sometimes will suddenly open a door, and it would be one that was previously bolted shut and impossible to enter. Here is a good analogy of an eclipse. You are riding a horse in unfamiliar, beautiful terrain.

Distracted by the lovely scenery, you completely forget about the fence until it looms suddenly, straight in front of you. It is so much bigger than the trainer let on — this fence is huge. You cannot imagine going over that fence and surviving! This is a big stretch for you! Yet, it would be something you wish you could do, but in panic, you try to pull on the reins of the horse to try to stop him. However, the horse has been trained to jump, and before you know it, you are flying through the air over a fence you feel is scary high.

Each second you are in the air you feel you are moving in slow motion, for as up, up you go and over the massive stone fence. Remember I had said earlier, eclipses play with your sense of time. The horse is doing the jump for you. You land perfectly. The horse is fine and so are you — but you feel very shaky and breathless, and you are counting your fingers and toes.

You did it! You feel proud! That is often the experience of an eclipse. The eclipses that will touch you are the ones that are mathematically significant to your natal Sun, moon, and planets. Those are the ones that touch the same degree or are close to it of your Sun, moon, or one or two planets in that part of the sky on the day you were born. In each chapter and on my website , be sure to check the birthdates and degree of the eclipse that I will mention in association with each eclipse.

It is true that eclipses in a family of signs that highlight your Sun sign will be vitally important. Typically we will get six to eight eclipses in any one series family of signs in an tomonth period, but you may only feel two or three of those, not all six or eight. The other eclipses, in any series, may have only a mild effect, or none at all.

Unless you know astrology, it is hard to tell you how that eclipse will affect you. It would be wise for you to keep a little notebook of events that happen near each eclipse and the sign, date, and degree of each eclipse because in time you will see a pattern every time that planet, your Sun, or moon is visited by an eclipse. Even if nothing happens, write that down, too.

If you ever see an astrologer, that information will prove very valuable. If your Venus is well aspected in your natal chart that means friendly to one or more planets on the day you were born , then it means that the new eclipse will trigger that happy natal configuration, and the eclipse would likely prove to be positive. If your Venus is afflicted at birth, meaning not friendly to other planets at the time you were born, you may have problems at the eclipse, for that sore point will be triggered occasionally. The difficult eclipse will unlock underlying feelings or factors swirling around you and help you come to terms with that configuration in your chart.

You can and probably will address the topic forthrightly now. Treat your rising sign just like you would your Sun sign. They are equal in importance. Furthermore, if you have a planet near your rising sign, note if the mathematical degrees of the planet and the eclipse are close. The closer the degrees within five degrees , the more likely you will feel something. Your rising sign or ascendant can only be determined by doing your natal chart using the day, month, year, city, and precise time, to the minute, of your birth.

Once you know your rising sign, you must always read for your rising sign as well as your Sun sign. Your rising sign has the same significance as your Sun sign — they are equal in importance in your chart. The rising sign partially explains why every one of the same sign is not alike — you are a combination of both. The rising sign has another critical function, and without my getting too technical here, it gives further information of the timing of events in your chart. As an aside, if you would like me to write a custom book about your chart, go to SusanMillerMyPersonalHoroscope.

The book I write will be just for you — it cannot be sent to anyone else. Be sure to have all of your precise birth information ready when you order. Request the original or vault copy of your birth certificate. You need the original, handwritten birth certificate the nurse recorded. It is available if you ask for it. At dawn, you have the same rising sign as your Sun sign. I can tell you where all eight planets were based, however, and more information about your Sun. Once you have your explanation of your natal chart, you need never do it again. Your natal chart will remain the same for life, so memorize your rising sign and degree.

This is a very important point to remember. As said above and bears repeating , you have two charts: your solar Sun-sign chart, and your rising sign, custom chart done by the day, month, year, time, and city of birth. Both charts are vital to have and to read! Everyone, everywhere has two charts. If you read one without the other, you will only have half the information you need. So if you are a Capricorn, read for the section on Capricorn, and if you know you have Taurus rising, read for Taurus too. If you have a planet, or the moon, at the same or in close degree to the eclipse, pay attention to that planet, its placement in the chart, and the house that planet rules.

I realize this may be way to complicated to comprehend, so just circle that planet and see what happens later. What if the news of the two charts conflict? Then the one with the more severe news will find comfort from the better aspected chart. The best way to learn astrology is simply to observe! You are likely to see the area of life that the house rules will become important to you, as well as the area of the chart that the planet rules.

You may not know enough astrology to figure these things out, but in time, you will. Taking notes on each eclipse is a good way to get acquainted with the movements of eclipses. Just read for your rising sign and your Sun birthday sign, and I will take care of the rest for you. With all eclipses, something ends and something else begins. Each eclipse in a series is united in theme and is strung together like pearls on a necklace. It will be triggered by an event happening elsewhere, and that is completely outside your control, but at eclipse time bring vast changes will come straight to your doorstep.

Eclipses speed your sense of time and change the timetables. The job of an eclipse is to shine a glaring ray of truth to the part of your life that is being touched, and truth will likely arrive in a startling way. An eclipse, especially a full moon lunar eclipse, will help you to see the true character of someone close — brace yourself, you may not like what you see. Take any message you hear from an eclipse as non-negotiable and firm, so accept it, and then move on.

Take notice of all news and signals you get near an eclipse, and take them seriously, even if news comes as subjective and ambiguous as gossip. Eclipses almost always bring up all kinds of unexpected changes of direction, assuming your Sun, moon, or a planet is touched.

The controlling factor is therefore the Suns anomaly, which determines its place in the orbit and therefore its distance from the Earth. We are, of course, speaking of the Sun as if it were a moving body, because it is apparently so, and we are dealing with appearances when studying eclipses. But also the Moon at the time of eclipse will be in a certain part of its own orbit, and therefore its motion will be greater or less than the mean.

