The sarcophagus stood in the largest hall, almost at the end of the tomb, which runs horizontally about feet into the cliff. The hall was hewn out of the solid rock, and six pillars of the rock were left standing to support the super-incumbent weight. The walls and roof of the hall were elaborately decorated. The sarcophagus consists of two monolithic blocks of alabaster, and is inscribed over the whole surface with religious scenes and figures incised and then filled in with a substance called 'Egyptian blue'.
Though most of the blue filling has disappeared, it can be seen here and there. The effect when it was complete must have been extremely beautiful. It is mummiform in shape. The cover, which was sculptured as a portrait of the dead King, was smashed in ancient times by tomb-robbers in their efforts to reach the jewels buried with the mummy, but enough remains to show that its height was 1ft. Smashing was necessitated by the method of securing the cover to the lower part, a method commonly used in royal burials, but which however seems to have been ineffectual against determined robbers.
It was as good a method as any other for it ensured that the only way to open the sarcophagus was by breaking the cover to pieces. The method was this: grooves were cut in the thickness of the walls of the lower part of the sarcophagus and similar grooves at the same distance apart were cut in the thickness of the sides of the cover. Slips of copper were slung up over the lower part and gently lowered till the two sets of grooves coincided; it was then let down, and the slips of copper were then so far embedded in the stone as to be unreachable by any tool, and there was no possibility of levering the cover off the lower part.
There are two versions of the Sun's journey through the Under World. The longest, and perhaps the most detailed, is found on the walls of the royal tombs; this version is known as Ymi Duat The Book of Him who is in the Under World. The shorter version has been given the modern name of The Book of Gates. This version is almost invariably the one used for the decoration of royal sarcophagi. In the Book of Gates the Under World is divided into twelve portions, which were equated with twelve hours of the night. Each hour was divided from the next by a gate, guarded by snakes and a warder; no one could pass through any of the gates without giving the password.
The want of skill shown in these attempts is beside the question; the mere desire on the part of the workman renders him an artist. Despite the many claims and conflicting stories over the ensuing decades, it now seems that a vehicle may indeed have crashed on a farmer's ranch in New Mexico just two years after the end of World War Two. They form a school, not, as some have thought, to enable us to dispense with nature, the indispensable and eternal master, but to incite to such an ardent and intelligent study of her beauties, as may lead to the creation of great works, works capable, like those of the Greeks, of giving visible expression to the highest thoughts. Putzig, N. Billions of planets may be orbiting most of these stars. Of course what all SETI scientists want is that piece of solid evidence from someone with an intelligent mind but not of this Earth.
Ra, the Sun-god, was believed to die every night and his dead body was carried through the Under World in a boat; for, as the highway on earth was the Nile, there was also a Nile in the Under World and another in the sky, so that the Sun was supposed to travel always by water. In the Underworld the Boat was towed by various gods and goddesses who protected the Sun from the many dangers of that dark and dismal country. In the representation of the night journey of the Sun, the Underworld appears divided into three horizontal registers.
The central register is the river on which the Boat floats; the upper register is the farther bank of the river, the lowest register is the near bank.
Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Author Frederick Fichman currently has published thirty SETI, The Journey (SETI Trilogy Book 2) by [Frederick Fichman ]. Buy SETI, The Journey: Volume 2 (The SETI Trilogy) by Frederick Fichman (ISBN : ) from Amazon's Book Store. Everyday low prices and free.
Both banks are filled with the denizens of the land; special attention being given to the punishment of the wicked, i. These blasphemers were thrown into the Flaming Lake or drowned in boiling pools. The chief points of interest in the sculpture are as follows: Fifth hour outside, left, near feet : Osiris as Judge of the Dead. He sits enthroned on a dais raised up on nine steps.
In front of him is the balance in which the hearts of the dead are weighed against the ostrich feather, the emblem of the goddess of righteousness. Ninth hour outside, right, near feet : This section is remarkable for the number of strange figures of snakes. Of these there is at present no satisfactory explanation.
