Environmental and Health Risk Assessment and Management: Principles and Practices

Science, Risk, and Risk Assessment and Their Role(s) Supporting Environmental Risk Management
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Relationship risk appears when ineffective collaboration occurs. Process-engagement risk may be an issue when ineffective operational procedures are applied. These risks directly reduce the productivity of knowledge workers, decrease cost-effectiveness, profitability, service, quality, reputation, brand value, and earnings quality.

Intangible risk management allows risk management to create immediate value from the identification and reduction of risks that reduce productivity. Risk management also faces difficulties in allocating resources. This is the idea of opportunity cost. Resources spent on risk management could have been spent on more profitable activities. Again, ideal risk management minimizes spending or manpower or other resources and also minimizes the negative effects of risks.

According to the definition to the risk, the risk is the possibility that an event will occur and adversely affect the achievement of an objective. Therefore, risk itself has the uncertainty. Each company may have different internal control components, which leads to different outcomes. For the most part, these methods consist of the following elements, performed, more or less, in the following order. According to the standard ISO "Risk management — Principles and guidelines on implementation," [3] the process of risk management consists of several steps as follows:.

After establishing the context, the next step in the process of managing risk is to identify potential risks. Risks are about events that, when triggered, cause problems or benefits. Hence, risk identification can start with the source of our problems and those of our competitors benefit , or with the problem consequenses.

Environmental Health Criteria 240

Examples of risk sources are: stakeholders of a project, employees of a company or the weather over an airport. When either source or problem is known, the events that a source may trigger or the events that can lead to a problem can be investigated. For example: stakeholders withdrawing during a project may endanger funding of the project; confidential information may be stolen by employees even within a closed network; lightning striking an aircraft during takeoff may make all people on board immediate casualties.

The chosen method of identifying risks may depend on culture, industry practice and compliance. The identification methods are formed by templates or the development of templates for identifying source, problem or event. Common risk identification methods are:. Once risks have been identified, they must then be assessed as to their potential severity of impact generally a negative impact, such as damage or loss and to the probability of occurrence.

These quantities can be either simple to measure, in the case of the value of a lost building, or impossible to know for sure in the case of an unlikely event, the probability of occurrence of which is unknown. Therefore, in the assessment process it is critical to make the best educated decisions in order to properly prioritize the implementation of the risk management plan. Even a short-term positive improvement can have long-term negative impacts. Take the "turnpike" example. A highway is widened to allow more traffic.

More traffic capacity leads to greater development in the areas surrounding the improved traffic capacity. Over time, traffic thereby increases to fill available capacity. Turnpikes thereby need to be expanded in a seemingly endless cycles. There are many other engineering examples where expanded capacity to do any function is soon filled by increased demand. Since expansion comes at a cost, the resulting growth could become unsustainable without forecasting and management.

The fundamental difficulty in risk assessment is determining the rate of occurrence since statistical information is not available on all kinds of past incidents and is particularly scanty in the case of catastrophic events, simply because of their infrequency. Furthermore, evaluating the severity of the consequences impact is often quite difficult for intangible assets. Asset valuation is another question that needs to be addressed.

Thus, best educated opinions and available statistics are the primary sources of information. Nevertheless, risk assessment should produce such information for senior executives of the organization that the primary risks are easy to understand and that the risk management decisions may be prioritized within overall company goals.

Thus, there have been several theories and attempts to quantify risks. Numerous different risk formulae exist, but perhaps the most widely accepted formula for risk quantification is: "Rate or probability of occurrence multiplied by the impact of the event equals risk magnitude. Risk mitigation measures are usually formulated according to one or more of the following major risk options, which are:. Later research [11] has shown that the financial benefits of risk management are less dependent on the formula used but are more dependent on the frequency and how risk assessment is performed.

In business it is imperative to be able to present the findings of risk assessments in financial, market, or schedule terms. Robert Courtney Jr. IBM, proposed a formula for presenting risks in financial terms. The Courtney formula was accepted as the official risk analysis method for the US governmental agencies. The formula proposes calculation of ALE annualized loss expectancy and compares the expected loss value to the security control implementation costs cost-benefit analysis.

Once risks have been identified and assessed, all techniques to manage the risk fall into one or more of these four major categories: [12]. Ideal use of these risk control strategies may not be possible. Some of them may involve trade-offs that are not acceptable to the organization or person making the risk management decisions.

