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Radiation or chemical crosslinking of the tubes within bundles to increase the bundle rigidity and eliminate the inner tube slippage; and 3. Cooper et al. SWNTs have been deformed in a diamond anvil pressure cell. However, the band downshifted upon application of a tensile stress. These Raman peak displacements provided evidence of the stress transfer from the matrix to CNT, thus reinforcement effects.
SWNT 0. The shifts obtained, in parallel and perpendicular to the flow direction, were significantly different. The adhesion between CNT and the polymer exceeded the shear yield strength of the matrix. Then, the solvent was evaporated and the film crosslinked. The bending strength increased by ca. The volume resistivity decreased by six orders of magnitude from 8. For the purified MWNT the percolation threshold of electrical conductivity was high, ca. However, for thermoplastics a third method, melt compounding has also been tried. Evidently, the melt compounding method would be preferred in an industrial environment, thus it is being explored with growing frequency.
The Solution Method Whereas the reactive approach is preferred for thermoset matrices, the solution method has been favoured for thermoplastics. The method involves preparation of a polymer solution and mixing it with a dispersion of CNT in the same solvent. For example, Jin et al. The suspension was then added to a chloroform solution of polyhydroxyamino ether PHAE; a thermoplastic reaction product of an amine with diglycidyl ether and epoxy; BLOX from Dow.
The alignment was confirmed by XRD. Stirring at rpm was required to prevent aggregation, and then the adsorbed polymer sterically stabilised the system. The films were cast under controlled water evaporation conditions. The tensile elastic modulus and damping versus CNT concentration and temperature were examined. At low concentration, the quantity of intercalated PMMA may lead to a destruction of bundles, causing a uniform dispersion of CNT in the solution. The films were prepared for use in multilayer diodes. The mixture was cast producing uniform, ca.
The optimum sonication time increased with the nanotube length, viz. A homogeneous dispersion was obtained without attrition. The observed enhancement of stiffness was found to be in good numerical agreement with the values calculated from the relation [Hill et al. As in conventional fibre composites, the crack propagation shows MWNT pull-out, as well as crack bridging by the nanotubes.
Hill et al. The functionalised CNTs were soluble in organic solvents e. A transparent cast film ca. Its transparency indicated that miscibility of functionalised CNT with PS resulted in homogeneous dispersion. A similar approach was used by [Mitchel et al. The latter contained 4- hydroxy decyl benzoate groups attached to 1 in 66 carbon atoms.
Nonlinear viscoelastic dynamic melt flow behaviour was absent for PNCs containing 0. Functionalisation resulted in better dispersion and significant enhancement of performance. No CNT aggregates were observed under a polarised microscope. The Reactive Method Jia et al. The performance of the resulting PNC was poor. A C-C bonding may be generated between the nanotube and the matrix. However, according to FTIR there was no direct interaction between these two components. The conductivity and thermal properties depended on CNT content, viz.
The Melt Compounding Method Considering the high cost of CNT and the need to work with small quantities of material, the early publications revealed quite unorthodox melt processing methods [Haggenmueller et al. The procedure was repeated 30 times. Raman spectroscopy indicated that the nanotubes were well aligned. The electrical conductivity increased with CNT content, e.
Melt compounding eliminated CNT. By contrast, the dynamic tensile modulus at room temperature increased from ca. The mechanical properties showed small improvements. Addition of For the other two systems there was little change in the mechanical properties. The observed failure nanotubes pull-out suggested that surface treatment might improve interfacial bonding and increase tensile strength.
The masterbatch was prepared by melt compounding in a Buss Kneader. The increase of melt viscosity with nanotube composition was higher than that reported for either nanofibres with larger diameters or for carbon black. Good dispersion was obtained even at short residence time 1 to 5 min , but longer mixing further improved the dispersion. The use of lower molecular weight resin was reported to facilitate the dispersion. Unfortunately, this short and interesting note does not contain any data on the electrical conductivity or mechanical performance.
Quantum rods of CdSe were prepared by pyrolysis of dimethyl cadmium and selenium tributyl phosphine solution in phosphonic acid. The rods had 3. As expected, the band gap shifted to lower energies with increase of both the diameter and the length of these crystals [Li et al. However, while the nominal Si:Al ratio is 2, the measured one varies from 1. Imogolite occurs as tubes of several micrometers in length, having inside diameters of 1. The nanotubes have good rheological, adsorptive, and surface properties due to their unique structure and functional groups on the surface.
