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Dr Mass and density Ft Time and frequency Jn High-speed techniques microsecond to femtosecond Bx Computer systems: hardware, operating systems, computer languages, and utilities Fb Design of experiments Hd Data acquisition: hardware and software Kf Data analysis: algorithms and implementation; data management Mh Neural networks, fuzzy logic, artificial intelligence Tp Computer modeling and simulation Wr Computer interfaces Df Sensors chemical, optical, electrical, movement, gas, etc.
Hj Display and recording equipment, oscilloscopes, TV cameras, etc. Mp Transducers Pz Instruments for strain, force, and torque Dt Thermometers Hy Furnaces; heaters Ka High-temperature instrumentation; pyrometers Mc Cryogenics; refrigerators, low-temperature detectors, and other low-temperature equipment Pe Heat engines; heat pumps; heat pipes Cy Vacuum pumps Ek Circuits and circuit components Db Generation of magnetic fields; magnets Ge Magnetometers for magnetic field measurements Kp Bolometers; infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave, and radiowave receivers and detectors Pt Submillimeter wave, microwave and radiowave spectrometers; magnetic resonance spectrometers, auxiliary equipment, and techniques Ty Infrared spectrometers, auxiliary equipment, and techniques Dq Photometers, radiometers, and colorimeters Hv Refractometers and reflectometers Ly Interferometers Pb Conventional optical microscopes Rd Visible and ultraviolet spectrometers Vg Fiber-optic instruments Gx Atomic and molecular beam sources and detectors Ka Charged-particle beam sources and detectors Cz Scanning tunneling microscopes Fc Near-field scanning optical microscopes Tt X-ray microscopes Cd Axiomatic approach Ef Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approach Gh Renormalization Hi Renormalization group evolution of parameters Jj Asymptotic problems and properties Kk Field theories in dimensions other than four Lm Nonlinear or nonlocal theories and models St Bound and unstable states; Bethe-Salpeter equations Wx Finite-temperature field theory Bt General properties of perturbation theory Ex Spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetries Ha Lattice gauge theory Kc Classical and semiclassical techniques Pg Expansions for large numbers of components e.
Yc Chern-Simons gauge theory Db Properties of perturbation theory Hf Conformal field theory, algebraic structures Mj Compactification and four-dimensional models Wx String and brane phenomenology Er Charge conjugation, parity, time reversal, and other discrete symmetries Fs Global symmetries e.
Ly Other internal and higher symmetries Na Nonlinear and dynamical symmetries spectrum-generating symmetries Pb Supersymmetry Qc Spontaneous and radiative symmetry breaking Rd Chiral symmetries Ex Formal properties of current algebras Ha Partially conserved axial-vector currents Bq Analytic properties of S matrix Fv Dispersion relations Hx Sum rules Jy Regge formalism Cr Kinematical properties helicity and invariant amplitudes, kinematic singularities, etc.
Et Partial-wave analysis Jy Many-body scattering and Faddeev equation Dm Unified theories and models of strong and electroweak interactions Kt Unification of couplings; mass relations Ff Quark and lepton masses and mixing Lk Electroweak radiative corrections Mm Neutral currents Ds Specific calculations Fv Experimental tests Aw General properties of QCD dynamics, confinement, etc.
Bx Perturbative calculations Gc Lattice QCD calculations Mh Quark-gluon plasma Qk Experimental tests Ba Bag model Dc Skyrmions Fe Chiral Lagrangians Jh Nonrelativistic quark model Pn Potential models Ee Statistical models Yx Hadron mass models and calculations Eb Decays of K mesons He Decays of bottom mesons Jf Decays of other mesons Es Decays of K mesons Ft Decays of charmed mesons Hw Decays of bottom mesons Jx Decays of other mesons Ce Leptonic, semileptonic, and radiative decays Eg Hadronic decays Bv Decays of muons Em Electric and magnetic moments Gp Electromagnetic form factors Hq Electromagnetic decays Ks Electromagnetic corrections to strong- and weak-interaction processes Fz Elastic and Compton scattering Hb Total and inclusive cross sections including deep-inelastic processes Le Meson production Rj Baryon production Cs Nucleon-nucleon interactions Ev Hyperon-nucleon interactions Gx Pion-baryon interactions Jz Kaon-baryon interactions Lb Meson-meson interactions Dz Elastic scattering Fb Inelastic scattering: two-particle final states Hd Inelastic scattering: many-particle final states Lg Total cross sections Ni Inclusive production with identified hadrons Qk Inclusive production with identified leptons, photons, or other nonhadronic particles Tp Cosmic-ray interactions Ce Production Dh Protons and neutrons Jn Hyperons Pt Exotic baryons Aq pi, K , and eta mesons Ev Other strange mesons Cd Electrons including positrons Ef Muons Fg Taus Lm Ordinary neutrinos Pq Neutrino mass and mixing St Non-standard-model neutrinos, right-handed neutrinos, etc.