This includes not performing an activity that could carry risk. An example would be not buying a property or business in order to not take on the legal liability that comes with it. Another would be not flying in order not to take the risk that the airplane were to be hijacked. Avoidance may seem the answer to all risks, but avoiding risks also means losing out on the potential gain that accepting retaining the risk may have allowed.

Not entering a business to avoid the risk of loss also avoids the possibility of earning profits. Increasing risk regulation in hospitals has led to avoidance of treating higher risk conditions, in favor of patients presenting with lower risk. Risk reduction or "optimization" involves reducing the severity of the loss or the likelihood of the loss from occurring.

For example, sprinklers are designed to put out a fire to reduce the risk of loss by fire. This method may cause a greater loss by water damage and therefore may not be suitable. Halon fire suppression systems may mitigate that risk, but the cost may be prohibitive as a strategy. Acknowledging that risks can be positive or negative, optimizing risks means finding a balance between negative risk and the benefit of the operation or activity; and between risk reduction and effort applied.

By an offshore drilling contractor effectively applying Health, Safety and Environment HSE management in its organization, it can optimize risk to achieve levels of residual risk that are tolerable.

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For example, a view that risks should be managed and hazardous activities banned only as a last resort would not be shared by those who favour risk avoidance and so would prefer to remove the hazard altogether. As with any policy, however, its application is subject to constraints such as the requirements of existing international treaties or agreements. Construction and Decommissioning 4. A highway is widened to allow more traffic. Openness demands candour in exposing, for example:.

Modern software development methodologies reduce risk by developing and delivering software incrementally. Early methodologies suffered from the fact that they only delivered software in the final phase of development; any problems encountered in earlier phases meant costly rework and often jeopardized the whole project.

By developing in iterations, software projects can limit effort wasted to a single iteration. Outsourcing could be an example of risk sharing strategy if the outsourcer can demonstrate higher capability at managing or reducing risks. This way, the company can concentrate more on business development without having to worry as much about the manufacturing process, managing the development team, or finding a physical location for a center.

Briefly defined as "sharing with another party the burden of loss or the benefit of gain, from a risk, and the measures to reduce a risk. The term of 'risk transfer' is often used in place of risk sharing in the mistaken belief that you can transfer a risk to a third party through insurance or outsourcing. In practice if the insurance company or contractor go bankrupt or end up in court, the original risk is likely to still revert to the first party.

As such in the terminology of practitioners and scholars alike, the purchase of an insurance contract is often described as a "transfer of risk. For example, a personal injuries insurance policy does not transfer the risk of a car accident to the insurance company. The risk still lies with the policy holder namely the person who has been in the accident. Some ways of managing risk fall into multiple categories. Risk retention pools are technically retaining the risk for the group, but spreading it over the whole group involves transfer among individual members of the group. This is different from traditional insurance, in that no premium is exchanged between members of the group up front, but instead losses are assessed to all members of the group.

Risk retention involves accepting the loss, or benefit of gain, from a risk when the incident occurs. True self-insurance falls in this category. Risk retention is a viable strategy for small risks where the cost of insuring against the risk would be greater over time than the total losses sustained. All risks that are not avoided or transferred are retained by default.

This includes risks that are so large or catastrophic that either they cannot be insured against or the premiums would be infeasible. War is an example since most property and risks are not insured against war, so the loss attributed to war is retained by the insured. Also any amounts of potential loss risk over the amount insured is retained risk.

This may also be acceptable if the chance of a very large loss is small or if the cost to insure for greater coverage amounts is so great that it would hinder the goals of the organization too much. Select appropriate controls or countermeasures to mitigate each risk. Risk mitigation needs to be approved by the appropriate level of management. For instance, a risk concerning the image of the organization should have top management decision behind it whereas IT management would have the authority to decide on computer virus risks. The risk management plan should propose applicable and effective security controls for managing the risks.

For example, an observed high risk of computer viruses could be mitigated by acquiring and implementing antivirus software. A good risk management plan should contain a schedule for control implementation and responsible persons for those actions. Mitigation of risks often means selection of security controls , which should be documented in a Statement of Applicability, which identifies which particular control objectives and controls from the standard have been selected, and why. Implementation follows all of the planned methods for mitigating the effect of the risks.