For example, the tubes may form raft-like structures with honeycomb-shaped cross-section [Kajiwara et al. The imogolite structure has Si in tetrahedral coordination and Al in octahedral coordination.
Imogolite has been used for reinforcing water-soluble polymers, viz. Imogolite has several rather broad, low XRD peaks. Its CEC is 1. The density is 2. The crystals are transparent and fragile [Gabriel and Davidson, ]. These may be formed by polycondensation of vanadic acid HVO3 in water. The individual flat fibres are ca. A single fibre has a double layer structure, each consisting of two V2O5 sheets.
Consequently, each fibre consists of only four layers of vanadium atoms and represents a wire of molecular dimensions. The V2O5 fibres are being investigated for electronic applications [Sinn, ]. Furthermore, V2O5 can also be formed into ribbons, sheets or nanotubes. V2O5 is available in a diversity of morphologies. Commonly, it is an orange- yellow to rust-brown orthorhombic crystalline solid with molecular weight of V2O5 is used as a catalyst, e. Its main. Although yellows can be prepared with antimony, vanadium is stable at higher temperatures.
Wider V2O5 fibres, e. The ribbon thickness is determined by the molecular structure. A magnetic field aligns the ribbons in the field direction. The ribbons are promising new materials that may be used as an important catalyst, a building block for electronic devices and reinforcing material with a strongly anisotropic structure [Gabriel and Davidson, ]. During the hydrothermal synthesis, organic templates control the crystallisation mode.
This method has been used to prepare layered structures of V2O5 in the presence of coordination compounds, viz. Muhr et al. The interlayer distances 1. In another publication from the same laboratory [Krumeich et al. The product showed bent VOx layers rolled into tubes. The layer structure inside the tube walls is frequently disordered, and several types of defects were identified. The rolls consisted of several layers, separated by templates, viz. In inorganic fullerene-like nanotubes of tungsten disulfide were described [Tenne et al. It seems that any compound that forms stable two-dimensional sheets can be rolled into a nanotube.
Different synthetic methods may lead to nanotubes having different type, size and yield. The methods range from substitution of atoms in an already fabricated tube [Hang et al. For example, 2-D tungsten disulfide WS2 sheets transformed into nanotubes are extremely inert and durable. They show potential for novel scanning probe microscope SPM tips.
A standard AFM tip will rarely remain sharp for more than a few hours under normal operating conditions. WS2 nanotube tips are so rigid and inert that they have been used for months with no sign of wear. Boron nitride BN provides another example. These inorganic nanotubes may be synthesised in a discharge using a tungsten electrode hollowed and filled with boron nitride powder [Chopra et al. In contrast to CNTs, the ones. Another method of preparation is by means of a solid-state process. The latter stage leads to the nucleation, re-ordering and crystal growth of hexagonal C and BN nanotubes of both cylindrical and bamboo-like morphology.
High energy ball milling was found to result in solid-state phase transformations and chemical reactions [Chen et al. Gole et al. The SiNT were generated from silicon particles at oC. Newer, nanosized particles are metal, metal oxide, nitride, sulfide or carbide powders. Uniform particles of ZnS and CdS had a diameter of ca. The same solvo-thermal method was used for the preparation of nanocrystalline particles of tin chalcogenide or chromium nitride [Qian et al.
Electrolytic precipitation of Cu in pores of solvent crazed polymers e. The size and concentration of metal particles depended on the extent of the crazing. Hydrolysis and condensation leads to the formation of metal oxopolymers. The sol-gel process takes place. Two types of hybrids are recognised: 1. Those where only weak interactions between the organic and inorganic species exist viz. Where the inorganic and organic components are chemically bonded by either covalent or ionic-covalent bonds. Examples of PNCs prepared by the sol-gel methods are provided in Table 2.
Several methods of PNC preparation by the sol-gel method have been developed [Brinker and Scherer, ]:. The principal sol-gel process involves the formation of a colloidal suspension sol and gelation of the sol to form a network in a continuous liquid phase gel. Often the hydrolysis is catalysed using either acids acetic acid, HCl, HF, etc. The rate and extent of the hydrolysis reaction depend on the strength and concentration of the catalyst. From a homogeneous solution of an oligomer or polymer with inorganic precursor, chemical reactions lead to dispersion of the inorganic phase in the polymeric matrix.
