These same multinationals are also entering into agreements with food companies to develop crops with value-added traits. Many agrichemical companies are shifting resources away from inputs pesticides and input traits pesticidal genes to output traits. Improvements in feed value for example, corn seed engineered with phytase enzyme or high levels of lysine, an essential amino acid.
Higher-quality product for example, fresh tomatoes with longer shelf-life or paste tomato with lower water content. The industry is investing billions of dollars in genomics to characterize the genes of entire organisms. Industrial leaders expect that advances in genomics will lead researchers to the precise location and sequence of genes that contain valuable input and output traits. Will the cycle of innovation on the input side continue? Because of the high investment required for development of chemical pesticides and transgenic crops, will large agrichemical and life-science firms focus primarily on crops with large markets such as row crops?
Whether companies will develop pesticides and input traits for minor use crops remains an open question. A trend in agrichemical industry is the movement of many chemical pesticides off patent. As these chemicals become generic pesticides, manufacturers lose their monopolies on them. Large agrichemical companies are therefore aligning themselves with generic suppliers of chemical pesticides to reduce erosion in sales of the products that were formerly proprietary products. Several agrichemical companies have purchased outright or partially own generic companies.
As more products become generic, profit margins erode for distributors, as well as for manufacturers. For example, Gowan Corp. The consolidation of distributors can take two paths. In the first, a large distributor can acquire many smaller distributors. UAP, a practitio-.
The second path is the formation of consortiums of smaller distributors into a group with more influence than individual firms. The consolidation of distribution and agrichemical companies has created some concern for farmers. They are worried that they will have fewer choices and that prices will go up. However, the advent of the Internet is tearing down old structures, and the entire distributor-manufacturer relationship is expected to change for the benefit of farmers, who will be able to order all their products directly over the Internet.
One of the most important trends for agrichemical companies is the growing shift towards the development and registration of reduced-risk pesticides. In , the Environmental Protection Agency EPA began a program of expedited review of what were classified as reduced-risk pesticides. Expedited reviews can reduce the time to registration by more than half EPA Since the introduction of this program, the number registered as reduced-risk pesticides has steadily increased.
Table lists almost 20 reduced-risk pesticides that have been registered since For a pesticide to be considered of reduced risk, it must have at least one or more of the following characteristics EPA a :. It displaces chemicals that pose potential human health concerns or reduces exposures to mixers, loaders, applicators, and re-entry workers.
It reduces effects on non-target organism such as birds, honey bees, and fish. The Food Quality Protection Act FQPA went further and mandated expedited registration of reduced-risk pesticides that could be expected to pose less risk to human health and the environment than other pesticides that meet existing safety standards. Azoxystrobin a. Diflubenzuron a. Hexaflumuron a. Pome fruit, cotton, leafy vegetables, cole crops, sugarcane, pecan, forestry, fruiting Vegetables, Ornamentals.
In the year , 10 of the 25 new chemicals seeking registration are classified as of reduced risk EPA Those facts indicate that many of the new pesticides being registered meet one or more of the criteria stated above for reduced risk and that companies are responding to the expedited review of these pesticides by EPA.
The consequence of this response is that future pesticides will pose even less risk to human health and the environment because they will be compared with pesticides that are now being registered as of reduced risk. The most successful biopesticide is Bacillus thuringiensis. These companies focus primarily on minor-use crops, such as fruits, vegetables, wood products, and ornamentals. Some of the products that are getting a foothold in the marketplace are botanical extracts from the seed of the neem tree NRC , microorganism-based pesticides that include fungus-based insecticidees and fungicides, baculovirus, and beneficial nematodes.
Many of the newer products are designed to prevent soil-based diseases from attacking crops and their roots Dutky Because of the lower cost and shorter time to develop a biopesticide, as opposed to synthetic chemicals or transgenic crops, as seen in Figure , small biopesticide companies are able to enter this market. New startup firms develop alternative technologies for smaller markets that are neglected by larger agrichemical companies.
The use of microorganisms as commercial pest-control agents was reviewed by Quarles , Rodgers , and Starnes et al. Bt by far has the longest history and is the most widespread microbial pesticide in use today. Strengths of microbial pesticides can include. Bt -based microbial pesticides are used extensively in vegetable production in California because of concern about chemical residues on harvested products.
These pesticides are also used when there is a need to decrease selection pressure on diamondback moth and cabbage looper pests that evolves primarily from heavy applications of conventional pesticides in production of cole, lettuce, and tomato crops Zalom and Fry Moar and Trumble , Trumble , Trumble Trumble reported higher profits in IPM plots in production of celery and tomatoes relative to traditional chemical-spray programs Trumble , Trumble , Trumble and Alvarado-Rodriguez Results of the field tests indicate increases in yield per acre, decreased costs per ton, and improvements in tomato quality Moore Campbell Soup has reduced the amount of pesticides used by incorporating Bt and other nonchemical approaches into most of their vegetable growing W.
Reinert, University of California, Davis, April 8, , personal communication. Bt has been successfully applied to cruciferous crops for many years Sears et al. The practicality of Bt for controlling cotton caterpillars—such as the Egyptian cotton leafworm, S. With the advent of transgenic crops, these IPM systems are no longer useful. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella , which has evolved resistance to all chemical classes and also to Bt , can be managed with IPM Metcalf In Taiwan, two larval parasitoids, pheromone traps, and Bt reduced pest population densities on cauliflower and broccoli to less levels than in neighboring, conventionally sprayed plots Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center A survey of tree-fruit researchers throughout the United States indicated that the integrated use of pheromone mating disruptants, low doses one-tenth of the recommended label rate of pyrethroids, and the full rate 1 lb.