Tenth hour inside, left, near feet : Here the monstrous snake, Apophis lies in wait to destroy the Sun, but is foiled by the deities and worshippers who surround Ra. They bind Apophis with cords and chains, but though they are called the 'Strong-armed'; their strength is insufficient to hold him securely. A giant hand rises out of the ground and grips the chain firmly so that the monster cannot escape. The struggle lasts into the Eleventh hour inside, left, near head when Apophis is finally overcome and Ra is saved.
Twelfth hour inside, at the head : The Sun-boat emerges triumphantly.
The curious circular figure is 'Osiris encircling the Underworld'; on his head stands the sky goddess, Nut, she 'receives Ra' as he comes forth to the day. The main portion of the picture is the great figure of the good Nun rising out of the primeval waters, and supporting the Boat on his up-raised arms. His name is above his head, and the inscription says: 'These arms come out of the waters, they raise this god'.
In the centre of the Boat stand the two goddesses Isis and Nephthys, holding up the scarab, the emblem of the resurrection and new life; and the scarab in its turn supports the newly risen, newly born sun. The rest of the Boat is crowded with various deities. The bottom of the sarcophagus is sculptured with the figure of the sky-goddess Nut, and the inside of the cover is also covered with figures of deities who were supposed to receive the King when he died. The 21st Century has arrived and concepts like Breakthrough Interstellar have shown that not only is interstellar travel possible, but that it will involve multiple tiny probes and not just hulking big vessels with equally big probes such as Daedalus, which was innovative in the s but technology has progressed.
By the same measure, it seems that SETI is also finally breaking out of its own paradigms and radio is now just one of the ways we might find them, or they us. Took long enough. We might even serendipitously find more natural objects—co-orbiting or otherwise—during such a program. Also, regarding our recent interstellar interloper no more appear to have been detected, despite predictions that they should be very abundant :.
It really depends on the planned probe longevity. If it is hundreds or maybe thousands years then yes, some near-Earth orbit will do. The short range will be helpful for the smaller probe too. If we are speaking about million years or so then no, the probe should stay somewhere reasonably near the raw materials needed to repair it unless the ET figured out how to make the completely invincible stuff.
So the asteroid belt it is. AI would figure prominently in any probes and the number one rule would be self destruction for security reasons. Any race would fear the possibility of the technology being used for their demise, just as our military drones would have. The best place to put Bracewell probes would be at Mercuries L4 and L5, in the solar glare with plenty of power and easy observations of the earth.
This is being done by both amatuer and profesional astronomers on an hourly basis. Even objects closer then Mercury to the sun should of been picked up, but what could be happening is short bright flashes like some earth satellites that would be hard to track except in long exposures. A serious look into the imaging archives may bear fruit if the specific orbit of such objects is calculated and any signs, such as bright flashes, are looked for. This would be a good job for AI deep learning;.
Well…in the context of this blog, it is implicit that interstellar spaceflight, whether undertaken by probes or starships, is a means to an end, and that end is learning about what is out there, including if any exist other forms of life, including—and especially—intelligent ones. To your comment:. If we one day found an alien probe—either willing to communicate with us, lurking, or inoperative—in our Solar System, our curiosity simply could not be dammed up forever.
Having, right before us, tangible physical proof of the existence of intelligent extraterrestrials, would make examining the probe and interacting with it, if it was still functioning, and inclined to respond irresistible, despite all of the negative consequences that doing so might set into motion, and:. Likewise with an alien probe, especially one that was willing to talk to us, or at least would not object to non-destructive examination of it. It looks like mr. But in reality it is not, as well as whole SETI concept. Right now ETI is a more or less plausible hypothesis depending in part on your view of what evolution is likely to produce , and since it can be searched for inexpensively and would have enormous implications if found it makes sense to do so SETI.