Purchase insurance policies for the risks that it has been decided to transferred to an insurer, avoid all risks that can be avoided without sacrificing the entity's goals, reduce others, and retain the rest. Initial risk management plans will never be perfect. Practice, experience, and actual loss results will necessitate changes in the plan and contribute information to allow possible different decisions to be made in dealing with the risks being faced.

Risk analysis results and management plans should be updated periodically. There are two primary reasons for this:. Prioritizing the risk management processes too highly could keep an organization from ever completing a project or even getting started. This is especially true if other work is suspended until the risk management process is considered complete. It is also important to keep in mind the distinction between risk and uncertainty.

If risks are improperly assessed and prioritized, time can be wasted in dealing with risk of losses that are not likely to occur. Spending too much time assessing and managing unlikely risks can divert resources that could be used more profitably. Unlikely events do occur but if the risk is unlikely enough to occur it may be better to simply retain the risk and deal with the result if the loss does in fact occur.

Qualitative risk assessment is subjective and lacks consistency. The primary justification for a formal risk assessment process is legal and bureaucratic. As applied to corporate finance , risk management is the technique for measuring, monitoring and controlling the financial or operational risk on a firm's balance sheet , a traditional measure is the value at risk VaR , but there also other measures like profit at risk PaR or margin at risk.

The Basel II framework breaks risks into market risk price risk , credit risk and operational risk and also specifies methods for calculating capital requirements for each of these components. In Information Technology, Risk management includes "Incident Handling", an action plan for dealing with intrusions, cyber-theft, denial of service, fire, floods, and other security-related events. In enterprise risk management, a risk is defined as a possible event or circumstance that can have negative influences on the enterprise in question. Its impact can be on the very existence, the resources human and capital , the products and services, or the customers of the enterprise, as well as external impacts on society, markets, or the environment.

In a financial institution, enterprise risk management is normally thought of as the combination of credit risk, interest rate risk or asset liability management , liquidity risk, market risk, and operational risk. In the more general case, every probable risk can have a pre-formulated plan to deal with its possible consequences to ensure contingency if the risk becomes a liability. From the information above and the average cost per employee over time, or cost accrual ratio , a project manager can estimate:. Risk in a project or process can be due either to Special Cause Variation or Common Cause Variation and requires appropriate treatment.

That is to re-iterate the concern about extremal cases not being equivalent in the list immediately above. ESRM is a security program management approach that links security activities to an enterprise's mission and business goals through risk management methods. The security leader's role in ESRM is to manage risks of harm to enterprise assets in partnership with the business leaders whose assets are exposed to those risks.

ESRM involves educating business leaders on the realistic impacts of identified risks, presenting potential strategies to mitigate those impacts, then enacting the option chosen by the business in line with accepted levels of business risk tolerance [17]. For medical devices, risk management is a process for identifying, evaluating and mitigating risks associated with harm to people and damage to property or the environment.

Risk management is an integral part of medical device design and development, production processes and evaluation of field experience, and is applicable to all types of medical devices. The management of risks for medical devices is described by the International Organization for Standardization ISO in ISO , Medical Devices—The application of risk management to medical devices, a product safety standard.

The standard provides a process framework and associated requirements for management responsibilities, risk analysis and evaluation, risk controls and lifecycle risk management. These annexes indicate content deviations that include the requirement for risks to be reduced as far as possible , and the requirement that risks be mitigated by design and not by labeling on the medical device i.

Typical risk analysis and evaluation techniques adopted by the medical device industry include hazard analysis , fault tree analysis FTA , failure mode and effects analysis FMEA , hazard and operability study HAZOP , and risk traceability analysis for ensuring risk controls are implemented and effective i. FTA analysis requires diagramming software. FMEA analysis can be done using a spreadsheet program. There are also integrated medical device risk management solutions. Through a draft guidance , the FDA has introduced another method named "Safety Assurance Case" for medical device safety assurance analysis.

The safety assurance case is structured argument reasoning about systems appropriate for scientists and engineers, supported by a body of evidence, that provides a compelling, comprehensible and valid case that a system is safe for a given application in a given environment. With the guidance, a safety assurance case is expected for safety critical devices e. In , the FDA introduced another draft guidance expecting medical device manufacturers to submit cybersecurity risk analysis information. Project risk management must be considered at the different phases of acquisition.