Dw Charmed quarks Fy Bottom quarks Ha Top quarks Bh Photons Dj Gluons Fm W bosons Hp Z bosons Cp Non-standard-model Higgs bosons Hv Magnetic monopoles Ly Supersymmetric partners of known particles Mz Axions and other Nambu-Goldstone bosons Majorons, familons, etc. Nb Neutralinos and charginos Dr Binding energies and masses Ft Charge distribution Gv Nucleon distributions and halo features Hw Spin, parity, and isobaric spin Jx Spectroscopic factors and asymptotic normalization coefficients Ky Electromagnetic moments Ma Level density Pc Single-particle levels and strength functions Re Collective levels Tg Lifetimes, widths Fe Forces in hadronic systems and effective interactions Cs Shell model Ev Collective models Fw Models based on group theory Gx Cluster models En Angular distribution and correlation measurements Js Multipole matrix elements Nx Internal conversion and extranuclear effects including Auger electrons and internal bremsstrahlung Bw Weak-interaction and lepton Hc Relation with nuclear matrix elements and nuclear structure Cn Many-body theory Ht Optical and diffraction models Nz Hydrodynamic models Pa Thermal and statistical models Cz Giant resonances Dr Statistical compound-nucleus reactions Ky Fluctuation phenomena Dc Photon absorption and scattering Dh Inelastic electron scattering to specific states Mr Muon-induced reactions including the EMC effect Cm Elastic proton scattering Dn Elastic neutron scattering Ep Inelastic proton scattering Fq Inelastic neutron scattering Hs Transfer reactions Kv Charge-exchange reactions Lw Radiative capture De Elastic and inelastic scattering Hi Transfer reactions Kk Charge-exchange reactions Ci Elastic and inelastic scattering Pj Fusion reactions De Coulomb excitation Nq Quark deconfinement, quark-gluon plasma production, and phase transitions Dj Pion elastic scattering Gn Pion charge-exchange reactions Hp Pion-induced reactions Nv Kaon-induced reactions Ca Spontaneous fission Ec Neutron-induced fission Ge Charged-particle-induced fission Jg Photofission Cz Neutron scattering Gd Neutron transport: diffusion and moderation Ak Theory, design, and computerized simulation Bm Fuel elements, preparation, reloading, and reprocessing Kw Radioactive wastes, waste disposal My Reactor control systems Pa Moderators Te Protection systems, safety, radiation monitoring, accidents, and dismantling Dr Research reactors Ft Fast and breeder reactors Av Theory, design, and computerized simulation Cx Fueling, heating and ignition Dh Storage rings Fj Betatrons Hm Cyclotrons Lq Synchrotrons Bx Electron sources Dz Neutron sources Ni Ion sources: positive and negative Rm Sources of radioactive nuclei Ac Beam injection and extraction Bd Beam dynamics; collective effects and instabilities Fh Beam characteristics Hj Polarized beams Hs Neutron spectroscopy Cs Gas-filled counters: ionization chambers, proportional, and avalanche counters Gx Tracking and position-sensitive detectors Ka Cherenkov detectors Mc Scintillation detectors Rg Nuclear emulsions Vj Calorimeters Wk Solid-state detectors Gy Semiclassical methods Hz Group theory Md Perturbation theory Ne Self-consistent-field methods Jf Electron correlation calculations for atoms and ions: excited states Qm Electron correlation calculations for polyatomic molecules Gs Hyperfine interactions and isotope effects Jv Relativistic and quantum electrodynamic effects in atoms and molecules Ks Molecular solids Bi Atomic masses, mass spectra, abundances, and isotopes Dk Electric and magnetic moments, polarizabilities Fn Fine and hyperfine structure Hq Ionization potentials, electron affinities Bv Radio-frequency, microwave, and infrared spectra Dx Magnetic resonance spectra Jc Visible and ultraviolet spectra Rj X-ray spectra Cs Oscillator strengths, lifetimes, transition moments Fw Absolute and relative intensities Jz Line shapes, widths, and shifts Bx Level crossing and optical pumping Cy Atomic scattering, cross sections, and form factors; Compton scattering Dz Autoionization Fb Photoionization of atoms and ions Gc Photodetachment of atomic negative ions Hd Auger effect Pj Optical cooling of atoms; trapping Qk Coherent control of atomic interactions with photons Rm Multiphoton ionization and excitation to highly excited states Wr Other multiphoton processes Ys Weak-interaction effects in atoms Bh General molecular conformation and symmetry; stereochemistry Dj Interatomic distances and angles Fm Bond strengths, dissociation energies Hp Barrier heights internal rotation, inversion, rotational isomerism, conformational dynamics Kr Electric and magnetic moments and derivatives , polarizability, and magnetic susceptibility Mt Rotation, vibration, and vibration-rotation constants Pw Fine and hyperfine structure Ry Ionization potentials, electron affinities, molecular core binding energy Ta Mass spectra J- Ultrafast spectroscopy Bx Radio-frequency and microwave spectra Ea Infrared spectra Fb Raman and Rayleigh spectra including optical scattering Lg Ultraviolet spectra Ni Vacuum ultraviolet spectra Sn Rotational analysis Tp Vibrational analysis Vq Vibration-rotation analysis Wr Vibronic, rovibronic, and rotation-electron-spin interactions Dq Fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra Hv Radiationless transitions, quenching Be Zeeman and Stark effects Fy X-ray photoelectron spectra Ca Oscillator and band strengths, lifetimes, transition moments, and Franck-Condon factors Fd Absolute and relative line and band intensities Jg Line and band widths, shapes, and shifts Be Level crossing and optical pumping Eh Autoionization, photoionization, and photodetachment Gj Diffuse spectra; predissociation, photodissociation Rv Multiphoton ionization and excitation to highly excited states e.