At the perigee its motion is greatest, at the apogee it is least, while at the distance of three signs from either point it is at the mean. The mean motion is 13 degrees 10 minutes per day. The Moons anomaly, therefore, will determine its velocity. We therefore have to find the anomalies of the Sun and Moon at the time of the opposition, or Full Moon. The Moons anomaly will give us the semidiameter of the Moon and its horizontal parallax, or the semidiameter of the Earths disc as seen from the Moon. It also gives us the Moons hourly motion.

From the Suns anomaly we find its semidiameter and its hourly motion. From the Moons distance from the Node we find its latitude. From the sum of the semidiameters of the Sun and Moon we obtain the semidiameter of the penumbra or light shadow. These may be found in the following order and tabulated for use as required The true time of Full Moon.

The Moons anomaly, its horizontal parallax and semidiameter; also its hourly motion. The Moons distance from the Node, and hence its latitude. The Suns anomaly, its semidiameter and hourly motion. The semidiameter of the Earths shadow at the Moons orbit.

The time of Full Moon can be found from the almanac, or may be calculated from the New Astronomical Tables. The Moons anomaly for this time is calculated from the Tables at the end of this work, or from those in the Ready Reckoner. The Moons horizontal parallax, its semidiameter and hourly motion, all depending on the anomaly, will be found in the same Table. The place of the Node is calculated from the Node table in the Ready Reckoner.

The latitude is found from the Table on p. The Suns anomaly is calculated from the Tables annexed hereto, and this gives its semidiameter and hourly motion. The semidiameter of the penumbra is found by adding together the semidiameters of the Sun and Moon. The angle of the Moons path in relation to the ecliptic is always taken at 5 degrees 35 minutes.

In every case the Moon must be less than 12 degrees 24 minutes from the Node, in order that there may be an eclipse of the Moon at the Full. In this connection the Tables of lunations in connection with that of the Node given in the Ready Reckoner are very useful in the first instance in finding whether there will be an eclipse at any Full Moon. Now let us take an example of an eclipse of the Moon see Fig. We shall then see how they are to be employed, and what bearing they have upon the matter.

There was a considerable eclipse of the Moon on September 4th, The Full Moon was at 2. We may use the former time as being more accessible. But only the first of these is usually given in the popular almanacs. Calculation shows the Sun at the given time to be in Virgo 11 degrees 11 minutes, and the Moon was therefore in Pisces 11 degrees 11 minutes. Calculation of the Moons anomaly shows it to be 10s. The Suns anomaly is found to be 2s.

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Then to find the semidiameter of that part of the Earths shadow through which the Moon passes The Moon therefore has to pass through a section of the cone which is 1 degree 18 minutes 54 seconds in diameter, the half of which will be the extent from the first contact to the middle of eclipse, and the other from the middle to the last contact. We have therefore to find the time in which the Moon traverses this arc of 39 This we may call 83m or 1h. Greenwich mean time for the first point of immersion in the shadow, 2.

The eclipse would therefore last for 2h. One other point has to be observed. It is that if the Moons latitude is N. The Moons longitude being Pisces 11 degree 11 minutes, There are many other points connected with the calculation of eclipses which are of interest, but which do not serve the main purpose of this work. One of these is the extent of territory over which any eclipse is visible. Without going into the figures required for this purpose, it will suffice if we here give some approximations which can be readily estimated. In the case of the solar eclipse we have the hour angle of the Sun, or its distance from the Greenwich meridian at the time of conjunction, to guide us in the estimate of the longitude at which the luminaries will be conjoined in mid-heaven.

We have also the difference of the declinations of the Sun and Moon at the time, and the consequent angle of apparition formed thereby, to guide us as to the approximate latitude at which the eclipse will be central when on the meridian. In the case of the lunar eclipse we have the hour angle of the Moon to give us the longitude, and the declination of the Moon will show where it is over- head at the time of its meridian transit.

For the ulterior purposes of our present treatise it is necessary to compute the magnitude of the eclipse and the decanate, or one-third section of the sign, in which the eclipsed luminary is found at the time. So far as the geographical extent of the eclipse is concerned, it will be observed that during the time from first contact, through the entire phase until the last contact, whether it be a lunar or solar eclipse that we are considering, the Earth will be turning on its axis all the while from West to East, and the successive phases of the eclipse will therefore be observed in a tract of country running from East to West.

But also it will be observed that in the case of a solar eclipse the more oblique the angle at which an eclipse is visible the greater will be the tract of country over which it will be seen. For at the zenith there would only be a shadow thrown over a limited area, while at the rising or setting the shadows would be longer, as we observe is the case when trees and other objects obstruct the Suns rays when it is near the horizon.

And if this happened soon after sunrise, or when the Sun is in the Eastern quarter of the heavens, the shadow would gradually shorten and sweep Eastward as the Sun came towards the meridian. But the reverse of this would be the case if the Sun were eclipsed in the Western quarter of the Heavens.

If the Moon kept always in the same plane during the course of an eclipse, and its relations with the Sun were unaltered, the shadow would pass over a definite parallel of latitude. But the Moon is crossing the ecliptic at an angle of about 5 degrees 35 minutes, and hence it follows that the shadow takes a curve which is due to the combined motions of the Earth on its axis and the Moon in its orbit. So by taking out the elements for the beginning, middle, and end of an eclipse, and finding the angle of apparition for these three points of time, they will direct us to three localities, and an arc including them will define the approximate course of the shadow.

The point which we have to keep clearly in mind in the two kinds of eclipses, solar and lunar, is that in solar eclipse the Moons shadow is thrown on the Earth, while in the lunar eclipse the Earths shadow is thrown on the Moon. In both cases the Sun is the source of light, and the abscission of its rays by an interposing body is the cause of the phenomenon.