The objection that SETI is not a science strikes me as a red herring. What in your view could make it one? Nothing can make from SETI as it is science. Benford understand this fact he is bothered by SETI non falsifability , but cannot accept it. SETI — It is popular hobby that involves some radio engenering efforts, i.
To be clear — I am licensed Radio Amateur too, so like and respect this hobby , but it is not science. On the contrary, both exobiology and SETI are entirely scientific, for one simple reason:. Their first postulate—that other solar systems almost certainly exist—has since been found, and abundantly so, to be true and correct.
Great clouds of organic molecules have been found—via radio astronomy—in interstellar space, and organic molecules have also been found in meteorites. Also, other solar systems have been found which have conditions—and planets—that are friendly toward life as we know it carbon-based life, utilizing water [as a solvent]-facilitated chemical reactions , and:. Non-technological life is far more likely to be common than technological life in other words, planets with microbes, plants, and animals are more common than planets with intelligent beings who have civilizations and technologies [radio, lasers, etc.
In a few years, we will be able to spectroscopically examine exoplanets to see whether they have oxygen co-existing with methane in their atmospheres, chlorophyll on their surfaces, etc. But if we never look and listen for others by searching for distant signals, and alien probes that might be here in our Solar System , we will never be able to find out. Me too suppose that exo-life exists and very probably exo-intelligent species too, but I do not call me scientist :- Most probably there will be time that exobiology or astrobiology will became real science, but it is not time yet — no object for observation, study and researches.
Situation with SETI even worst… By the way if there somewhere is exo-life and exo-inteligence — it will be found, by space exploration human or robotic and using astronomy instruments and methods, not by any other pseudo …. I think a message should be modeled on Tic-Tac-Toe.
Demonstrate that we are aware communication and diplomacy can be competitive but that we are interested in non-zero sum outcomes. A bracewell probe is going to be hard to find.
Depending on the level of technology, it could be as small as a baseball. I think such a problem would be on a small asteroid say, meter diameter in order to have access to raw materials to maintain itself over long time periods. But how could a baseball-size Bracewell probe transmit its findings back to its home star, light-years or maybe tens or hundreds of light-years away? The notion—which others have advanced—that Bracewell probes could be as tiny as grains of dust is even sillier.
Why would a civilisation take all the trouble to send it to our planetary system and to the vicinity of Earth, and then position it such that it would be impossible for it to catalogue terrestrial and aquatic species, analyse their DNA, unravel the geological history of Earth and so on? The technology would be developed to a state that observations from great distances would be able to see at many freqs down to the quantum level.
This is not as far fetched as it sounds since concepts such as quantum entanglement and quantum interferometric telescopes are already in the development stage. That would make sense for probes but where you may see direct interaction is with a living entities.
Our technology can already control insect navigation. I would suggest that an advanced probe could make small animals like cockroaches move under command and transmit both images and sound back to a base transmitter that in turn retransmits to the probe, wherever it might be. We are hypothesizing advanced ETI technology 2. The point is that its presence may be all but invisible to us and also very local.
The technology could be simple, but tiny, bugging equipment scattered widely, like the insect sized drone swarms we are starting to build. I want to get away from assuming some largish object doing the probing where no attempt is made to hide it. Two intriguing objects for Dr Benford to consider as targets, although both of them are not currently in horseshoe, tadpole, or quasi-satellite orbits one could possibly attain a quasi-satellite orbit in the near future.
Its orbit ranges from 0. It was originally thought to be the third stage of the Parker Solar Probe, but its orientation and node both ascending and descending, I assume are very different than what they should be. Dismissed as a man-made piece of trash left over from a lunar probe Chang. The object came as close as 3 earth moon distance on February 1, I finally had a chance to get a really good look at the orbit. But ok, the K stars are also very promising, according to recent research. I think we should not worry about a Bracewell probe in our system.