The peach twig borer Anarsia lineatella Zeller is a major pest of almonds in California that has been controlled through an IPM program Dr. As the organophosphate insecticides are phased out because of adverse effects on hawks in the almond orchards, Bt reportedly is an economical replacement for organophosphates. Bt has been used operationally for controlling forest and tree caterpillar pests for many years Bowen , Cunningham , Elliott et al. Bt kurstaki Btk is the most widely used insecticide for forest defoliators, such as gypsy moth, spruce budworm, western spruce budworm, forest tent caterpillar, fall cankerworm, and hemlock looper.
Improving the efficacy of Bt sprays continues to be a subject of research, but Btk is a successful stand-alone product and already has replaced established insecticides—such as carbamates, organophosphate, and pyrethroid pesticides—that were once considered essential to the system. The displacement occurred because of a combination of efficacy, economics, and system-specific attributes. Bt tenebrionis Btt , active on coleopteran pests, has been shown to control Colorado potato beetle under field conditions Ferro and Gelernter , Ferro and Lyon , Jaques and Laing and is now used commercially in IPM systems.
The program includes scouting, border sprays, or barriers to trap migrating overwintering adults and sprays of Btt on small larvae, cryolite on large larvae, and endosulfan on adults. Although Btt has commercial promise for control of Colorado potato beetle, the advent of the pesticide imidacloprid has reduced the use of Btt substantially.
Imidacloprid can provide season-long control when applied as a potato seed treatment, whereas Btt must be applied weekly when there are small larvae. Therefore, the chemical is easier and more effective and has become the product of choice for most potato growers. However, Colorado potato beetle has become resistant to all chemicals used against it and is expected to develop resistance to imidacloprid as well. The discovery of the beetle-active Btt fueled the search for strains with novel activity.
Companies in the Bt arena boast collections of several thousand Bt isolates. Many new crystal types have been discovered with activity against nematodes, mites, corn rootworm Diabrotica spp. The potential for use of these new Bt strains in IPM is unknown. Most of the attention is on finding new genes that can be engineered into plants. Ecogen and Novartis scientists have used various molecular techniques including electroporation and transconjugation to develop products that combine genes from aizawai and kurstaki strains to increase activity against key lepidopteran pests, such as armyworm Spodoptera spp.
Novo Nordisk used classical mutation to improve Btt. This strain produces a larger crystal and crystal size correlates directly with field activity. In addition, fusion of genes from Bt into baculovirus is being used to expand the host range of Bt. Ecogen has introduced CryMax, which is a Bt strain engineered to contain multiple copies of a Btk protein, improving efficacy on target caterpillar pests.
It is well known that Bt remains active against the pest for only several hours on plant foliage under typical field conditions because of UV degradation, rainfall, and other environmental perturbations. In the early s, Monsanto developed a recombinant plant-colonizing pseudomonad for delivery of Bt genes, with the objective of improving residual activity and efficacy of Bt proteins.
The Bt -bearing pseudomonad is killed to avoid regulatory hurdles for registering recombinant. The pseudomonad cell is reported to protect the Bt protein from environmental degradation, thus providing longer residual activity. These Bt products have had modest commercial success. Novo Nordisk discovered an enhancer of Bt , a natural substance produced in the Bt at a very low concentration Manker et al.
The same natural product was isolated previously by University of Wisconsin researchers as a fungicide, which they called zwittermicin A He et al. When the compound is combined at higher concentrations with the Bt protein, efficacy against the most refractory caterpillars, such as Helicoverpa zea and Spodoptera exigua , is increased substantially in the field.
New genetically engineered and improved Bt products might provide more opportunities and choices for growers who use IPM programs. The most successful Bt products are ones that provide efficacy, ease of use, and consistency approaching traditional chemical pesticides. Improved armyworm Spodoptera and bollworm Helicoverpa products are the most important developments in the use of Bt microbials in agriculture. Bt products could capture a larger market share and replace some established chemical products. In any case, Bt strains probably will remain important replacements for chemical insecticides in fruit, vegetable, and forestry IPM systems.
Although they have not had the commercial success of Bt , baculoviruses could have important potential for use in IPM programs. They have a number of advantages. Baculoviruses are ideal for IPM because as far as is known, they are safe for nontarget insects, humans, and the environment. Baculoviruses might, in some cases, be the only effective biocontrol agents available for controlling insect species Cunningham and they provide an avenue for overcoming specific problems, such as resistance.
It is important to have a selection of control agents when designing pest-management strategies. Because viruses are not likely to elicit cross resistance to chemicals, they should receive more attention from university and industrial researchers Cunningham The use of multiple biological products has the advantage of lowering the potential for evolution of pest resistance. Although practical applications of viruses are beginning to develop in IPM programs in US agriculture, the.
Helicoverpa zea Boddie cotton bollworm nuclear polyhedrosis virus NPV was the first baculovirus to be marketed in the United States. Interest in Elcar declined with the introduction of pyrethroids, which are effective, inexpensive broad-range insecticides. In Europe, a number of companies—including Kemira Oy Finland , Oxford Virology United Kingdom , and Calliope France —have introduced viral products for the insecticide market or are developing them.