The precursors consist of a metal or metalloid compound with reactive ligands. Metal alkoxides are most popular because they readily react with water. However, other compounds, viz. After the reaction, the solvent must be removed before the dispersed phase has time to aggregate. Control of the interface is crucial. The use of electrostatic charge or hydrogen bonding interactions may be required.
For example, silica nanoparticles can be generated by hydrolysis and condensation of silicon tetraalkoxides, Si OR 4, in polyoxazoline ethanol solution. Hydrogen bonding between Si-OH silanol groups and the carbonyl and amide functionalities of the polymer ascertained homogeneous and stable dispersion. It is noteworthy that these advantageous properties could be enhanced by grafting the polymer with -Si OR 3 groups, which after hydrolysis increase the chemical affinity between organic and inorganic components.
From a homogeneous solution of an inorganic precursor and a monomer, chemical reactions lead to the formation of inorganic gels, followed by polymerisation. For example, hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon alkoxides in the presence of methyl methacrylate MMA leads to PNC with superior optical and mechanical properties. The pre-formatted building blocks e. A review of this strategy has been presented [Anonymous, a]. The sol-gel methods lead to the preparation often at room temperature of PNC with inorganic nanoparticles that engender improved hardness, optical transparency, chemical durability, tailored porosity, and thermal resistance.
The materials are used in optics, protective and porous films, optical coatings, window insulators, dielectric and electronic coatings, high temperature superconductors, reinforcement fibres, fillers, and catalysts [Zeigler and Fearon, ]. The phase separated morphologies of certain copolymers and ionomers can act as 3-dimensional templates during the sol-gel polymerisation of silicon alkoxide and organo-alkoxysilane monomers.
In the presence of these templates the inorganic oxide or organically modified silicate nanophases grow within specific nanoscopic domains. For example, Mauritz et al. Thus, poly styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene was first sulfonated and neutralised, then tetraethoxy silicate was dissolved into the ionic domains. The polymer ionic groups are entrapped within the silicate or titanate nanoparticles.
This delayed investigation on silsesquioxanes until , when Barry et al. However, silsesquioxane does not have to be cubic — amorphous and ladder-like structures are also known. In Brown and Vogt conducted a controllable synthesis of silsesquioxanes. According to Marcolli and Calzaferri  three synthetic routes have been used: cohydrolysis of trifunctional organo- or hydro-silanes, substitution reactions with retention of the siloxane cage, and corner-capping reactions.
Murugavel et al. Starting from stable N-bonded silanetriols and triaminosilanes, metallosiloxanes and iminosilicates with aluminium, gallium, indium, titanium, zirconium, tantalum, tin and rhenium incorporated, a heterosiloxane framework could be prepared. Since some of these contain hydrolysable functionalities they may be used as starting materials for the preparation of supramolecular cage structures. However, this route does not control the placement of the functionality on the cage. Functionalisation of fully substituted silane compounds by hydrosilylation or chlorination also does not lead to controlled substitution.
Silylation of anionic species has been reported to produce functionalised species, e. The type of organic functionality that can be incorporated on the cage is limited. These methods have low yield and a large percentage of impurities from side reactions that must be removed. In the presence of a metathesis catalyst an effective amount of olefins of alkyls, cyclics, aryls, siloxyls or their isomersis able to provide POSS with reactive functionalities. The products are soluble in common solvents, e. The size of the cage varies from about 0. Polyhedral siloxanes or silsesquioxanes sensu stricto are topologically equivalent to a sphere and are also called sphero- siloxanes.
Most POSS compounds are crystalline, but changing the R-group may result in liquid crystal or liquid-like behaviour. It should be noted that incorporation of POSS into crystallisable macromolecules reduces the crystallinity, which in turn tends to lower the chemical and solvent resistance. A new type of PNC formation was recently proposed by Ricardo et al. The authors started with octakis hydrido dimethyl siloxy octasilsesquioxane Q8M8H, converting it to octa-ethylbenzyl chloride. The number of arms per Q8M8H-unit was found to vary from 6. The lower number of arms may result from star-star coupling reactions.
