Electric and Magnetic Fields 3rd edition (1956)

Electricity and magnetism: an introduction to the theory of electric and magnetic fields
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Insulating sleeve 17 has stacked thereon bronze adjusting plate 18, bronze adjusting screw backing plate 19, steel blade backing spring 20, bronze spacer 21, bronze blade or reed 22, tipped with platinum iridium contact 23, bronze spacer 24, steel blade backing spring 25, bronze adjusting screw backing plate 26 and bronze adjusting plate The stack is secured in place by nut 28 threaded onto bolt 29, and inserted as shown through outer frame members 11 and 12 and through sleeve Adjusting screws 30 and 31 inserted respectively through holes 32 and 33 formed in frame members 11 and 12 and threaded through adjusting plates 18 and 27 to rest against backing plates 13 and 26 are adapted to position blade 22 and adjust the friction load thereon of backing springs 20 and At the other end of the switch structure insulating sleeve 34 has stacked thereon bronze terminal plate 35, bronze contact arm 36 to which is welded longitudinally thereof tungsten contact rod 37, steel backing plate 38, insulating spacer 39, steel backing plate 40, bronze contact arm 41, to which is welded longitudinally thereon tungsten contact rod 52, and bronze terminal plate This stack is secured in place by nut 44 threaded onto bolt 45 inserted as shown through outer frame members 11 and 12 and through sleever Adjusting screws 46 and 47 inserted respectively through holes and 49 formed in frame members 11 and 12 threaded through 38 and 40 are adapted to positions and tion of contact rods 37 and Brass electrostatic shield 55 formed with a cylindrical section 56 an end closing section 57 and another end flange section Sections 56 and 58 are slotted in an axial plane at 59 to prevent the absorption of energy which might otherwise be received inductively from excitation electromagnetic coil 60 wound on insulating spool 61 magnetically coaxial with the switch structure.

Pen manent magnet 50 and shield 55 are secured in place on angle supports 13, 14 by bolts 53, 54 and nuts 62, The entire relay structure is sealed in a metal can 64 Sealed to cylindrically flanged base 66 carrying terminal pins 66, 67, 65 69 and 70 insulatedly sealed therein. Insulated wires 76, 77 respectively connect switch stationary contact terminal plates 35 and 43 to base pins 3 and Insulated wire 78, as shown connects switch blade or reed 22 through spacers 21, 24, springs 20, 25 and plates 19, 26, to base pin In use my switch is adapted to complete an electric circuit between pins 70 and 68 by closing blade contact 23 on stationary contact 37 or to complete an electric circuit between pins 70 and 69 by closing blade contact 23 on stationary contact 42 depending on the direction of the magnetic flux Within or the polarization of the magnetic steel blade backing springs and determined by the direction of current flow in coil The free ends of springs 20, 25, both biased into contact with blade 22 and positioned in the strong magnetic field between pole pieces 15, 16 of permanent magnet 50 will together move towards pole piece 15 or pol'e piece 16 carrying with them blade 22 and thus causing contact 23 to close on one of the stationary contacts 37 or On a reversal of current flow in coil 60 the movement of springs 20, 25 will be in the opposite direction to force blade 22 to carry contact 23 to the other stationary contact.

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It is seen that with the construction shown movement of blade 22 by springs 20, 25 is accompanied by a relatively longitudinal movement of the blade and springs and the engagement of blade 22 with springs 20, 25 is frictional and adapted to absorb the energy of either undesired natural vibration or bounce of the parts. It is also seen that the extension or overhand of blade 22 beyond springs 20, 25 is so short that the natural frequency of vibration of the blade end is too high to be of interest.

All movement of blade 22 is forced and continuously damped and all spurious or parasitic action is minimized. With this construction it is seen that the contact of contact 23 with either contact 37 or 42 will be with a predetermined controlled pressure determined by the current through coil 60 and that this pressurev will not be varied excessively by any free or natural action of the moving parts.

Also it is seen that the contact area will be along a very narrow line of tangency of the relatively fiat surface of contact 23 with the small radius cylindrical surface of either contact 37 or This controlled and minimal area of contact assures high unit contact pressure from the continuous and controlled pressure of springs 20, 25 on blade With this construction contacts 37, 42 are successfully made of tungsten thus making use of its characteristics of minimum sparking and minimum metal transfer while at the same time its surface oxidation insulating eifect is minimized by the contact form and action.