Viral products include Cydia pomonella L. In North America, the effort with baculoviruses has been led mainly by government agencies Cunningham , Podgwaite et al. The Canadian Forest Service holds registrations for O. Louis Falcon University of California, Berkeley has demonstrated the successful use of codling moth granulosis virus in pear, apple, and walnut IPM systems in California and Washington personal communication, May 12, In the virus-treated orchards, natural enemies can survive to control mite pests, thus eliminating the need for miticides, which are required in Guthion-treated orchards.
Although Dr. Falcon's program has been successful for organic growers, mainstream fruit producers have not switched to it, because.
With the recent development of Guthion-resistant codling moth populations after 20 years of use and restriction of the preharvest interval for Guthion by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation, growers have more incentive to adopt the virus-pheromone IPM program. Such characteristics as dose-response curves, larval feeding behavior, application techniques Smits et al. On head lettuce in California, a beet armyworm NPV was field-tested for 3 years and compared with chemical insecticides Gelernter et al.
At the present stage in the development of baculovirus products, several limitations are associated with the viruses' use as insecticides. A major limitation in agricultural systems is the slow rate of kill, which results in feeding damage. Kill rate, however, is not as crucial in forest systems, where cosmetic damage is not as important. Reduction of kill time will rely on improvements in formulation and application in the immediate future. However, this limitation can be managed in the short term by using baculoviruses in combination with other insecticides through IPM.
Lower production costs are essential for both recombinant and wild-type baculoviruses to compete with classical insecticides. There are active research programs in both in vivo and in vitro production Bonning Although viruses are less expensive to produce in vivo than in vitro, the cost still exceeds that of Bt.
Viruses are formulated to be applied in the same fashion as Bt strains. However, for extensive use in IPM, dramatic improvements in formulation and application technology are needed. In formulation, knowledge of stability and shelf-life is required to optimize storage and distribution. In application, droplet size, density, dosage, and components in the tank mix for example, stickers, and UV protectants need to be optimized.
Another limitation of baculoviruses is their host specificity, which can reduce their commercial potential. However, the host specificity is viewed positively from the environmental and IPM standpoints. Two viruses with relatively broad host ranges are Autographa californica alfalfa looper NPV and Syngrapha falcifera Kirby celery looper NPV, each of which kills over 30 insect species. The celery looper virus is reported to have commercial potential in cotton IPM systems Wood Host range can be broadened through molecular means or by mixing two viruses.
To increase the ability of baculoviruses to kill early, research to insert specific genes into the baculoviral genome is under way. These genes will serve as toxins or disrupters of larval development. Among the proteins being tested for exploitation are Bt endotoxin which failed to improve the virus , juvenile hormone esterase, prothoracicotropic hormone PTTH , melittin, trehalase, scorpion toxin, and mite toxin Bruce Hammock, University of California, Davis, November 12, , personal communication.
The knowledge of the molecular biology of viruses has also promoted interest in modifying and improving baculoviruses with regard to host range and virulence. The regulatory process that will be applied to recombinant baculoviruses is not yet clear. The recombinant virus system makes it possible to exploit a variety of proteins, including insect enzymes and hormones and proteins from other organisms.
The recombinant viruses that will probably be commercialized first in the United States are the ones that carry genes expressing insect-selective nerve toxins, which are undergoing intensive safety and efficacy testing. In the United States public concern has not been voiced with regard to the safety of these viruses. However, objections have been raised in England as to the use of toxin genes in baculoviruses. The growth and success of baculoviruses as commercial insecticides will depend on reducing production costs, developing practical and effective formulations, optimizing field performance, overcoming regulatory obstacles, and educating users and the public on their safety.
Over fungi are regularly associated with insects; some cause serious disease in their hosts, but few have been used commercially as control agents. Because of their dependence on specific environmental factors, such as relative humidity, fungi can be useful tools in IPM, especially as complements to other products.
Fungi infect a broader range of insects than do other microorganisms, and infections of lepidopterans moths and butterflies , homopterans aphids and scale insects , hymenopterans bees and wasps , coleopterans beetles , and dipterans flies and mosquitoes are quite common. In fact, some fungi have very broad host ranges that encompass most of those insect groups. That is true of Beauveria. Mycogen produced a B. The fungus also is amenable to mass production of conidia by semi-solid fermentation.
The product has been field-tested against citrus root weevil. Another B. However, this product has not been successfully commercialized. A distinct isolate of V. The fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga has been recognized and used by USFS, states' departments of natural resources, and university personnel as a control for gypsy moth Elkinton et al. Since its reappearance in the early s, this pathogen largely has become self-perpetuating. It should be noted that public research agencies have played an important role in the development of gypsy moth pest-management strategies.
In fact, the use of Entomophaga maimaiga with Bt and NPVs exemplifies the trend toward biologically based pest management in gypsy moth control in the last 10 years. The effectiveness of fungi in controlling insect pests depends on the environmental conditions prevailing after application, particularly with respect to relative humidity. There is a need for research to develop moisture-retaining formulations that allow fungal growth at suboptimal rela-.
Innovative biotechnology can also be used to engineer desirable traits into fungi and thus improve the effectiveness of some fungal pathogens. Transformation systems and recombinant-DNA techniques are now being used to study the mechanisms of pathogenicity and virulence at the molecular level Carruthers and Hural Eventually, all this knowledge will enhance the ability to manipulate the genetics of these organisms. The use of microorganisms as fungicides was reviewed by Quarles There are many commercial microbial biopesticides for controlling plant pathogens, but they make up an insignificant portion of the fungicide market.