The new PNCs should have unique properties, combining those of nanocomposites with those of the controlled star-branched polymers [Roovers, ]. Mechanical properties of these PNCs have not yet been reported. POSS may provide a variety of property enhancements to existing resin systems. Owing to its chemical nature, POSS can be used to upgrade the thermal and physical properties of most plastics. Substituted POSS have been used as Wittig reagents, precursors to SiC powders, low dielectric constant materials, alumino-and gallio-silicates, silica-reinforced composites, a variety of microporous materials, etc.
A variety of functional groups have been attached to POSS, viz. Functionalised POSS was polymerised to yield hybrid inorganic-organic homopolymers or copolymers [Tsuchita et al. The free radical reaction of propyl-methacryl-POSS gives POSS macromers, which can undergo hydrosilylation into oligomers and polymers with improved mechanical properties, increased thermal stability to oxidation and resistance to degradation by UV [Lichtenhan, ]. POSS have been successfully incorporated into a number of thermoplastic matrices such as styrenics, acrylics, LCP, siloxanes, polyamides and more recently.
The resins are inherently reinforced by the presence of the inorganic cages of size between a molecule and a macromolecule. Their polymers or copolymers are isotropic, free of metals, and transparent. The latter contained one styryl-ethyl polymerisable group and seven inert R-groups, either cyclohexyl -c-C6H11 or cyclopentyl -c-C5H9. Thus, the macromer had a spherical Si8O12 core, surrounded by seven inert groups for solubility and one reactive.
It was found that the cyclohexyl derivative is about twice as soluble as cyclopentyl [Haddad and Lichtenhan, ]. The difference in behaviour between these two types was small, but cyclohexyl-substituted POSS showed better performance. The authors [Xu et al. Furthermore, the Tg depends on:. Figure 10 Composition dependence of the glass transition Tg and decomposition Td temperatures for copolymers of 4-methyl styrene with styryl-based POSS. Data [Xu et al. A diluent role of POSS that reduces the dipole-dipole interaction of the matrix monomer, 2.
The dipole-dipole interaction between POSS siloxane and the polar carbonyl of organic polymer, and 3. The experimental data may be described by the dependence:. Since such an effect has not been observed in copolymers of BM with methyl methacrylate MM , it is evident that stiffening of the copolymer macromolecules involves the POSS units. Points — experimental, line calculated from Equation Similar effects were observed for norbornyl elastomer with cyclopentyl or cyclohexyl POSS [Bharadwaj et al.
Schwab et al. Improvement of the tensile and flexural properties was modest, but of impact strength and HDT were significant. If so, the local POSS concentration is higher by a factor of about 2. Using a metallocene catalyst, Zheng et al. Zheng et al. Flexural modulus DA 1. Tensile strength D Izod impact DA Li et al.
Incorporation of POSS sharply reduced crystallinity. Figure 16 Coordination copolymerisation of styrene with the POSS-styryl macromer 1- 4-vinylphenyl -3,5,7,9,11,13,heptacyclopentylpentacyclo octasiloxane Reproduced from Zheng et al. The flexural modulus of these specimens was 1. Sigma-Aldrich Fine Chemicals is a global supplier. The company offers 68 POSS compounds monomers, polymers, silanols, reagent and precursors in quantities of 1 to 10 g. Gelest was founded in to serve the advanced technology applications market.
These may react with metal or glass surfaces or with inorganic fillers rendering them hydrophobic. Silanols containing epoxide, methacrylate, and olefinic groups are available for copolymerisation or grafting. They are either 1 co-polymers with standard monomers, or 2 neat POSS resins. The types available include: silicones, styrenics, acrylics and norbornenes. The price depends on quantity: viz. Multi-ton quantities can be produced using a continuous process. In POSS cost was ca. Evidently, it is advisable that the molecular silicas are dissolved in a monomeric or polymeric liquid.
The dissolution should be carried out in a suitable mixer, e. The functionalised POSS monomers are mainly copolymerised, e. Used as crosslinking agents, viscosity reducers, fire retardants, also to increase mechanical properties, HDT and gas permeability, to decrease dielectric properties in photoresists, interlayer dielectrics , etc.
Thus, for example, Weidner et al. Optical disks, microelectronics, and medical products are target niches. Takamuki et al. These POSS may be used as ablative materials for nozzles, insulations, etc. For example, POSS silanols are formulated at room temperature.