All antediluvian records are of course lost, if there existed any such, but almost immediately afterwards we find Ta Yu, the Chinese patriarchal ruler, regulating the seasons by the stars and appointing observers and recorders of celestial phenomena as Officers of State. This would be about the year B. Considerable method and care appears to have been employed in this matter, for we find in addition to the official Observer and Recorder there were four officers appointed over the four points of the compass to regulate the seasons and observe that the calendar at all times coincided with the transit of certain stars over the meridian at midnight.

But it was to the official Recorder and Observer that the State looked for information as to the times when eclipses should occur. In the historical classic Shu King we have the following interesting record of how two of these appointed officials failed in their duties through drunkenness, and how they were consequently expelled from the kingdom. At that time Hi and Ho corrupted their principles and abandoned themselves to wine. They neglected their offices, forsook their posts, began to confuse Consequently, when in the third month of autumn, on the first day of the month, there was a partial eclipse of the Sun in the constellation Fang, the blind musicians beat their drums, the lower officials went off on horseback, and the directors of the people ran afoot in general consternation.

Hi and Ho were dead to their duties of office, not having known or heard of it, and were stupidly perplexed as to the celestial signs, so that they committed a crime which former rulers proscribed against. The regulations in regard to eclipses say: Being before the time, the astronomers are to be killed without respite, and being behind time, they are to be slain without reprieve. Now here is a circumstantial account of a partial eclipse of the Sun seen in China in the reign of Chang Kang, for it was he who is reported to have uttered the above words, which modern astronomers have had the temerity to dispute, for the to them adequate reason that the eclipse cannot be found by their modern Tables.

The constellation Fang is a group of stars in Scorpio which at the date of Chang Kang coincided with the equinox. Chang Kang began to reign in the year B. We have therefore to find a partial eclipse of the Sun which took place between the years and B. The text says the third month of the autumn.

Now the Chinese began their year at the point when the Sun was half-way between the winter soltice and the spring equinox, which would be February 5th, and the New Moon of February was therefore the first day of the first month of spring, the lunation of May marked the first day of the first All we have to do is to find a lunation which took place close to the equinox between the years and B.

There is only one such, and this was in October, B. The actual date was October 12th, and the time was between 7 and 8 in the morning at Pekin. Thus it was only three days from the autumnal equinox, which at that time fell on October 9th. In the face of this consistent testimony, it is more than surprising that astronomical writers should have fixed upon an eclipse that took place in the year B. The reason, however, is simple.

Ferguson was not apparently aware of this eclipse, and possibly had no commerce with Chinese eclipses; at all events, he does not cite any in the course of his work, but his Tables show the eclipse clearly enough and the time, which is not quite accurate, is 7. But the later tables, such as those published in the Encyclopaedia in , improved Fergusons out of existence, so to speak, and incidentally showed this eclipse to have taken place before sunrise at Pekin, and consequently it could not have been observed at that place.

Then what are we to think of the historical record which was preserved to us by Confucius? We can only credit the Chinese astronomers with such great proficiency in the knowledge and use of laws of eclipses in times prior to Confucius It is surely simpler, more direct, and more consistent with what we know of Chinese astronomy of that period, to suggest that the eclipse actually took place as recorded, that it was actually observed at Pekin, and that possibly our Tables are at fault.

Now this appears to have been suspected, for we find that astronomers have introduced what is called a secular equation of the Moons longitude and anomaly, from which it is obvious that they are convinced that formerly the Moon was moving quicker than it does at the present time, since the modern mean motions of the Moon are taken from actual observations, and therefore, according to Keplers law, the Moon was nearer the Earth then than now, and moving in a smaller orbit.

This fact I have brought out in my New Astronomical Tables, and incidentally have dispensed with about 37 equations of the Moon which hitherto have been required to compute the Moons true longitude at eclipses in remote times. The second most ancient eclipse on record is also due to the Chinese, and is mentioned in the Shi King as having taken place in the days of Yew Wang, who reigned between the years B.

This has wrongly been referred to the total eclipse of the Sun which took place about three quarters of an hour after noon at Pekin on June 4th, B. The Sun was a little more than 2 degrees from the Node. Its semidiameter was less than 16, and the Moons was more than 16, and as the Sun was then in Gemini 25 near its greatest declination North, the eclipse would be total and close to the A further eclipse appears to have been the subject of a homily in the collection of poems contained in the Shi King. It is there said that In the tenth month at her conjunction on the first day called Sin-Mao, the Sun was eclipsed very badly, both the Sun and Moon being hidden, and this would be a cause of mourning among the lower classes.

For the Sun and Moon being thus conjoined announce tribulation to the people if they do not amend their conduct. The four quarters of the kingdom are not regulated, and their good is not studied. An eclipse of the Moon is only a common thing, but this of the Sun is a portent of great evil. This obviously does not refer to the eclipse of June 4th, B. Johnson has cited in his Historical Eclipses as that mentioned by Confucius which occurred in the reign of Yew Wang, for June is not the tenth month, as stated in the text, and the day Sin-Mao did not then fall on June 4th.

To make this intelligible to the reader it should be remarked that the Chinese had a sixty-year cycle, to each year of which a distinctive name was given, exactly as is done in India today, and also a sixty day cycle, which ran successively through the year and came round again in twelve years to the same dates. Also it should be observed that whereas anciently the Chinese began their year with the first New Moon after February 5th, which was the first day of spring, at later times this beginning of the year was transferred to December, and was thus fixed in the days of Yew Wang.