Commercial adoption is hampered by the inconsistency of microbial fungicides in the field. However, as tools in IPM systems, microbial fungicides Box can be used in rotation with chemical products or stand-alone in conjunction with disease-forecasting models. Natural products are organic compounds produced by microorganisms, plants, and other organisms. There are few natural-product fungicides for agriculture Franco and Coutinho, One is validamycin, isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. Extensive university research is focused on microbial control of plant pathogens Adams et al.
It has adressed microbial physiology or microorganism-plant interactions, especially for root patho-. Trichodex Trichoderma for many fungal diseases of vegetables and fruits. Bio-Save 10 Pseudomonas syringae for postharvest Botrytis and Penicillium. Mycostop Streptomyces griseoviridis for field, ornamental, and vegetable diseases. Blightban Pseudomonas fluorescens for Erwinia amylovora fire blight. However, little is known of the identity of the plant pathogeninhibiting natural products produced by these microorganisms and it is an important subject for future research.
The use of Bacillus subtilis as a fungicidal treatment has been demonstrated on a number of diseases, including cornstalk rot Fusarium roseum Kommedahl and Mew , onion white rot Sclerotium cepivorum Utkehede and Rahe , potato charcoal rot Macrophomina phaseolina Thirumalachar and O'Brien , bean rust Uromyces phaseoli Baker et al.
The vast majority of the work with Bacillus subtilis has concentrated on treatment of seeds or soil to control pathogens; in general, the use of biocontrol as a foliar treatment is much less developed than in the soil-rhizoplane environment Blakeman and Fokkema Foliage has been sprayed with strains of Bacillus spp. For example, Sharga screened bacilli and found two that provided good in vitro control of Botrytis cinerea and B.
However, once these microorganisms were applied in the field, a rapid decline in the population of introduced bacilli was observed within 24 hours and was concomitant with loss of protection against Botrytis. Sharga concluded that the protection observed in greenhouse tests was due to intense competition for exogenous nutrients between Bacillus and Botrytis.
In a second study, Baker et al. Bacilli are known to produce antifungal and antibacterial secondary metabolites Korzybski et al. University of Wisconsin and Cornell researchers have identified a novel fungicidal compound, zwittermicin A, produced by Bacillus spp. Stabb et al. The compound substantially inhibits elongation of germ tubes from Pythium medicaginis cysts Silo-Suh et al. A second fungicidal metabolite produced by the same strain was recently identified as the known amino sugar kanosamine Milner et al. Wisconsin field data on control of below-ground root diseases for soybean with the Bacillus strain are promising Osburn et al.
However, only one report demonstrated its use as an above-ground treatment; Smith et al. Another group of previously described metabolites of Bacillus is the cyclic lipopeptides of the iturin class, some of which are potent fungicidal agents. These compounds consist of a cyclic octapeptide with seven alpha-amino acids and one beta-amino acid with an aliphatic side chain.
There are several groups of iturins that differ in order and content of the lipopeptide side chain. Generally, a suite of related molecules is produced. Iturin-C is inactive against fungi, including Penicillium chrysogenum Peypoux et al. Researchers at USDA ARS have investigated the structure-activity relationship of the iturins by synthesizing a number of analogues differing in amino acid chain length. However, only a small number of potential Bacillus strains have been screened for fungicidal activity. AgraQuest is developing a naturally occurring Bacillus subtilis , which has shown excellent activity for some foliar and fruit diseases.
Investigators isolated it in a screening program directed at new strains with superior antifungal activity. EcoSoils Systems, San Diego, California, has a unique approach to address the short-shelf-life problem of many microbials, such as Pseudomonas -based biofungicides. Industrial scientists ferment on-site continuously for control of turf diseases on golf courses. The company is applying the Bioject system to agricultural crops, especially for control of root rot diseases, such as Phytophthora root rot of avocado. Natural products are another major source of new leads for pesticides.
Most companies generate natural-product extracts either internally or from external sources and test them against test organisms or in mechanism-based screens.
There are several advantages in using natural products directly as pesticides or as leads for new pesticides:. Many of the new chemistries in fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides can trace their origins to natural products. For example, glufosinate is a derivative of bialophos, a natural product derived from Streptomyces viridachromogens Leason et al. The methoxy-acrylate fungicides arose from strobilurin A, a natural product extracted from a mushroom Clough et al.
The active ingredient in the new spinosad insecticides used in cotton is isolated from the naturally occurring soil organism Saccharopolyspora spinosa Thompson et al. The new pyrrole insecticides originated in dioxypyrrolomycin, a natural product derived from an extract of Streptomyces spp. Black et al. Another potential use of microorganisms to protect plants is through hypovirulence—infection of a plant with benign strains that protect hosts from later infection by virulent strains.
Hypovirulence is caused by a double-stranded RNA virus that infects the fungus, and reduces its virulence relative to the crop plant. The hypovirulent state can be induced through infection with viruses and related materials. Hypovirulence has achieved its widest success in combating chestnut blight, a disease that radically altered the eastern forest landscape after introduction of an invasive fungus NRC Choice of crop variety has always been a cornerstone of crop protection, especially for disease and insect control.