Having thus recited some of the objects of my inven- 4 tion, illustrated and described a preferred form in which my invention is practiced, and explained its operation, I claim:. An electric switch comprising a resilient switch blade having a fixed and a free end, said free end having a neutral position and a pair of contact positions posi tioned respectively on opposite sides of said neutral position, magnetic means adapted to set up a first magnetic field normal to said switch blade near its free end and a second magnetic field along said switch blade, resilient frictional means biased into contact with said switch blade near its free end, said magnetic means including means adapted to move said free end of said switch blade to a selected one of its said positions, said frictional means being adapted yieldingly to resist the movement of said switch blade by said magnetic means and said switch blade with said spring blades comprising said resilient frictional means.

July 9, 2,, McBerty Oct. Like numerals of reference refer to like parts in the several figures of the drawings. Whichfis so placed as to intercept 'particlesiin a group of trajectories represented by.

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The velocitywvariation" imp zcssctlupon the stream at the gap 4 produces-acyclical variation in: the trajectories of successive particles ranging datum throughtrajectories of the. Only; the. Plate 6 serves to collect :the spent particles'afterthey leave the gap The parts. The principle employed is one of segregating those particles whichexceed a certain critical velocity. It will be noted further that the charged' particles' approaching the gap 4 are moving with substantially a uniform velocity and in a direction parallel to the plate 1. This condition might be brought about in various ways other than by locating the cathode 3 in the plane of the plate and using he e haniisrmdesc ibedt r pr ducin t e ycloi al traj ctor Fo ex mp e.

The mechanism shown and the use of the cycloidal trajectory 7 will ordinarily be simplest and most expedient, but it will be. In the neighborhoods of gap 4 and gap 5, :the :pefiiodiecor'nponent of motion in t-hefdireotion o'f the electric force produces a maximum displacementincompliance with the electric field. In the region where certain of the trajectories meett-helground plate 2, the particles are moving in opposition to the electric field. In the case of trajectories of ,the type ofcurve 10, there is superposed upon the drift motion an incidental periodic componentfwhich could be utilized if circumstances warover the periodic "motion in the direction of the'electric force, namely, a control of the amplitude of such periodic motion.

Under the variable amplitude condition,. The spacing 1rd, between the gaps; and 5, as seen from 25 is a function of both E and H, varying directly as E and inversely as the square of Thetransittinie between-the gapsis I H U:. There is, moreover, no critical transit time required in the am- Plifier case. In the operation of the device as an oscillator, the available values of H are limited once the frequency of the desired oscillation is determined It has been shown above that the particles which pass the gap when the plate 2 is in place are those which aredecelerated at the gap 4.

In order for these particles to contribute energy to the field at the gap 5, the particles must pass gap 5, while the field is opposing their motion. In a case where the gaps 4 and 5 are excited in such manner that the fields at the "two gaps are poled in the same direction, an integralnumber of periods of the oscillation should elapse between the passage of a particle across the gap 4 and its I subsequent passage across the gap 5.

Associated Data

In terms of the frequency f, the relation jp eH must hold, where n is any integer or, in terms of the free space wavelength A,. It will be noted that in a given device of this type, m, c, and e are natural constants, and the product AH is dependent upon these constants as well as upon the value of n which may be chosen. The same thing with H in oersteds is 2armc which, when the charged particles are electrons becomes approximately It will be evident from Equation 47 that the larger the value of n selected, the smaller the value of H required for oscillations of a given wavelength.

Magnetism: Crash Course Physics #32

The value of the spacing a between the platesv as given by 25 may be expressed in terms of V0 as follows:. Since, in the case of the electron oscillator,. It will be noted that for given values of hand V0, the spacing a is proportional to n. For example, in Fig. The change in n also requires that H be reduced to one half its former value in order that 47 may be satisfied.

Several possible combinations of values for a centimeter wavelength in the diagram of Fig. Conductors 14', 15', and 16 of a resonant circuit are shown schematically connecting the plate segments 1' in Fig. To indicate resonance at the same wavelength in Figs. The equivalent of the plate 1 of Fig. The inductance of the resonant circuit resides mainly in the conductors 14, 15, and 16, while the capacitance is mainly between segments 11 and 12 at the gap 4 and between segments 12 and 13 at the gap 5.