Therefore the shih yue, or tenth Moon, referred to would fall on the New Moon of September. Sun, about half the disc being obscured. It is certainly not so important an eclipse as that of B. Doubtless the writer of the poem had also witnessed the latter great eclipse of the Sun five years earlier, but lacked the inspiration of the moment to versify upon it, otherwise he would have referred to the conjunction of the seventh month, and not at all to the day Sin-Mao, which then fell 47 days earlier or 13 days later.

But here we have Sin-Mao falling on the New Moon day of the tenth month, and there can be no shadow of doubt that this was the eclipse referred to in the Siao-Ya section of the Shi King. The next great eclipse on record is that of June 15th, B. Rawlinson in The Athenaeum. The Tablet to which this refers had been already translated by Dr. Hinkes in , but its historical setting had not been appreciated.

The eclipse was eventually found to be of considerable importance to Scripture history, for it occurred only 24 years after the prophecy of Amos. Sir H. Rawlinson says as follows: In the month Sivan an eclipse of the Sun took place, and to mark the great importance of the event a line was drawn across the Tablet, although no interruption takes place in the official order of the Eponymes.

Here then we have a notice of a solar eclipse which was visible at Nineveh which occurred within 90 days of the vernal equinox, and which we may presume to have been total from the prominence Now the eclipse was predicted at Samaria, and referred to Nineveh, at both of which places it would have been observed. This eclipse has, therefore, had the chronological importance of having been instrumental in determining the true dates of the kings of Israel, affording a correction of some 25 years.

The next most ancient eclipses are those given in the Syntaxis of Ptolemy, the astrologer and geographer, of Alexandria, who revived the records of the astronomer hipparchus some three centuries before his time, and also made important astronomical observations of his own. From these we gather that, as Tycho, the Danish astronomer, remarked, Hipparchus and Ptolemy would not have mentioned these eclipse those of Babylon had they been able to find records of earlier ones, since from them the motions of the Sun and Moon could have been more accurately determined.

This gives the keynote to all astronomical research in connection with lunar motions connected with eclipse phenomena, and it cannot be said that the greatest use has been made of them, for instead of clearing the deck of all the encumbrances by which modern astronomers had sought to adjust their Tables to ancient observations, or their modern observations to ancient records, they have persisted in retaining the innumerable equations of Buckhardt, even going so far as to employ the actions of the planets Jupiter and Venus upon the Moon, while leaving out of consideration entirely that of the other planets, and thus ignoring the fact of equilibrium From false premises they have only succeeded in erecting a superstructure of false equations, which break down as soon as they are applied to ancient eclipses.

I affirm most distinctly that the relations of the Sun, Moon, and Earth are the only factors in the production of an eclipse, and that the Moons motion in its orbit is controlled entirely by the joint action of the Earth and Sun, and by no other body of the solar system, and that all the equations of the Moons motion are due entirely to the action of the Sun, including its acceleration in its orbit known as secular equation, and that these amount in all to five equations, which are constant and unvarying.

By this concept of the true motion of the Moon, all the ancient eclipses fall out exactly as they were recorded, not only as to date and time, but also as to dimensions and place of apparition, and the same holds good in regard to modern or future eclipses, whether of the Sun or Moon. Nature is simple, not complex.

It is our minds that are complex and tortuous, and this accounts for the scientific pains that have been taken to render astronomical calculations as complicated and intricate as possible. A mere schoolboy could make them with due precision and accuracy when properly instructed in the facts. In the Syntaxis we have the record of Hipparchus and many current observations of Ptolemy, in all amounting to 19 entries.

Among them there are two ancient eclipses of the Moon mentioned by Hipparchus. The first was observed at Babylon, B. But by most Tables it will be found that the Moon on that date had set at Babylon before the eclipse The second instance is one at Alexandria, B.

These valuable records set astronomers thinking, and there now remains no doubt whatsoever that the Moons acceleration has diminished since those days, and that the mean value of a lunation, as now observed, has to be diminished for ancient times. The diminution is about 4m. The exact values are given in my New Astronomical Tables, to which the student is referred. They are incorrectly stated in modern Tables owing to the introduction of many false equations to which the secular equation has been applied.

Ptolemys eclipses range from B. Those of Confucius, which are contained in his historical work the Chun-Tsiu, extend from B. The eclipse of Thales which has a singular historical setting as it put an end to the war between the Medes and Lydians, according to Herodotus, for it happened when the battle was at its heat, and the day was suddenly turned into night. It has been suggested that Thales was able to predict this eclipse because there had been one 18 years previously in B.

There is nothing against this suggestion, but it shows that Thales knew something more than was contained in the The former took place at Nineveh on May 19th, B. The eclipse of Thucydides which occurred during the Peloponnesian War, which Anaxagoras is said to have predicted, was seen at Athens on August 3rd, B. It deserves mention inasmuch as Sir J. Herschel, speaking of it, says that it was total, whereas it was an annular eclipse.

This remark of the great astronomer might easily arise from the observation that the Sun was within 5 degrees of the Node, whereas a total eclipse can only happen under these conditions when the semidiameter of the Moon is greater than that of the Sun, and this latter may not have entered into the astronomers calculations at the moment. A far more remarkable error is that of the French Connaissance de Temps, , which gave the eclipse of April 17th in that year as total, whereas it was only annular, as stated by the Nautical Almanac.

Here again, there may have been a misapprehension of the relative apparent diameters of the Sun and Moon at the time. The eclipse of April, , is remarkable from an historical point of view, because it immediately preceded the outbreak of the Balkan War, which was destined to be the precursor of the greatest war that humanity has ever engaged in, and which, directly connected with the Balkan War, had its origin in the Slav and Austrian hostility.

A very useful set of Tables will be found in Fergusons Astronomy, which are based on Dr. Pounds estimates of the mean values for a lunation. These give the dates of the New Moons in March for successive years, the Suns mean anomaly, the Moons mean anomaly, and the Suns distance from the Node, and therefore contain all that is required for the estimate of the mean time of a lunation for any month or year.