There are numerous review articles on plant resistance to insects Harris , Kogan , Hedin The sources of resistance to pests in crops have been classified as nonpreferred, antibiosis, and tolerance Pfadt Insect preference for a host plant is related to physical structure of the surface hairs, wax, and so on , color, taste, odor, and light reflection. A resistant variety might be nonpreferred by virtue of lacking one or more of the preferred factors or characteristics of the host plant. Antibiosis is the adverse effect of the plant on the pest, which can be due to a deleterious chemical or the lack of specific nutrients in the plant.
Tolerance is the ability of certain plants to withstand pest attack by virtue of general vigor or ability to repair tissue damage caused by a pest attack. Plant resistance as a pest-management factor has achieved some outstanding results for example, against grape phylloxera, woolly aphid, Hessian fly, and wheat stem sawfly Kogan Desirable features of pest-resistant plants are specificity, cumulative effectiveness with effect on the pest compounded in successive generations , and persistence and harmony with the environment, ease of adoption, and compatibility with other IPM tactics Kogan Disadvantages of using pest-resistant plants for pest management include the long development time years , genetic limitations due to lack of available resistance genes , and evolution of pests that have overcome and are no longer controlled by the bred-in resistance.
To overcome some of the problems associated with traditional resistance-breeding approaches, transgenic technologies have. Inserting resistance genes from other genomes into a crop plant can reduce the problems associated with a lack of available resistance genes. At present, resistance is the predominant defense against several plant diseases, such as rust diseases, that would otherwise reduce cereal-crop production in much of the world. In the case of rust diseases, a plant cultivar generally is resistant to only one race of a pathogen. Other races of the pathogen can infect the plant, and the shift in the distribution of the pathogen races leads to a boom-and-bust syndrome of the rust diseases.
Strategies of resistance-gene deployment in which multiple cultivars with different race-specific resistance genes or single cultivars with multiple race-specific genes are planted in fields have been found to be effective against the syndrome.
Race-specific resistance genes deployed in this manner can be quite successful in controlling plant diseases NRC Crop seed engineered with a single gene for virus or insect control or herbicide tolerance is commercially successful Table In , more than 5 million acres were planted with cotton seed engineered to contain a Btk gene for caterpillar control; in the same year, 1 million acres were planted with dual-trait cotton seed engineered to contain Bt and a gene expressing herbicide tolerance.
Potato containing a Btt gene for controlling Colorado potato beetle is also on the market. Cotton, corn, and soybean crops engineered to resist the herbicide Roundup were launched during the last 2 years; Roundup Ready soybean seed was planted on 9 million acres in Also, Liberty Link canola and corn seed engineered to resist glufosinate are on the market. Industrial leaders anticipate that plants containing chitinase genes and other genes for fungal and bacterial plant-pathogen control will be on the market in the near future; many of these newer genetically engineered plant varieties are already undergoing field tests Figure Transgenic plants, whether engineered to contain an insecticidal protein, such as an endotoxin protein from Bt or a chitinase gene to control root rot pathogens, appear to have the same advantages as traditionally bred pest-resistant crop varieties.
For example, cotton engineered with a Bt Cry IA c or b protein. Is compatible with the environment reducing the use of more toxic chemical pesticides. Is compatible with other pest-management tactics, such as use of natural enemies or chemical pesticides, aimed at other pests. First, the period needed for development of transgenic plants—for such steps as finding appropriate genes, tissue-culture selection process, and backcrossing—is as long as traditional plant-breeding methods John Callahan, AgraQuest, Inc.
Second, although much progress has been made in the discovery of new genes for introduction into plants, the ability to introduce the genetic material has surpassed the ability to discover new genes to engineer. Very few, if any, genes have been found for control of nematodes, sucking insects, and mites. In cotton, for example, transgenic plants with Bt genes will provide growers with another alternative for bollworm, but the need for products that control whiteflies, mites, and lygus bugs remains. Cholesterol oxidase, an enzyme from the microorganism Streptomyces and discovered by Monsanto Company, is toxic to cotton boll weevils and has been engineered into cotton plants; the enzyme is not effective on other insect pests.
Also on the horizon are crops engineered with multiple genes. This new advance has been undergoing extensive field trials over the last few years. Table shows the number of field tests of genetically engineered crops containing one or more genes in — For example, companies have already introduced crops stacked with Bt and herbicide tolerance. Crops with multiple genes for proteins with different modes of action for example, gene 1 containing Bt is combined with gene 2 containing a protease inhibitor will be useful to prevent or delay development of resistance by a pest.
Some protease inhibitor and lectin genes have been engineered for caterpillar control. Macintosh et al. A great deal of research has focused on the search for new genes for plant-pathogen control. In the next 10 years, agriculture will see the introduction of plants engineered to inhibit fungal and bacterial plant pathogens. Virus-resistant crops are already on the market. Another limitation of both traditionally bred and transgenic crops is the evolution of pests that are unaffected by the bred-in resistance the pest develops resistance to the plant resistance traits. This is a key issue for crops engineered with single-gene pest-control traits, such as Bt.
Strategies designed to limit the development of resistant pests on the basis of understanding of pest population dynamics such as studies on pest population establishment and growth, genetics, movement, behavior, number of generations required to develop resistance, and generation time are critical for optimal and sustained use of transgenic plants in IPM systems. Much research is still needed to develop effective resistance-management strategies and IPM systems incorporating Bt plants. There is a need for more research on pest genetics, resistance mechanisms, cross resistance, pest behavior and biology, and practical aspects of the implementation of refuges for maintenance and development of susceptible insects and areawide research on pest population levels and on detection and monitoring of resistance.