The cure is catalysed by dibutyl tin diacetate, zinc acetate or zincethylhexanoate. After condensation the resin becomes tough binder or film. Shell Oil Co. The resin infiltrates etched surfaces and provides a strong bond between the tooth and dental restorative material. The kit includes a primer, the adhesive and a dual cure activator. Finally, it is worth mentioning that not only cage-type POSS are known. The compound is used in photoresists, interlayer dielectrics and protective coating films for semiconductor devices.
Table 11 Comparison of the three basic PNC technologies after Hybrid Plastics, Properties Organoclay POSS Nanofillers Characteristics Mineral or Nanosized chemical Nanosized, fillers synthetic clays: molecules that fibres, whiskers, nanosized directly interact and tubes, spheres, organically treated bond with polymers etc. Notes: 1 Nanoclays may be flow-oriented, which will impart anisotropy to the modified polymer system. Applications for liquid crystal display elements, magnetic recording media and optical fibre coatings have also been disclosed.
L-POSS may also be used for gas separation membranes, binders for ceramics and controlled release drugs as well as additives in cosmetics and resins. The ladder-like poly methyl silsesquioxane s PMSQ are used for coatings, particularly in electronics and optical devices. To improve the barrier, mechanical and thermal properties Ma et al. The aim was to develop high heat-resistant coating. Furthermore the relative intensity of the peak significantly increased. Unfortunately, the authors did not report on the performance of these interesting materials. The commercial success of a material depends on delivery of enhanced performance at low cost.
For applications as a structural material the cost would be prohibitive. Obviously, the economics look better when more expensive. However, by the same token POSS use is automatically diverted from structural large production volume to functional speciality products.
From the point of view of structural performance, incorporation of POSS resulted in relatively minor gains, viz. The airborne ash carried by winds formed deposits characterised by high volume bedding of ash, deposited in seas and alkaline lakes. Different opinions have been expressed regarding the mechanism of the ash to clay transformation. Several geological processes may have lead to the formation of clays during millions of years [Keller, ; Giese and van Oss, ; Drits, ; Lagaly and Zismer ]. Clays are distinctive from rocks in several aspects: 1.
Wet clays can be formed by application of light force and after release of the pressure they retain the imposed shape. They are mostly phyllosilicates, i. Having at least one small dimension and large aspect ratio they have large specific surface areas. This in turn makes clays physically sorptive and chemically surface active.
Several clay types carry an excess negative electric charge owing to internal substitution by lower valency cations, viz. A clay deposit usually contains non-clay minerals as impurities, viz. Clays are classified on the basis of their crystal structure and the amount and locations of charge deficit or excess per basic cell. In the context of PNCs, the amorphous clays are a great nuisance as they are difficult to remove from the crystalline ones.
The crystalline clays range from kaolins, which are relatively uniform in chemical composition, to smectites, which widely vary in their composition, cation exchange properties, and the ability to expand. The ease of separation of the individual layers is related to the interlamellar charge, x.
Clay particles are usually plate-shaped, less often tubular or scroll-like. Individual clay particles are nanometre-sized at least in one dimension. Aqueous suspensions of clays are thixotropic and sensitive to ion concentration. The synthesis of clays has been extensively studied [de Kimpe et al. For example, organic compounds facilitate the synthesis of kaolin at low temperature by condensing aluminum hydroxide into octahedrally coordinated sheets [Linares and Huertas, ]. More recently, Carrado  published an excellent review on synthetic clays and the resulting CPNCs.
They absorb up to a fold amount of water, and when wet, can be easily shaped — pottery is as old as human civilisation. The kaolinite lattice consists of one sheet of tetrahedrally coordinated Si with O and one sheet of octahedrally coordinated Al with O and OH , hence a , or a two-layer structure. A layer of OH completes the charge requirements of the octahedral sheet.
Adjacent cells are spaced about 0. When solvated in ethylene glycol, endellite expands to 1. Halloysites are usually tubular or scroll-shaped; they may be differentiated from kaolinite and dickite by treatment with potassium acetate and ethylene glycol. Most serpentines are tubular or fibrous. Chrysotile occurs in both clino- and ortho-structures.
All micas form flat six-sided monoclinic crystals with a remarkable cleavage in the direction of the large surfaces, which permits them to split easily into optically flat films, as thin as one micron. When split into thin films, they remain tough and elastic even at high temperature. Illites or micas are not pure minerals. The mica structure consists of a pair of tetrahedral sheets enclosing an octahedral sheet. Between each such sandwich there are interlayer sites, which can contain large cations. Considerable variation exists in the composition and polymorphism of the illites.