In the beginning of a project, the advancement of technical developments, or threats presented by a competitor's projects, may cause a risk or threat assessment and subsequent evaluation of alternatives see Analysis of Alternatives. Once a decision is made, and the project begun, more familiar project management applications can be used: [18] [19] [20].

Megaprojects include major bridges, tunnels, highways, railways, airports, seaports, power plants, dams, wastewater projects, coastal flood protection schemes, oil and natural gas extraction projects, public buildings, information technology systems, aerospace projects, and defense systems. Megaprojects have been shown to be particularly risky in terms of finance, safety, and social and environmental impacts. It is important to assess risk in regard to natural disasters like floods , earthquakes , and so on.

Outcomes of natural disaster risk assessment are valuable when considering future repair costs, business interruption losses and other downtime, effects on the environment, insurance costs, and the proposed costs of reducing the risk. The management of risks to persons and property in wilderness and remote natural areas has developed with increases in outdoor recreation participation and decreased social tolerance for loss. In his book, Outdoor Leadership and Education , climber, outdoor educator, and author, Ari Schneider , notes that outdoor recreation is inherently risky, and there is no way to completely eliminate risk.

However, he explains how that can be a good thing for outdoor education programs. According to Schneider, optimal adventure is achieved when real risk is managed and perceived risk is maintained in order to keep actual danger low and a sense of adventure high. The RASM Model weighs negative risk—the potential for loss, against positive risk—the potential for growth. IT risk is a risk related to information technology. This is a relatively new term due to an increasing awareness that information security is simply one facet of a multitude of risks that are relevant to IT and the real world processes it supports.

It lags only long enough for incentives like black markets to evolve and new exploits to be discovered. There is no end in sight for the advancement of technology, so we can expect the same from cybersecurity. Duty of Care Risk Analysis DoCRA [38] evaluates risks and their safeguards and considers the interests of all parties potentially affected by those risks. For the offshore oil and gas industry, operational risk management is regulated by the safety case regime in many countries.

Principles and Practices

Further, diagrammatic representations of hazardous events are often expected by governmental regulators as part of risk management in safety case submissions; these are known as bow-tie diagrams see Network theory in risk assessment. The technique is also used by organisations and regulators in mining, aviation, health, defence, industrial and finance. The principles and tools for quality risk management are increasingly being applied to different aspects of pharmaceutical quality systems. Risk management is also applied to the assessment of microbiological contamination in relation to pharmaceutical products and cleanroom manufacturing environments.

Risk communication is a complex cross-disciplinary academic field related to core values of the targeted audiences. A main goal of risk communication is to improve collective and individual decision making. Risk communication is somewhat related to crisis communication. Some experts coincide that risk is not only enrooted in the communication process but also it cannot be dissociated from the use of language. Though each culture develops its own fears and risks, these construes apply only by the hosting culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see risk disambiguation. For business risks, see risk analysis business. For the magazine, see Risk Management magazine. Set of measures for the systematic identification, analysis, assessment, monitoring and control of risks. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Management accounting Financial accounting Financial audit. Business entities. Corporate group Conglomerate company Holding company Cooperative Corporation Joint-stock company Limited liability company Partnership Privately held company Sole proprietorship State-owned enterprise. Corporate governance. Annual general meeting Board of directors Supervisory board Advisory board Audit committee. Corporate law. Commercial law Constitutional documents Contract Corporate crime Corporate liability Insolvency law International trade law Mergers and acquisitions.

Corporate title. Commodity Public economics Labour economics Development economics International economics Mixed economy Planned economy Econometrics Environmental economics Open economy Market economy Knowledge economy Microeconomics Macroeconomics Economic development Economic statistics. The pellet plant has a goal to achieve zero discharge norms with a comprehensive water and waste water management. The iron ore dust collected by ESP is recycled into the thickener for its reuse in the process.

Principles and Practices

Any fugitive dust generated is extracted, collected through bag filters, scrubbers, and reused in the process. Thus, no solid waste is generated. Continuous monitoring of high noise area is done by sound meter to ensure that it is within the permissible exposure limit. Low noise generating equipments are used in the pellet plant.

The equipment producing high noise are surrounded by baffles and covered with noise-absorbing material.

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Workers are provided with personal protective equipment to protect from noise like ear muffs, ear plugs. Trees are important sinks for air pollutants and absorb the noise. They enhance the green cover, improve the ecology and aesthetics and affect the local micrometeorology. Trees also have major long-term impacts on soil quality and the ground water table. A total of 19, trees were planted in the plant premises on an area of Proper housekeeping is an essential part of sound environmental management, which keeps the industry free from dusts.