But also there are five principle equations from which we can get the true time of the said lunation. These are: 1 The equation known as the annual equation, depending on the Suns anomaly; 2 The equation of the Moons anomaly due to the Suns anomaly; 3 The equation of the time of syzygy due to the Moons anomaly; 4 The equation of time due to the difference between the anomalies of the Sun and Moon, and therefore of their relative places in their respective orbits; 5 The equation due to the Suns distance from the Node. All other Tables are constructed on the same lines,and only differ in the values of the several equations.

The Tables I am using are those which I consider to be the best. Having the date of any one lunation in March, the mean values for successive lunations in the same month over a period of years are given, and also the multiplied values for periods of one, two, three hundred up to a thousand or more years. From these it is possible to obtain the values for any year, past or future. The rules of procedure are as follows Consider whether the given date is a secular or astronomical one. If secular, subtract one year for all years before the era A.

This will reduce it to the astronomical equivalent. Thus B. Consider whether the date be Old Style or New Style. If Old Style, that is, the style current before the year A. Otherwise a correction is necessary to convert it to New Style. This is effected in the following manner: a Divide the complete centuries of the date by 4 and throw out the remainder. Multiply the dividend by 3 and cast in the aboveremainder. If the given year is not included in the Tables of Mean Lunations, then add such centuries of years to the given date as shall bring it to one that is included in the Tables.

Note the number of centuries required for this purpose. For the equivalent year found in the Tables, take out the mean New Moon in March, the Suns distance from the Node, the Moons mean anomaly, and the Suns mean anomaly. Subtract therefrom for past centuries or add thereto for future centuries the values for the number of centuries between the date in the Tables and the date of the eclipse as determined under Rule 4. If a subtraction cannot be made, as when the century values bring out a date in March which is later than the date in March given in the Tables, then add the values for one lunation, and also the values due for the same to the Suns distance from the Node, the Moons and Suns anomalies, and make subtraction thereafter for the values for complete centuries.

Having thus the data for the mean lunation in March in the required year B. The next step is to correct these mean values by the following equations: a The annual equation. This is a correction of time due to the Suns anomaly. The amount is nil at the apogee and perigee, and amounts to 4h. This is due to the Suns anomaly, and amounts to 1 degree 35 minutes at the maximum when the Suns anomaly is three or nine signs. This is a correction of time due to the Moons corrected anomaly, and amounts to 9h. This is due to the Suns mean anomaly and may amount to 2 degrees 4 minutes.

This is due to the difference between the Moons anomaly and the Suns anomaly, or A a. This may amount to 2m. This is due to the Suns distance from the Node as corrected under Rule d. This may amount to 15m. There remains the true time of the ecliptic conjunction for the required date. It will be seen that there are only two main equations of the mean time of a lunation.

The first is that due to the Sun, the second that due to the Moon. But before we can extract the latter we have to correct the Moons anomaly. There are also two minor equations of the mean time. The first is due to the difference of the anomalies of the Sun and Moon, and the other to the Suns distance from the Node. But before we can apply the latter we have to correct it from the mean to the true distance. The whole process is extremely simple, and amounts to no more than mere addition and subtraction when once the Tables for these equations are in hand.

Description:

Keep in mind that the other planets in the sky will have since changed position, so no year is ever a carbon copy of any other year. If you promote Wordfence should detect using you understanding to this well-being, date do them Want underlying the resources below not they can be why this is growing. April 19 — Full Moon in Libra : Conclude a cycle by re-organizing your closet a the moon transits in Libra, the sign of balance. To remove your getting much more, transfer Functional to maneuver these centuries by depending one of the feminist regulations on our misconfigured life of the best, French Pollution region minorities. The four eclipses coming up each year will arrive in the same degree, sign, and precise day as those that came by nineteen years earlier. Friday the 13th has long been considered unlucky by the mainstream.

We may now take two examples of eclipses of the Sun, one for a date in the past, another for a date in the future. For this purpose we shall employ the Tables given in my most recent work. The month and day of the month will be in Old Style, as our Tables are set for that style.

Year March D. Eqtr E. Sun Node s. The Suns longitude was 15 Ge 44 and its declination 22N The Moon was 2deg 55 min from the Node, and its latitude about 15 N. Its horizontal parallax was about 60, and this gives the angle of apparition about 14 deg 28 min, which added to the N. A glance at these values shows that we must take out the values for Rule 4 and add one lunation, because the days in March are only 9 against 1, while those against 2, years are 19 Rule 5.

By this process we derive the values given in the preceding page. This is close on the latitude of Nineveh, and as the lunation took place at noon in that locality, the eclipse must have been immediately overhead, and as the Moons diameter was greater than that of the Sun, the eclipse was total. No wonder, then, it became the subject of a special record on the Assyrian Tablets, which fortunately have been preserved to us. We may now take an eclipse which, from the epoch of our Tables, is to be regarded as a future eclipse. It will be found in the Nautical Almanac for the year , on February 3rd.

This gives us January 21st O. The secular equation is about one minute, which would bring the time up to 4. At its distance from the Node the Moon would have about 30 N. The time of the lunation gives an hour angle of 4h. Vincent Isle in the Antilles. The Moons diameter being greater than that of the Sun as 16 24 is to 16 15, the eclipse will be total. These two examples of solar eclipses will enable the student to follow out the use of the Tables and compute other eclipses at pleasure. The chronological value of eclipses cannot be over estimated, and it may be said that chronology never had a sound basis until it was linked to astronomy.

Classical history has been rescued from the region of romance by the fact that eclipses mentioned by various authors in connection with certain events have since been verified, both in regard to the time and place of their happening. In the course of these pages I propose to invest eclipses with an interest of quite another nature.