Wz Other multiphoton processes Gj Intermolecular and atom-molecule potentials and forces Bw Energy loss and stopping power Dy Interactions of atoms and molecules with surfaces; photon and electron emission; neutralization of ions Fa Electronic excitation and ionization of atoms including beam-foil excitation and ionization Gb Electronic excitation and ionization of molecules Lf Chemical reactions Bm Elastic scattering Dp Atomic excitation and ionization Gs Molecular excitation and ionization Ht Dissociation and dissociative attachment Lx Recombination, attachment, and positronium formation Nz Spin dependence of cross sections; polarized beam experiments Dr Positronium Gv Mesonic, hyperonic and antiprotonic atoms and molecules Ey Conformation statistics and dynamics Fz Constitution chains and sequences Hb Configuration bonds, dimensions Ng Vibrational and rotational structure, infrared and Raman spectra Ei Phase transitions in clusters Gk Plasma and collective effects in clusters Mr Spectroscopy and geometrical structure of clusters Sx Diffusion and dynamics of clusters Vz Optical properties of clusters De Atom cooling methods Ty Ion trapping Cv Electrostatics; Poisson and Laplace equations, boundary-value problems Gz Magnetostatics; magnetic shielding, magnetic induction, boundary-value problems Jb Electromagnetic wave propagation; radiowave propagation Ap Synchrotron radiation Bq Cherenkov radiation Cr Free-electron lasers Ak Positive-ion beams Fr Electron and positron beams Ht Relativistic electron and positron beams Jv Laser-driven acceleration Ct Particle beam shaping, beam splitting Gy Chromatic and geometrical aberrations Lc Particle beam focusing and bending magnets, wiggler magnets, and quadrupoles Dp Wave fronts and ray tracing Fr Aberrations Bs Wave propagation, transmission and absorption Dd Wave propagation in random media Fx Diffraction and scattering Gy Edge and boundary effects; reflection and refraction Hz Interference Ja Polarization Kb Coherence Lc Birefringence Kq Fourier optics Lr Modulation and optical transfer functions Rx Phase retrieval Va Image forming and processing Wb Image reconstruction; tomography Eq Holographic optical elements; holographic gratings Ht Hologram recording and readout methods Kw Holographic interferometry; other holographic techniques Lx Diffraction efficiency, resolution, and other hologram characteristics My Applications Pa Volume holograms Ar Photon statistics and coherence theory Ct Quantum description of interaction of light and matter; related experiments Dv Quantum state engineering and measurements Ex Optical implementations of quantum information processing and transfer Fx Cooperative phenomena in quantum optical systems Gy Effects of atomic coherence on propagation, absorption, and amplification of light; electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption Hz Strong-field excitation of optical transitions in quantum systems; multiphoton processes; dynamic Stark shift Lc Quantum fluctuations, quantum noise, and quantum jumps Md Optical transient phenomena: quantum beats, photon echo, free-induction decay, dephasings and revivals, optical nutation, and self-induced transparency Nn Quantum optical phenomena in absorbing, amplifying, dispersive and conducting media; cooperative phenomena in quantum optical systems Pq Cavity quantum electrodynamics; micromasers Wk Mechanical effects of light on material media, microstructures and particles Ah General laser theory Ks Chemical lasers Lt Gas lasers including excimer and metal-vapor lasers Mv Dye lasers Px Semiconductor lasers; laser diodes Rz Doped-insulator lasers and other solid state lasers Wd Fiber lasers Ye Raman lasers By Design of specific laser systems Da Resonators, cavities, amplifiers, arrays, and rings Fc Modulation, tuning, and mode locking Gd Q-switching Jf Beam characteristics: profile, intensity, and power; spatial pattern formation Lh Efficiency, stability, gain, and other operational parameters Mi Dynamical laser instabilities; noisy laser behavior Pk Continuous operation Rn Relaxation oscillations and long pulse operation Be Biological and medical applications Cf Industrial applications Eh Metrological applications; optical frequency synthesizers for precision spectroscopy Fi Laser spectroscopy An Optical susceptibility, hyperpolarizability Es Stimulated Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering Hw Phase conjugation; photorefractive