Environmental and Health Risk Assessment and Management

Health examinations are designed to ensure that the worker is fit for employment and that he remains in that state of fitness throughout his period of employment. Any deviation from good health must be detected early and managed appropriately. Health examinations of workers frequently reveal the existence of health hazards in workplace, thus necessitating environmental evaluation and control. This examination is carried out before employment of a worker in the workplace with potential health hazards. This helps in obtaining the baseline data.

It also enables the management to place workers in jobs suited to their capacities and limitations. It includes physical examination of the various organs of the body, blood and urine analysis, radiographic examination, eye examination, audiometry, and spirometry. This examination is carried out at regular intervals after the initial examination. Emphasis is given on exposure. Periodicity depends on the nature and extent of the risk involved.

Workplace Injury and Illness Trend Analysis Program strives to identify unhealthy behaviors or hazardous conditions by tracking work-related injuries and illnesses. Tracking and monitoring workplace injuries and illnesses on an on-going basis [ 19 ]. Grouping injuries and illnesses by nature, body part affected, event or exposure, source, etc [ 19 ]. Determining if any trends in workplace injuries or illnesses exist and graphing those trends, if possible [ 19 ].

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Environmental and Health Risk Assessment and Management. Principles and Practices. Authors: Ricci, Paolo. Free Preview. Environmental and Health Risk Assessment and Management: Principles and Practices by Paolo F Ricci, , available at Book Depository with.

Identifying any equipment, materials, or environmental factors that may be commonly involved in workplace injury or illness incidents [ 19 ]. Identifying possible solutions and suggesting improvements to reduce or prevent the likelihood of future workplace injuries or illnesses. It is also essential that all people involved are informed about the changes and, when necessary, provided with the appropriate information, instruction, training, and supervision to ensure that each worker is safe from injury and risk to health.

It is also recommended that after a period of time, the area supervisor carry out a review of the system or control to determine its ongoing suitability. The first step for protection of workers against occupational diseases and maintaining a safe workplace is defining and analyzing hazards. This helps in achieving two objectives; first is identifying the critical and high-risk hazards, which need to be addressed on priority basis, and second, by applying control measures at the earliest, it reduces the risk to a level considered ALARP.

I would like to express my deepest appreciation to the Managing Director of the Pellet Plant for encouraging me to conduct this study. I would like to thank the employees and the workers of the Pellet Plant for participating in the study. Finally, I take this opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to my beloved teacher and guide Dr. If your answer to question 1 is yes then how would you rate the consequence of the hazard in a scale of 1 to 5 with 1 being the least consequence causing a near miss and 5 being the maximum consequence causing fatality or permanent disability?

If your answer to question 1 is yes then how would you rate the likelihood of the hazard in a scale of 1 to 5 with 1 being the least likelihood occurring very rarely or practically impossible and 5 being the maximum likelihood occurring continuously? If your answer to question 6 is yes then are you provided training regarding the type of PPE to use and the procedure of using PPE?

Is there any facility for Pre employment and Periodical Health Checkup of employees in your organization? If your answer to question 8 is yes then what is the periodicity of health checkup in years? National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Indian J Occup Environ Med. Rout and B. Sikdar 1. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr. E-mail: moc. Abstract Background: With the growing numbers of iron ore pelletization industries in India, various impacts on environment and health in relation to the workplace will rise.

Objective: The aim of the study was to identify all the possible hazards at different workplaces of an iron ore pelletizing industry, to conduct an occupational health risk assessment, to calculate the risk rating based on the risk matrix, and to compare the risk rating before and after the control measures. Materials and Methods: The research was a cross-sectional study done from March to December in an iron ore pelletizing industry located in Odisha, India. Results: A total of hazards were identified.

Conclusion: The hazards having high-risk rating and above were reduced to a level considered As Low as Reasonably Practicable ALARP when the control measures were applied, thereby reducing the occurrence of injury or disease in the workplace. Keywords: Control measures, hazard identification, hazardous process, iron ore pelletizing industry, risk assessment.