Muscovite derivatives are typically dioctahedral; phlogopite derivatives are trioctahedral. The interlayer potassium exerts a strong bond between adjacent clay structures. Thus, mica possess a sheet structure, similar to MMT, except that the maximum charge deficit in mica is typically in the tetrahedral layers and contains potassium held tenaciously in the interlayer space. As a result, micas are difficult to exfoliate. However, once exfoliated they form dispersions of platelets with the highest aspect ratio, thus they are particularly useful for the control of gas or liquid permeability.
Several examples of CPNC with mica are provided in this book. Pironon et al. The coordination of the octahedral sheet is completed by OH anions. If solely Si occupies the tetrahedra, the sandwich is charge-balanced and there is no need for interlayer cations — the resulting minerals are talc trioctahedral or pyrophyllite dioctahedral.
In true micas Al substitutes for Si in the tetrahedra, and charge balance is maintained by K, Na or Ca, in the interlayer site. The physical properties of a typical phlogopite and muscovite are listed in Table Chlorite is a three-layer phyllosilicate separated by a Mg OH 2 interlayer. The basal spacing of vermiculite varies from 1. The cation-exchange capacity of vermiculite is relatively high and it may even exceed that of MMT.
It has many characteristics common to illite. Glauconite may contain randomly placed expandable layers of the montmorillonite-type. The glauconitic green sands of New Jersey have been used in ion exchange, water-softening installations, and as a source of slowly released potassium in soil. Details of the structures were described by Jones and Galan . The attapulgite structure is similar to palygorskite minerals resembling cardboard, paper, leather, cork, or even fossil skin. These clays have distinctive properties, not shown by platy clays.
Attapulgite and palygorskite sorb both cations and neutral molecules. Typical CEC is about 0. Sepiolite and attapulgite are best identified by their reflections in XRD, 1. Corrensite has regular alternation of chlorite and vermiculite layers. These phyllosilicates have a triple layer sandwich structure that consists of a central octahedral sheet dominated by alumina, bonded to two silica tetrahedral sheets by oxygen ions that belong to both sheets see Figure When substitutions occur between ions of unlike charge, deficit or excess charge develops on corresponding parts of the structure.
The charge imbalance is compensated by the presence of cations usually. Chemically affected by acid Sulfuric Hydro- fluoric. After van Olphen and Fripiat, The cations are stoichiometric, but held relatively loosely and are readily exchanged by other cations. The triple- sheet layers form stacks with the interlamellar gallery between them.
Their cation- exchange capacity CEC is high, 0. Characteristically, smectites expand in H 2O or alcohol. The size and composition of the interlamellar gallery is highly variable — its minimum thickness is 0. With each of the three sheets 0. The flat thin sheets of smectite crystals have irregular shape and can be up to 1, nm in the largest dimension. Owing to counterbalancing ions present, the nominal value for d is taken as 0. As shown in Figure 18, the van der Waals interaction energy EA that holds the stacks together depends very much on the distance between the platelets h , or on the interlamellar spacing.
In the early literature, the term montmorillonite was used for this group. Solvating them in ethylene glycol expands d to 1. The DTA curves for smectites show three endothermic and one exothermic peak, within the ranges ,. Figure 18 Van der Waals attraction energy between two phyllosilicate layers separated by a distance h nm after van Olphen and Fripiat, The crystal lattice is weakly bonded. The smectite lattice is expandable between the silicate layers, hence when soaked in water it may swell to several times its dry volume e.
There are several species of smectite clay, but the two of greatest commercial importance and value are montmorillonite MMT and hectorite HT. MMT tends to have sheet morphology whereas hectorite has a lath or strip morphology. Commercial availability of hectorite is limited whereas MMT deposits are large and widely spread around the globe, e. Typical chemical formulae of the smectite clays are listed in Table Its colour varies from white to yellow, to olive green, to brown to blue.
Grades of this mineral show a broad spectrum of properties and consequently find a variety of applications and uses. Its origin is a hydrothermal alteration of volcanic ash deposited in a variety of freshwater e. The deposits date from Jurassic to as recent as the Pleistocene epoch, but most are from the Cretaceous period million years ago. Bentonite beds range in thickness from several centimetres to tens of metres most 0. Bentonite is widely distributed on all continents.
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