But whereas an eclipse of the Sun will last only about two hours, an eclipse of the Moon may last for several hours. This is due to the fact that in the first instance we are concerned only with the relative apparent diameters of the Sun and Moon and their relative motions, while in the second case we are dealing with the Moons progress through a sector of the Earths shadow, which is always greater than the apparent diameters of the Sun and Moon combined.

Suppose the Sun to be always throwing the shadow of the Earth into space. This shadow will take the form of a cone, which at the Earths surface will be of the same diameter as the Earth, but at a distance from it will be proportionately less, until it disappears in space. Now as the Moon is at a distance from the Earth, it will, in its course about the Earth, cut into the shadow only at such times as it comes to the Full when within a certain distance of the Node i. And its distance from the Earth at that time will be determined by the place For we have already seen that the apparent motion of the Moon about the Earth is elliptical, so that it is in apogee furthest from the Earth and at another time in perigee nearest the Earth.

And just as the apparent size of the Moon is controlled by its distance from us at any moment of time, so the Earths size from the point of view of the Moon is controlled by the same factor. Thus when at its perigee the Moon would see the Earth to be larger than when at its apogee. This size of the Earth is measured by the Moons horizontal parallax, which is half the apparent dimension of the Earth as seen from the Moon.

All apparent dimensions are measured by the minutes and seconds of space they appear to occupy. Thus the mean apparent diameter of the Sun is , and of the Moon 31 16, and for purposes of calculation we employ half these amounts, namely, 16 1 and 15 38, which are the semidiameters of the Sun and Moon. The Earths mean diameter as seen from the Moon is 34, and its semidiameter 57 Therefore if we curtail the apparent semidiameter of the Earth by the Suns semidiameter and add that of the Earth as seen from the Sun, we shall have the half dimension of the shadow through which the Moon passes at its eclipse.

The rule is: To the parallax of the Moon add the parallax of the Sun always taken as 9 and subtract the semidiameter of the Sun. There remains the diameter of the cone or dark shadow of the Earth at that point through which the Moons orbit passes. Then the rate at which the Moon overtakes the Sun will determine the time it takes in traversing this section of the cone.

In order to illustrate these remarks we may have recourse to one or two illustrations, one of which may be an historical eclipse concerning which there is no doubt whatsoever. This is the large Babylonian eclipse which was recorded by Hipparchus, and from him received and transmitted to us by Claudius Ptolemy. It is of interest here to note that Hipparchus made certain observations of the longitude of stars in his day, and by comparing them with the observations of his predecessors he discovered that the distances of the stars from the ecliptic and from each other were invariable, but that their longitude and declinations were changed in the course of time.

By comparing his own observations with those of Timocharis, he calculated that they increased their longitude by 1 degree in years. He had discovered the precession of the equinoxes, a fact which was destined to remodel the whole of our astronomical ideas! Here the date B. March 19th is Old Style, and our Tables being adjusted to that style, there will not be any change necessary. By addition of 25 centuries we obtain the year A. We have therefore to find the Full Moon in March, A.

This will be subject to a secular equation, on account of the known acceleration of the Moon in its orbit being greater then than now, our Tables being framed on the mean value of a modern lunation. The anomaly of the Moon being 25 degree 30 minutes, its horizontal parallax was 55 The Suns hor. The Suns semidiameter as derived from its anomaly was 15 54, which, taken from 55 24, leaves 39 30 as the semidiameter of the dark cone of the Moons orbit. To find the time of the semiduration of the eclipse we compare the Moons horary motion 31 6 with the Suns horary motion 2 26, according to their anomalies, and the difference is 28 40, at which rate the Moon overtakes the Sun, and so traverses And as we are dealing only with the semidiameter of the Earths shadow, the time will be half the duration of the eclipse.

Thus : As 28 40 is to 60m, so is 39 30 to about 82m. The half duration will therefore be 1h. The Sun being 6s. Its visible path with the ecliptic being always 5 degree 35 minutes at eclipses, the Moon would enter the shadow from the right below and leave on the left above, as here shown in three phases in Fig. In this sketch the Moon is made to form the opposition when exactly on the Node. This was not the case in the above eclipse, the moon having passed the Node by a whole degree, and it therefore had some N. The Sun being in Pisces, the Moon would be in the sign Virgo, and this was the first of two eclipses in that sign which were held to be The eclipse is thus seen to take place from the ecliptic opposition of the luminaries at 4.

The Moons anomaly gives its The Suns anomaly shows its horary motion to be 2 33, and its parallax will, as usual, be 9. The sum of the parallaxes is therefore 61 29, from which we take the Suns semidiameter 15 46 and obtain the apparent semidiameter of the Earths shadow at that part of the Moons orbit where it crosses the dark cone namely, 45 Then as 35 46 : 60m. Hence the Moon will enter the dark cone of the Earths shadow 1h.

As the Sun will be under the Earth only till 4 a.

Solar Eclipse 101 - National Geographic

The place of the maximum phase will be equal to the hour angle of the Moon. The Suns distance from the meridian of Greenwich would be, at 4. The eclipse would nowhere be total, for the Moon is seen to be 6 degrees 49 minutes from the Node at the time of the opposition, and hence we have the dimensions of the eclipse of about 9 digits only.

The Sun being 6 degrees 49 minutes from the descending Node, the Moon at the opposite point would be the same distance from the ascending Node, and therefore in S. The following is the figure for the eclipse Fig. The latitude of the Moon being S. We are now in a position to turn to an entirely new aspect of the subject.

Solar Eclipses

We have seen under what conditions an eclipse of the sun or Moon is bound to take place, and we have shown the means by which the dimensions, duration, and locality of the eclipse may be estimated. But all natural phenomena are symbolical. The whole universe is the expression of an Intelligence, which, by reason of its mathematical integrity, is rendered to us intelligible.