The negative or ground plate 2 has a depression in which the cathode 3 is insulatingly mounted. These parts, together with the collector plate 6, are supported byrods '9 held in a 'press 17 of conventional 'typeformed 'in the wall of. Coupled to the conductors 14 and An electromagnet comprising pole-pieces 24, winding 25, a yoke 26 and energized 'by suitable means, such.

A as to. The cycloidal path of a typical electron leaving the cathode 3 and approaching the gap 4 is'shown at 7.

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The path of this electron, should it be dccelerated at the gap 4, 'isindicated at'8' showing that its trajectory continues past the gap 5 and preferably ends upon the collector plate Should the same electron instead be accelerated. The spacing between the ground plate and the anode is determined as described hereinbefore in connection with Fig. Further details of the operation of the sys temcf Fig. In the arrangement of Fig. The conductors 14 and 16 are replaced, respectively,.

An input coupling loop 45 is arranged adjacent the conductor The collector plate 6 may be insulatingly mounted upon a shoulder cut in the ground.

Synchrotron radiation

Waves to be amplified may be sup-. The impressed oscillations serve to set up alternating potentials across the gap 4. The amplified oscillations are setup in the resonant circuit including the conductor The detailed operation of the system of Fig. In an alternative mode of operation of devices in-accordance with the invention, the faster group of electrons may be utilized in the excitation of the output circuit in. This mode of operation may be used with a smallaccompanying reorganization of the apparatus.

The chief modification comprises the placing of the input and output circuits on opposite sides of the ground plate in the form of separate anodes. Each anode may comprise two segments defining. It may be necessary in some cases to provide increased separation between the ground plate and the col- 'lector in order to accommodate the passage of accelerated electrons therebetween in a variety of trajectories.

In the arrangement of. A cathode 51 is represented as supplied "by heating :leads and A source of high frequency waves to be amplified is represented by a. A;suitable positive potential may be impressed upon the -system 58, , 60 by means of a lead 61 preferably symmetrically disposed, as shown.

Comparing magnetic field extrapolations with measurements of magnetic loops

The essential fact is that the reaction does not appear for each influence period of a UHF field of the same intensity. Kholodov Translation of "Vliyaniye elektromagnitnykh i magnitnykh poley na tsentral'nuyu nervnuyu sistemu. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Af- ter the generator was turned off, we observed changes in the EEG similar to the off-effect. Right click equation to reveal menu options.

A collector'62 is provided inzthe same plane as theaground pl-ate 54 and is connected to a lead On the opposite side of the ground plate from the system is providedan-output tuned circuit comprising two anode segments 64, 65 joined by a conductor A suitable positive potential may be impressed upon the anode system through ahlead In the operation of the systemcf Fig. Theaccelerated'electrons pass through the gap between plates 54 and 62,. An accelerated electron thus emerging follows atgenerally cycloidal trajectoryv 70, which carries it. The accelerated electrons, thus separated from the ldecelerated electrons, form anzintermittentor density varied stream which serves to excite.

Thereris'thus provided what is commonly termed an electron-coupled oscillator. Examples-of thisare shown-in Figs. In Fig. Coplanar with the groundplate 7.

Comparing magnetic field extrapolations with measurements of magnetic loops

Therefore, the. The arrangement is mounted so that the plates and are coplanar with a guard plate and are positioned in an opening therein. The conductor is conductively connected to and supported by a conductor , which is in turn conductively connected to and supported by the plate The conductor , while it may represent an appreciable inductance, can still serve as an untuned connection between the conductor and the plate It is only necessary that the systern , shall not support electromagnetic oscillations at a frequency in the neighborhood of the desired operating frequency.

Under this condition, the anode segments and may sustain an alternating potential, while the plate and connector will remain at a substantially unvarying potential. A guard plate ' has two openings within which the plates and are positioned, respectively. The conductor connects the plates and , as in Fig. There is shown within the vacuum container 71 a ground plate 72 having on one side thereof a cathode 73 and a tuned circuit Coplanar with the ground plate 72 is a collector.

On the reverse side of the ground plate 72 from the cathode 73 is an output tuned circuit A coupling loop 77 is provided in inductive relation to the circuit 76 and is connected to a load The tuned circuit 74 may be of the type shown in Fig. The tuned circuit 76 may be of the type shown in Fig. The ground plate 72 is in two sections separated by a gap and connected by an untuned conductive connection Opposite the gap in the plate 72 is provided a grid 90 which may be used for modulation or other control purpose.