The absence of USDA funding and coordination of public and private research on Bt -resistance management limits progress on resistance management. McGaughey et al. It is important to sustain its use as a biopesticide spray. Most research aimed at pest management based on genetic engineering has focused on genetic manipulation of crop plants, economically important tree species Carozzi and Koziel ; Raffa , and biocontrol agents Hoy et al.
Less emphasis has been placed on engineering of weeds, pathogens, and insect pest species in ways that would decrease economic damage. However, the recent successes in stable transformation of mosquitoes based on the use of Hermes and Mariner transposons Coates et al. The concept of modifying pests by use of classical genetic manipulations dates back at least to the s, when Serebovsky and Vanderplank suggested that chromosomal abnormalities and hybrid sterility could be used for insect control. The company is already supplying legacy automakers with capabilities for advanced-driver assistance systems ADAS.
In , Magna partnered with solid-state lidar startup Innoviz to round out the sensor package for its self-driving system. The supplier has also tapped iPod visionary and Nest co-founder Tony Fadell for its tech advisory committee. Read more: Clean Technica , Bloomberg. That data, in turn, informs a wide range of autonomous vehicle functions, including braking, advanced cruise control, and lane assist.
Then, in , it became the data partner at the acre American Center for Mobility facility in Michigan. Nissan expanded the scope of its projects in , with plans to test single-lane autonomous driving in Japan, as well as a wider range of experiments from its Future Lab mobility research center. In , ProPilot 2. In February , Nissan announced that it would be working with the Japanese online game and e-commerce company DeNA on a self-driving taxi trail, Easy Ride, which ran public trials in March in Yokohama, Japan. The service was booked via mobile app, and passengers were taken to their destinations in a modified Nissan Leaf electric car.
In , they announced a multi-year deal with Google to put Android-powered infotainment systems in their vehicles, with the rollout to commence in With 8 teraflops of processing power, the platform is designed for deep learning, sensor fusion, and computer vision applications — all key elements of a potential self-driving car. Nvidia CEO Jen-Hsun Huang has asserted that the effect of autonomy in logistics and transport will be a major opportunity for the company. In June , Volvo announced that it had selected Nvidia Drive as its autonomous driving platform for its planned fleet of autonomous trucks.
The Volvo deal comes shortly after a similar deal with Continental. Read more: ZDNet , Nvidia. Not to be outdone by its American competitors like Apple and Google, Korean electronics giant Samsung has thrown its hat into the autonomous vehicle ring. Samsung is already planning to leverage its new acquisition to shape the in-vehicle experience.
In January at CES, Samsung unveiled a new technology platform designed to help automobile manufacturers build customized autonomous vehicles. The first planned product in the platform is a camera that offers lane departure warnings, pedestrian and collision warnings, and adaptive cruise control.
The first product is expected to enter production around The company has developed a number of technologies in the space, including solutions for map data storage and data transfer. In December , Samsung announced that it would build mobile network infrastructure, including 5G and V2X networks, for K-City, a testing ground for autonomous vehicles and other smart city technologies located in Korea. Read more: Samsung , Forbes. SB Drive focuses on advancing self-driving technology, especially related to public and community services such as buses.
SB Drive is conducting trials and testing the commercial viability of fixed-route buses for community public transportation, as well as autonomous truck-based freight delivery. SB Drive has smart mobility partnership agreements with four municipalities in Japan. The vehicles navigated over km miles without supervision on authorized stretches of road, with PSA claiming the cars had achieved Level 3 Automation in this mode. Tata Elixsi, a division of the Tata Group, showcased technology in January for an autonomous parking valet in which the car understands where open spots are and uses sensors to park itself.
It is also putting a priority on security, designing a central unit in the car with extensive security measures that govern internal and external automotive communication. The software connects hardware cameras, radars, etc. Read more: Tata , GoAuto. In the public eye, EV manufacturer Tesla became an early leading banner-carrier for advanced driver assistance and self-driving technology. Since the accident, Tesla and Mobileye severed ties, with the California automaker seeking to consolidate control over the development of its radar- and camera-based system eschewing costly lidar sensors.
According to Travis Kalanick, Tesla has also rebuffed a partnership with Uber to collaborate on self-driving vehicles. Users reported poor performance during the initial rollout of Autopilot 2. In March , a man died when his Tesla ran into a highway barrier in California. The system features custom chips manufactured by Tesla, replacing the Nvidia Drive platform. Tesla offers two tiers of self-driving capability in its vehicles: Autopilot and Full Self-Driving.
Toyota has notably reversed from its claims that it would not develop a driverless car on safety grounds. Toyota has also hired professors and researchers from Stanford University, MIT, and the entire staff of the autonomous vehicle company Jaybridge Robotics. In April , it also announced its third US university partnership with an automotive engineering stalwart, the University of Michigan. In January , Toyota revealed the latest iteration of its flagship autonomous vehicle.
TRI is also researching a second system dubbed Chauffeur targeted toward traditional Level 4 and 5 autonomy. The Chauffeur system would be primarily targeted at elderly people and people with disabilities. Toyota is partnering closely with Nvidia on software to power its autonomous vehicles. We believe large-scale simulation tools for software validation and testing are critical for automated driving systems. The documents also reveal just how quickly Uber expected self-driving adoption to accelerate: it planned to have 75, autonomous vehicles in operation by and to have driverless taxi services operating in 13 cities by The company has already fallen short of that first milestone: as of April , it had just autonomous cars on the road.