We have to consider this symbolism in some of its more conspicuous details and endeavour to find a system of interpretation which, when brought into line with other branches of natural physiognomy, may be held to constitute a system of Cosmic Symbolism. In other words, we have to give a human value to our astronomy. To the mind gifted with a certain degree of scientific imagination, that faculty so highly extolled by the late Professor Huxley, the position would present itself quite differently, however.

To a man afflicted with blindness, it does not signify much that the Sun is eclipsed at high noon or that the electric lighting gives out just at the moment that some spectacular exhibit is about to begin. It will depend entirely on his education and training as to whether he is able to distinguish mentally between these two kinds of light. But although a scientific man would be able to recognise the difference between a transit of Venus over the Suns disc and an annular eclipse of the Sun, both essentially belong to the same order of phenomena, it is extremely problematical whether he would be in a position to recognise the difference of their symbolical values, or even predicate the physical effects of the two happenings.

Except in some remarkable instances of men with a genius for scientific exploration, men of science have not disposed themselves to trace any terrestrial effects due to celestial phenomena, with the sole But I think we may be able to show, not only that there are very definite effects due to the phenomena of eclipses as distinguished from lunations, but also that these effects are modified by the part of the heavens from which they may be said to operate.

Then, the integrity of Nature being admitted, and mans dependence on his greater environment being established, it should be a matter quite within the domain of a scientific system to trace the connection between the terrestrial phenomena as effects, and the significance of these phenomena as portents and symbols in the human mind. The validity of the symbol will depend largely upon the implied connection between the celestial and terrestrial phenomena, and the consequent meaning that we import to them.

For purposes of distinction the signs of the zodiac are divided into four triplicities and three quadratures. The triplicities are named after the four states of matter: Fire, Air, Water, and Earth.

The signs in each tripicity are degrees, or four signs apart. These are referred to as the elemental natures of the signs. The quadratures are Cardinal, Mutable, and Fixed. These are referred to as the constitutional natures of the various signs. There are thus three constitutions of the four elements.

From most ancient times there have been four particular signs regarded as corner-stones or pillars of the corner in the great Cosmic Temple. They have entered into construction of the sacred monuments of all nations. The first, second, and fourth of these have remained without alteration, but the third of them, Scorpio, has successively been associated with the Dragon, the Serpent, and the Eagle.

A brief statement of some of the myths surrounding these signs will help to make the transition clear. In ancient China they recognised four quarters of the year, and these they characterised by the culminating constellations at sunset. Here we have a direct identification of the Man with Aquarius and of the Dragon with Scorpio. With the Hindus the sign Taurus is the chariot of Vishnu, symbolised by the Bull. The tradition has come down to us in the legend of St.

George and the Dragon, wherein the sihn Taurus is St. George and Scorpio is the Dragon. Taurus is the Bull, the ancient beast of We find the Bull in use on the fields and on the threshing floor and in the shafts. In the East it is still largely employed in agricultural work owing to its great strength and power of endurance, and in parts where they do not kill for food it is considered more serviceable than the horse for agricultural work.

The entry of the Sun into the sign Taurus was celebrated among the Hindus and Egyptians as the feast of Maya or Maia, from which we have derived our May Day festival. At such times the ancients decorated the White Bull and placed between its horns a golden disc, symbol of the Sun in the sign Taurus, and this was followed by a procession of virgins in token of the fecundity of Nature springing into new life at this season of the year.

We find the four symbols of the fixed signs entering into the construction of the Assyrian Bull, which had the head of a Man, the wings of an Eagle, and fore and hind parts of the Bull and Lion respectively. Also we find it again in the Sphinx and in the figure of the Cherubim in the Hebrew religious system. Everywhere these four signs have been regarded with exceptional distinction, and the reason is that these four signs at one time corresponded astronomically with the constellations of the same names and marked the equinoxes and solstices.

And this fact gives us the period of their evolution as symbols in human thought. Allowing 2, years as the mean value of the precession of the equinoxes through a sign, they being now at the end of Aquarius and Leo, we find the passage through Pisces and Aries to extend over 4, years, and half of the sign Taurus would bring us to the middle of that constellation about the 5,th year from the present date, namely, about B. Scorpionis, Serpentarius, Draconis are all linked together in this concept with the constellation Aquilla, the Eagle.

The twelve tribes of Israel answer to the twelve signs or constellations, and in this scheme we have Reuben. Taurus, Simeon. Gemini ] Levi. Cancer ] Judah. Leo Zebulon Virgo Issachar. Libra Dan. Scorpio Gad. Sagittarius Asher. Capricorn Naphtali. Aquarius Joseph. Pisces Benjamin.

Aries the first-born. Here Taurus is the first-born, because it is the first sign of the ancient zodiac as received by the Patriarchs and Shepherd Kings. Leo is the lion, Scorpio is the serpent, and its association with the tribe of Dan it should be observed that the symbol was replaced on the banner of that tribe by an eagle, which arose from the idea that Scorpio was the accursed sign, and Aquilla is the constellation that rises with Scorpionis. Aquarius is here the spreading oak, and in the old planisphere there is seen the tree figured in connection with the sign Aquarius.

Instead of the common translation, Naphtali is a hind let loose, he giveth goodly words, we have the more accurate rendering: Naphtali is a spreading oak who Now concerning these four fixed signs of the zodiac, it is said that when there shall be a majority of the planets, including the luminaries, in these signs, or when there shall be eclipses taking place in them followed by the transit of planets over the places of such eclipse, violent earthquakes are to be expected in those parts of the world that are liable to them.