and Kerr effects Jx Beam trapping, self-focusing and defocusing; self-phase modulation Ky Frequency conversion; harmonic generation, including higher-order harmonic generation Lm Parametric down conversion and production of entangled photons Pc Optical bistability, multistability, and switching, including local field effects Re Ultrafast processes; optical pulse generation and pulse compression Sf Dynamics of nonlinear optical systems; optical instabilities, optical chaos and complexity, and optical spatio-temporal dynamics Tg Optical solitons; nonlinear guided waves Wi Nonlinear waveguides Yj Optical parametric oscillators and amplifiers Ct Anatomy and optics of eye Ay Propagation, transmission, attenuation, and radiative transfer Bz Atmospheric turbulence effects Ca Spectral absorption by atmospheric gases Jg Effects of aerosols Kh Effects of air pollution Mj Scattering, polarization Xy Ocean optics Ce Glasses, quartz Df Liquid crystals Hj Laser materials Jk Polymers and organics Ln Holographic recording materials; optical storage media Mp Nonlinear optical crystals Nq Other nonlinear optical materials; photorefractive and semiconductor materials Qs Photonic bandgap materials Bj Visible and ultraviolet sources Ag Apertures, collimators Bh Lenses, prisms and mirrors Ci Filters, zone plates, and polarizers Dj Gratings Fm Reflectors, beam splitters, and deflectors Gn Optical waveguides and couplers Hp Optical processors, correlators, and modulators Jq Acousto-optical devices Kr Display devices, liquid-crystal devices Ls Scanners, image intensifiers, and image converters Pw Imaging detectors and sensors Sz Optical communication systems, multiplexers, and demultiplexers Wc Optical coatings Bm Fabrication, cladding, and splicing Dp Propagation, scattering, and losses; solitons Gs Birefringence, polarization Pa Sensors, gyros Qb Fiber waveguides, couplers, and arrays Wg Other fiber-optical devices Cr Fabrication techniques; lithography, pattern transfer Et Waveguides, couplers, and arrays Gw Other integrated-optical elements and systems Ce Conferences, lectures, and announcements Df Other acoustical societies and their publications, online journals, and other electronic publications Eg Biographical, historical, and personal notes Sv Education in acoustics, tutorial papers of interest to acoustics educators Bi Mathematical theory of wave propagation Dk Ray acoustics El Reflection, refraction, diffraction of acoustic waves Fn Scattering of acoustic waves Rz Steady-state radiation from sources, impedance, radiation patterns, boundary element methods Dc Nonlinear acoustics of solids Ed Effect of nonlinearity on velocity and attenuation Hg Interaction of intense sound waves with noise Nm Acoustic streaming Vt Intense sound sources Yw Nonlinear acoustics of bubbly liquids Bj Mechanisms affecting sound propagation in air, sound speed in the air Mw Shock and blast waves, sonic boom Py Interaction of fluid motion and sound, Doppler effect, and sound in flow ducts Jx Radiation from objects vibrating under water, acoustic and mechanical impedance Bf Ultrasonic velocity, dispersion, scattering, diffraction, and attenuation in liquids, liquid crystals, suspensions, and emulsions Cg Ultrasonic velocity, dispersion, scattering, diffraction, and attenuation in solids; elastic constants Pt Surface waves in solids and liquids Rw Magnetoacoustic effect; oscillations and resonance Sx Acoustooptical effects, optoacoustics, acoustical visualization, acoustical microscopy, and acoustical holography Ud Thermoacoustics, high temperature acoustics, photoacoustic effect Xd Nuclear acoustical resonance, acoustical magnetic resonance Yb Ultrasonic instrumentation and measurement techniques Zc Use of ultrasonics in nondestructive testing, industrial processes, and industrial products Ja Loudspeakers and horns, practical sound sources Kb Microphones and their calibration Zp Acoustooptic and photoacoustic transducers Dt Sound absorption in enclosures: theory and measurement; use of absorption in offices, commercial and domestic spaces Kr Spectrum and frequency analyzers and filters; acoustical and electrical oscillographs; photoacoustic spectrometers; acoustical delay lines and resonators Ls Acoustical lenses and microscopes Vx Acoustic sensing and acquisition Lj Perceptual effects of sound Cc Rigid body and gyroscope motion Pk Celestial mechanics Tn Collisions Ff Resonance, damping, and dynamic stability