sis.wt.com.mx/prego/short/assessment-of-the-private-health-sector-in-the-republic-of-congo-world-bank-studies.php Matthews , B. Public Health Nutrition. Rabus , M. Eineder , A. Roth , R.
In , the Kenyan government officially abolished fees for public primary education but afterward found itself unable to construct enough schools for the poor children who tried to enroll. All public-school teachers are certified. Teacher absenteeism is widespread. According to a World Bank report, 30 percent of teachers in one region in Kenya fail to show up on any given school day. Learning levels for children are low: 70 percent of third graders cannot do second-grade work. Wealthy Kenyans and foreigners send their children to private schools, which are taught in English and enjoy lavish resources.
Some provide a basic education, but many do not. All Kenyan schools are required to teach the precisely prescribed national curriculum, which is taught in Kiswahili and English and mastery of which is measured by an eighth-grade test called the K. Obtaining a high grade on the K. At the start, the Bridge founders quickly learned that Kenyan parents did not necessarily see Bridge schools as a better option.
The case study authors explain that one challenge for the company was that parents were largely illiterate and therefore saw little difference among schools.
But some academics who have studied the for-profit, low-fee chain say that some poor Kenyan parents were wary of the model. Sending a child to Bridge was more expensive than the village public school, though less expensive than some informal schools. But slum-dwelling parents in Kenya are mostly occasional workers who rarely have a predictable income.
In informal settlements around Nairobi, I visited 10 or so parents in their homes who explained the fragile finances of their lives. A sick child, an uptick in the price of corn meal or even a prolonged rainstorm can throw a family on the margins into an economic crisis. In most informal and public schools, payment terms are flexible, and the subject of protracted negotiation. Bridge says that it works with families to meet their needs.
The authors build up an integrated picture of the developing world of the child, looking at genetic and biological influences alongside individual. This important text shows how child development theory applies to professionals' working practice. Considering theories of development throughout the lifespan.
But many people told me that the school sends children home if fees are not paid. Bridge executives say their schools depend on paying customers. If we become that, then our financial model would be difficult to sustain. May says that Bridge currently has 80, students enrolled, down 10, from last year. Conway acknowledged that the situation on the ground made things complicated. While such schools can work well for the relatively small number of families in poor communities who have salaries, says Keith Lewin, a professor emeritus of development and international education at the University of Sussex in Britain who has opposed the model, it is unrealistic to expect the most impoverished families to be able to pay.
She gestured toward the class with the picture and delivered the line as precisely as she could. Her eyes went back to the script on the gray rectangular tablet. Say it the slow way. She followed the prompt.
There was a pause, and the teacher leaned over the e-reader. Our turn. Pupils say it the slow way.
Nyambara pressed on, repeating the call-and-response five more times. Now class? In the company began hiring United States charter-school teachers in Cambridge, Mass. The challenge for the American writers was to meet the curriculum set by the Kenyan government while also trying to improve the outcomes.
In a typical Bridge lesson, the teacher reads the explanation for about 10 minutes, he cold-calls a student to check for understanding, he gets students to talk among themselves or work in groups for 20 minutes as the teacher moved between desks. What we are going for is active classrooms — and this is something really different for the children we serve. The e-reader all but guarantees that every instructor, despite his or her education or preparation level, has a lesson script ready for every class — an important tool in regions where teachers have few resources.
But scripts can be confining, some teachers told me. And in some of the 20 or so Bridge classrooms I observed, pupils occasionally asked questions, but Bridge instructors ignored them. Although I saw a range of public-school classrooms, in one, the teacher was sound asleep, head on desk, in front of a classroom of 60 fidgeting fourth graders.
Bridge has writers in Nairobi who create the lessons that are in Kiswahili, but many lessons, to be delivered in English, are written in America. And it is challenging to develop lesson plans for teachers and children from a different culture. Misunderstandings can occur. She steered me by the elbow into a classroom where a string hung with paper rectangles bisected the room.
I watched as students reviewed English vocabulary words by looking up at one side of the rectangles, responding to them aloud, then stepping under the string to check their answer on the other side of the card. After eight years of operation, the impact of the Bridge curriculum on learning is uncertain. The study tracked 2, kindergarten, first- and second-grade students for the school year: one set enrolled in Bridge, and another, similar set of students enrolled at local public schools. The students were assessed at the beginning and end of the school year.
I asked two experts in statistics — Nat Malkus, from the American Enterprise Institute, and Bryan Graham, from the University of California, Berkeley — to help me evaluate the findings. Reasonable and informed people could look at the information in that report and come to widely different conclusions about the effect of Bridge on academic achievement as they measure it. Click here. Child and Youth Care publishing simplified. Specify Book Type.