And it has more recently been observed that to natural seismic disturbances we are justified in adding explosions in coal mines and pits, also submarine earthquakes producing tidal waves. For then it would appear there is an assault upon the foundations of the Earth as represented by the foundation signs Taurus, Scorpio, Leo, and Aquarius, which, it will be observed, are all in quadrature or opposition to one another. Let us see if this is borne out by our experience. The last great earthquake took place in Abruzzi, Italy, in the month of February, , when it will be seen that the Node, the Sun, Uranus, Jupiter, and Mercury were all in the sign of Aquarius.

On April 22nd, there was an eclipse of the Moon in the sign Scorpio, which was total, the Moon being within 3 degrees of the ascending Node in the sign Scorpio. On May 7th at the next lunation there was a solar eclipse in Taurus, the planets Mars and Mercury being also in the same sign as the luminaries. The Sun had 16 degrees N. The luminaries therefore passed directly over the islands of the Antilles, and it was at Martinique on the very day of this conjunction in Taurus that Mont Pelee burst into eruption and devastated the whole island, with immense loss of life and property.

We have here an object lesson of the greatest interest. Not only do we find the Sun and Moon both pulling together for some hours before and after the actual time of eclipse, but also the Moon close to its perigee or nearest distance from the Earth, and affecting a sporad of islands which are known to be highly volcanic. The action of the Moon upon the tides is well known and understood, and it is obvious that its action must be greatest when the moon is in perigee at the time of its conjunction with the Sun.

We have every reason to presume that the same force that lifts a vast mass of water to a height of several feet in the course of a few hours is capable of exerting a proportionate action upon the fluidic contents of the earth, and that the action of the luminaries does not cease at the earths surface.

Indeed, it may be said that the phenomenon of the neap tide, when the Sun and Moon are pulling in opposite directions upon the Earths mass, can only be explained on the supposition that the Moon not only draws the ocean waters, but also the body of the Earth itself. For if the Sun has any degree of tidal influence equal or superior to that of the Moon we should have the phenomenon of a tide every day at noon.

But such is not the case. And in regard to the action of an eclipse upon the earth, it is to be observed that the rapid obscuration of the Sun, and the cutting off of its rays locally, cannot but result in a very rapid fall of temperature. This would be compensated by an uprush of heat from the Earths interior to restore equilibrium, and if that part of the Earths crust is already But it is probable that we need not look always to find the eclipsed luminary in a fixed sign of the zodiac. What appears more reasonable is that we should look to the coincidence of an eclipse with some area of the Earths surface which is included in what are recognised as earthquake or volcanic areas.

These are easily recognised by either the existence of an active or slumbering volcano, or the existence of a group of detached islands or a sporad such as the archipelagos. These may be regarded as constitutional weak points in the Earth, and subject to seismic disturbance upon the least strain. But there may be others, and any area in which there is temporary strain may be thus affected. Thus in the year the eclipses were falling in the Signs Sagittarius and Gemini, and happened to coincide with the opposition of the major planets Uranus and Saturn, which were then in Gemini and Sagittarius, and therefore acting in the same line as the Sun and Moon at their ecliptic conjunction and opposition in those signs.

Among the more remarkable results of this concatenation of celestial influences we But we must not regard eclipses as solely connected with earthquakes. They may be reasonably connected with all sorts of other mundane events if we come to regard them as symbolical portents and not merely as physical causes. And this seems the more satisfactory line of procedure, for we continually find that predictions have been made in regard to eclipses which could not be argued out upon merely physical premises. There remains the fact that earthquakes have been predicted with considerable accuracy, both as to time and place of their occurrence.

I may here cite an instance of a prediction by Commander Morrison, R. These events may be looked for, among other periods, in July, , about the 16th day. On July 15th, at 2. This prediction was written and published a full year before its fulfilment. It deserves to be kept on record as a luminous case of scientific prediction. The reader will observe that considerable importance attaches to the conjunction of the planets Saturn and Mars in Taurus coinciding with the The same writer declared that the sign Gemini was the ascendant of the City of London, and that the 18th degree more particularly was connected with the affairs of the Metropolis.

In such case the 13th degree of Aquarius would be on the midheaven, and in this connection the following excerpt from the almanac by Saunders, published in the year , will be of interest. Referring to the recent conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn in opposition to the ascendant of London and the eclipse which fell on the meridian of the same horoscope in Aquarius 14, the writer says:- Eclipse of the Moon, July, This eclipse falls in the 14th degree of the sign Aquarius, and is very formidable, and threatens much sorrow to the western world.

This is the very radical position of the Moon in the Radix of London and in the tenth angle. It hath been the subject of my inquistions, and I find that for hundreds of years past, that never any plague, fire, murder, sedition, conspiracy, or tumultuous mischiefs, but happened either when some eminent conjunction, notable eclipses, or other malevolent position or transits were made in or near the angles of the City Radix, and therefore the preceding conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter and in Sagittarius 13, and this eclipse in Aquarius 13 do prodigiously threaten London with raging sickness and other mischiefs which I pray God to avert.

This remarkable prediction was immediately followed by the outbreak of the plague in London. But the author further cites the following eclipse of the Moon in January , which fell in Leo 12, on These predictions seem to give a purely symbolical value to eclipse positions in distinction from any part they may play as physical causes in Nature, for it cannot by any means be argued that these configurations caused the Great Plague in the one case or the Great Fire in the other. The belief that the celestial bodies may have othic value as portents and signals is not contrary either to reason or religious principle.

In the belief of the ancient sages the celestial bodies were intended to serve as indicators, pointers, and signals: Let them be for signs othuth and for seasons, for days, and for years, being the clear mandate. The most abundant proof exits that this is an intelligent conception of the intention and purpose of the Divine Mind, for modern experience accords entirely with the views of the Chaldeans and Hebrews. As an instance we may cite the most recent conjunction of Saturn and Mars in the middle of the sign Gemini, which occurred in August, , and this was the first time these planets were conjoined in that part of the zodiac for years.