Scope of the study The occupational health risk assessment shall address the following: The hazards of the process involved in different activities Semi-quantitative evaluation of the possible health and safety effects of failure of controls Engineering and administrative controls applicable to the hazards and their interrelationships, such as appropriate application of detection methodologies to provide early warning of release.

Study settings The study was carried out in a 4-m tonne iron ore pelletizing industry located in Odisha, India from March to December Methodology The different steps of methodology are mentioned in the Figure 1. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Classification of work activities Identification of hazard All the work activities pertaining to various departments were minutely examined to identify all the possible hazards inherent to the nature of work or work environment [ Table 1 ].

The following methods were used to identify the hazards in the workplace: Table 1 Department-wise work activities of pellet plant. Assessment of risk Risk assessment was done using semi quantitative method [ 8 ] based on two key factors [ Table 2 ]: Table 2 Semi quantitative method of risk assessment. Table 3 Control measures and its effectiveness. Table 4 Control measures based on risk rating. Documentation of procedure Documenting the process helps to ensure that the identified risk control measures are implemented in the way they were intended. This information should include: Hazards identified Assessment of the risks associated with those hazards Decision on control measures to manage exposure to the risks How and when the control measures are implemented Evidence of monitoring and reviewing of the effectiveness of the controls.

Monitoring and review It involves reassessment of the risk to see whether there is a reduction of risk rating from critical and high risk to a level considered As Low as Reasonably Practicable ALARP. Figure 2. Frequency of different hazards in an iron ore pelletizing industry. Table 5 Hazard identification, occupational health risk assessment before and after control measures. Figure 3. Statistical analysis Statistical analysis involves the calculation of the mean of a set of values in a sample used for observational study.

Table 6 Statistical analysis of risk reduction after control measures. Figure 4. Integrity of health safety and environment HSE department with other departments.

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Process description The concentrate slurry is received at pellet plant and stored in slurry tanks [ Figure 5 ]. Figure 5. Biological hazards Snake bite Ergonomical Psychosocial. Risk assessment Risk assessment can be done in three ways: Qualitative Quantitative Semi-quantitative. Semi-quantitative method Semi-quantitative risk assessment takes the qualitative approach a step further by attributing values or multipliers to the likelihood and consequence groupings.

Acceptable risk Risk that is acceptable to regulatory agency and to the public is called acceptable risk. Preventive measures The aim of implementation of prevention measures is to reduce the likelihood of work accident or occupational disease occurrence. Figure 6. Protection measures Envelope the hazard [ 17 ] Enclose or isolate the risk through the use of guards, protection of machinery parts etc Eliminate human interface Use of physical barriers such as acoustic, thermal, electrical, etc.

Mitigation measures When prevention and protective measures fail, a work accident or an occupational disease could happen. Environmental monitoring and measures There are three main objectives of assessment of exposure: To determine the level of exposure of workers to harmful agents, To assess the need for control measures, and To ensure the efficiency of control measures in use. Air The list of air pollution control measures are shown in Table 7. Table 7 Air pollution control measures. Water The waste water from iron ore slurry is separated through filtration system and treated in the thickener.

Solid waste The iron ore dust collected by ESP is recycled into the thickener for its reuse in the process. Noise control Continuous monitoring of high noise area is done by sound meter to ensure that it is within the permissible exposure limit.

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Green belt Trees are important sinks for air pollutants and absorb the noise. Housekeeping Proper housekeeping is an essential part of sound environmental management, which keeps the industry free from dusts. Health monitoring Health examinations are designed to ensure that the worker is fit for employment and that he remains in that state of fitness throughout his period of employment. Preplacement health examination baseline records This examination is carried out before employment of a worker in the workplace with potential health hazards.

Periodic health examination This examination is carried out at regular intervals after the initial examination. Trend analysis Workplace Injury and Illness Trend Analysis Program strives to identify unhealthy behaviors or hazardous conditions by tracking work-related injuries and illnesses. Financial support and sponsorship Nil. Conflicts of interest There are no conflicts of interest. Acknowledgment I would like to express my deepest appreciation to the Managing Director of the Pellet Plant for encouraging me to conduct this study.

Are there any control measures in your workplace for the hazard identified? Is there any administrative control over the hazard in your work place? Procedia Earth Planetary Sci. Covello, M. Process Safety Progress. J DuRapau. Scholarly Note. Cliffs Natural Resources [ Google Scholar ].

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Hierarchy of hazard control diagram. Support Center Support Center.