Former Uber CEO Travis Kalanick was a noted champion of his ride-sharing company embracing autonomous cars, with the technology representing both an existential threat and an opportunity for the startup to validate its stratospheric valuation. Then the future passes us by, basically, in a very expeditious and efficient way.
The company has made several moves in that direction, such as poaching nearly the entire Carnegie Mellon Robotics Lab 40 engineers to work on the project in Pittsburgh. Uber also partnered with the University of Arizona to develop better mapping and optical safety technology. In May , Uber revealed its in-house autonomous prototypes for the first time, and the company acquired self-driving truck startup Otto later in the year.
The acquisition embroiled Uber in legal controversy, with Waymo alleging that employees stole confidential files relating to its proprietary LiDAR sensors. The company has also faced waves of negative press on sexual harassment and poor culture, in addition to deceiving authorities and ignoring autonomous testing regulations. The company has suffered from an exodus of both engineering and non-engineering talent. And the company has had numerous troubles with its self-driving cars and safety. Just hours after Uber began self-driving trials in San Francisco, reports surfaced of a close call with a human-driven car.
Subsequent reports alleged that Uber vehicles were self-driving into bike lanes throughout San Francisco without warning. Finally, in March , a self-driving Uber vehicle was involved in a fatal crash in Arizona, striking and killing year-old Elaine Herzberg. Uber was subsequently banned from testing autonomous vehicles on public roads in Arizona. In the aftermath of the crash and the ensuing investigation, Uber suspended all of its self-driving car trials and pulled all its autonomous vehicles off the road.
Around the same time, Uber announced the end of its self-driving truck program, Otto. In June , Uber unveiled a new self-driving car model, this time developed in partnership with Volvo. The model features more safety features and redundancy than the previous self-driving models Uber has developed — but it is also being designed to operate without a human driver behind the wheel. Uber says it will start testing the new model on public roads in The auto supplier showed off its eCruise4U automated concept at CES , which was equipped with a connected camera, laser sensors, and a reconfigurable cockpit.
Lero tests its sensors at the National University of Ireland at Galway, where it can rain as many as days a year. The group hopes to develop smarter autonomous car technology that is more road-conditioned and weather-resistant. Read more: Valeo. Volkswagen revealed its V-Charge project in The plan is for a Volkswagen e-Golf equipped with sensors and 3D maps to find open parking spaces in a garage and park without human input. The company suggests that there will be a prototype for demonstration available within four years.
The auto giant unveiled its new Moia brand in late , joining other automakers in creating a unit dedicated to new mobility services like fleet-based shuttles and autonomous, on-demand transportation. In July , Volkswagen announced that it had entered a joint venture with Ford to develop autonomous vehicle technology.
Once complete, Argo AI will have the largest geographic reach of any autonomous driving technology to date. Read more: Forbes , The Verge. The Geely-owned Volvo car brand has placed an emphasis on safety innovations when it comes to developing self-driving passenger vehicles. Volvo has previously announced plans to give Swedish customers early access to an autonomous XC90 by with restrictions on when, where, and how the autonomous mode will be used.
Note: Volvo Cars is now distinct from the independent Volvo Group brand, which focuses on heavy-duty commercial trucks, buses, and equipment. The company has stated that it will accept full liability when its vehicles are in autonomous mode and has announced plans to expand its pilot program to China and the United States. Volvo has followed rivals like BMW in setting as its target deployment date. Volvo has other autonomous innovations in the works as well. In January , the company announced a self-driving joint venture with Veoneer called Zenuity, which is focused on self-driving vehicle software.
Rent a bus and take us — even for an hour — take us to do what Jesus wants done. Do this, in a dramatic way, during the time people would be sitting in church will force members to talk about it. Imagine, just imagine every single member of your congregation enthusiastically telling their family, friends, workmates, neighbors, etc… about how exciting church was? I would add 1 to this list.
By the way, I think all the above is true. In most churches there is 1 No expectation for Christians to reach out to non-Christians and 2 If there is an expectation, there is no formal training to help people do so. Until we get out of the mindset of just telling our people to invite people to church, our churches will not grow. Having sermons on how we should be evangelizing without training people to do so just makes people feel guilty.
We need to help them be effective. How many churches have any kind of training whatsoever in teaching members how to make disciples? In my experience it starts with friendship. Otherwise it will be just cold calling which, as the person above posted, is awkward and mostly ineffective. Not sure about yet another meeting to formally train people. Us families are busy enough. Start with being a good neighbour and friend.
Then an invite can naturally flow. Very good point Jeremy. Happens in our church regularly- invite and invite. But no training. I think you are confusing the term culture. But where there are people there will be a culture and subcultures of that culture. Christianity is part of its culture wherever it is. If what you say is true than our purpose in this life is to fight cultural wars same-sex marriage, abortion, conservatism. I think that we are to live and tell the Gospel in our culture in a way that redeems it, not defeats it.
When people believe the gospel and experience gospel transformation they will affect the culture…but the culture will remain albeit reshaped if the church is being the church. Christian Singer Shares Struggle […]. I firmly believe that the culture IS an enemy. You actually point to this same truth. The culture is the enemy. The people are the unwitting dupes of the culture, because politically correct language sounds so nice. Culture is just the style in which we do things. The world, however, leads us into sin.
Making style culture an issue is the same as what the Pharisees were doing, and Jesus rebuked them sharply, telling them that they were teaching as doctrines the traditions of men. Even the church has its own culture, and that is often a stumbling point for people coming into the church. Am not in the ministry, saw this post from my daughter.
Probably more than any time in the recent past churches seem to be splitting into 2 major camps. You seem to be speaking to the first. Which as can see from reports are declining. The Presbyterians, Methodists, Lutherans, etc. Meanwhile the fundamentalists are growing. It is a split in culture and mindset. Answers to BIG questions will vary based on individuals and their understanding who God is. The denomination, the church or a leader has the answers to all BIG questions. The Bible is referenced as the source, but it is all based on a specific way of reading and interpreting it.
One group requires introspection, the other faith not so much in the Bible, but in the leadership who has heard and read the word from God himself. The rules for membership requires this. The second is better served by minimizing interaction with others to avoid infection. The more difficult culture becomes, gays for example asking to be treated the same as all others.
Exactly the same as blacks, women, inter-racial marriages in times past. The more enticing the fundamentalism mindset becomes. Science challenges as harshly as culture, but like culture accepting a portion creates a crack in the belief system. For some science is a way to understanding the world and universe around us from genes to the history of our earth and universe. For the fundamentalist it is a challenge to belief systems. Accepting, being inclusive is creating cracks in this system.
The things listed here to me seem secondary to first making it known that you are inclusive and challenging. Ron, I had no idea this post was about mainline v. Thanks for your input. I read it that way, because the things oyu discuss are not an issue within the fundamentalist mind set….. Ron, fundamentalist churches are declining as well.
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And fundamentalist youth have absolutely no use for the homophobia. True Biblical Fundamentalists do their dead level best to impact people with the love of Jesus. Hate will always attract a crowd — loving people like Jesus requires work, patience, long-suffering, thick skin, humility and an understanding of who we are in Christ. WE are commanded to go, to love, to share the gospel, etc. I think our little church is stuck on no. I feel sure after 7 months we should be able to retain and grow but we keep losing people.
Very disheartened! You forgot one. The blaming your congregation is awful. But the excuse was always there to explain away failure after failure in the mission. They also exhibited a host of other issues from the list, but that one was a biggie. I might be possibly reiterating what others have said or alluded to, but I might put it in different ways.
But what about the main reason, which is that many people think that going to church requires one to believe in obvious impossible things which nobody who has any integrity could do. The remedy is I think is clarity — what in those beliefs is symbol, and what is physical. Great I thought at first, then I thought that people who are not christians are obviously going to look to christians to see what a life supposedly in relationship with Jesus is like.
Your point no 3. Some people are prepared to suspend critical thinking faculties and go to church anyway for the benefits of ritual, community, support etc. Which introduces another problem: double standards — why are some Bible verses referred to to justify prejudices anti-gay for example — a major reason people often cite first when you ask them what is wrong with the church and not others women are unclean when they have just given birth, and more so if the baby is a girl, etc.
This last one is, I think, generally regarded by everyone as ridiculous. People want reasonable answers to many things which they do not get from their churches. There are great answers to the questions that you allude to. One must ask who determines what good is? Do you, or does God? A faithful person believes that God determines good. A secular humanist believes he determines what good is. That is an example of the age old sin called pride, inherited from Adam.
Through this people God would bless all nations Gen 12 , this is understood and fulfilled in the NT appearance of Jesus the Christ. People who think that growth is a bad thing have to realize that what we are working for is to make the Kingdom of God a reality on Earth as in Heaven. We pray this every Sunday Actually!! Eliminating these ten barriers to growth in each church is only an answer to our most basic prayers.
I think it is also very important to establish what you mean by church growth. But does that mean they are truly being made a disciple of Christ, or just a familiar social environment? On the other hand…we can so ignore opportunities to advance in our methods that we not only drive people away, but we drive away the freshness of the Holy Spirit. Neither extreme has biblical backing. Growth needs to be about seeing people bear spiritual fruit. That is the sign of a church that is maturing believers. The parable of the sower lets us see that there are many cases where the seed actually takes root, but does not endure.
Where I personally have been convicted lately is for the need to make more disciples, not just to deepen the faith of those who already believe. Would you agree that growth should include both?
Once again it feels like you are writting right into my situation. If you are following me around we could atleast grab a coffee! This process has taken exactly five years to date, and we still have about 3 items to go. For others reading these posts, take heart. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Sometimes you and I make life out to be more mysterious than it actually is.
Growing churches handle conflict biblically, humbling and healthily. Too many churches are more in love with the past than they are with the future. A life devoted to self ultimately leaves you alone. If you treat your unchurched neighbor like an enemy, why would he ever want to be your friend? Never be afarid to risk what is for the sake of what could be. They act. Some churches are more focused on growth than they are on God, which stunts their growth. Posted in Leadership , Mission , Spiritual Growth , Strategy and tagged change , church , communication , confidence , Connexus , growth , health , Leadership , Life , ministry , Mission , Personal Growth , self-leadership , vision , work.
CR on February 17, at am. Tyrone Jackson on December 16, at am. Donald Sensing on October 29, at am. Dennis on April 12, at am. Gary Whittaker on October 29, at am. Musa m maina peace!!!!!!!!!!!!!