If one or more exist they can be anywhere, at any size, and with any level of sophistication. Do we want a shotgun approach to communication attempts? Personally I consider that quite risky. Even if they do not know of our existence, an ETI could still determine there is abundant life on this planet and has been for a long time with spectroscopy and similar detection methods.
So we can either make a futile attempt to hide from the galaxy, or we can try to better understand who and what is out there, because if an alien intelligence is deliberately headed our way for whatever reason, being surprised and ignorant and having the usual reactions to those symptoms our species often has is not going to help matters. Good comments ljk. I think you may have misinterpreted part of what I said and ignored some things as well.
I did say we have been emitting EM radiation for a considerable time now but that those signals lose coherence with distance and so may not have alerted ET to our presence and exact location. And of course it is true that an advanced civilization may already have determined that this planet contains life by the same methods that we are beginning to try to apply.
My main point about METI is that it promotes the idea of contacting possible extraterrestrial intelligences without knowing anything about them. I would just advise we think carefully about METI before going forward, and that may require us to refrain from sending out messages without carefully measuring the possible consequences. Possibly that helps you understand what I was trying to say. If ET already knows we are here there is nothing we can do to change that. I also agree with trying to understand what might be out there. Knowledge is power and it may help us make wise decisions about future contact scenarios.
I did not ignore some of your comments so much as whenever I hear about METI needing to be regulated, all I can think of is good luck with that. Plus there is a dictatorial side to it involving free speech that I do not care for. If anything this will teach those ETI what we are like, that humans are a motley tribal bunch with a million different sets of rules, behaviors, and actions, even when a self-selected few try to determine them for the rest of us.
METI will always happen, one way or another. Cockroaches would be great if you want to see the inside of a kitchen cupboard. But for continuous monitoring of a planet the best way is from a distance with tools that give detailed data about it. Our just sprinkle nanotech or picotech or some other form of reallytinytech all over our globe. Most humans will never know and the few that might find them and suspect will not be taken seriously by either the so-called authorities or the general public.
The fringe types might, but that of course will just make it worse for their case. An advanced ETI in our Sol system has many ways they can monitor us without suspicion or detection. They will figure that out soon enough. These and other comments in the trilogy of essays on alien probes has given further evidence as to why these devices will likely remain hidden and silent for a long time to come. That would be advantageous to us in a way, because we would have some insight into their psychology and possible motivations from the very start; they would not be totally inscrutable to us.
Even Carl Sagan, who was one of the most ardent supporters of the notion that more advanced aliens would probably be benevolent, having long since cured all of their social ills, advised caution and careful consideration before replying to any CETI message we might receive. I do not think we were discussing at cross-purposes here. My comment was that an ETI would be very cautious before contacting us, if ever, due to the potential dangers of dealing with our species, especially if they were in our neighborhood.
If the ETI were the deliberate threat and were capable of coming to Earth, they would have a number of ways to dispatch us with little to no resistance from humanity. Did I miss something here? I would like to think that a more advanced society would also be more benevolent, but if Earth is a literally universal example, then that would not necessarily be the case. However so far all we have is one data point.
We discuss a Galaxy-wide coordinated signaling scheme with which a SETI observer needs to examine a tiny fraction of the sky. The target sky direction is determined as a function of time, based on high-precision measurements of a progenitor of a conspicuous astronomical event such as a coalescence of a double neutron star binary. In various respects, such a coordinated scheme would be advantageous for both transmitters and receivers, and might be widely prevailing as a tacit adjustment.
For this scheme, the planned space gravitational-wave detector LISA and its follow-on missions have a potential to narrow down the target sky area by a factor of 10 , and could have a large impact on future SETI experiments. Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics astro-ph. IM ; Popular Physics physics. Cite as: arXiv IM] or arXiv IM] for this version.
The proposed solution puts an upper limit on the growth of civilizations that is independent of resource availability or biological factors. The article does not mention Radio SETI, but you know that will also be negatively affected by all these satellites circling Earth. Dollar signs over science once again.
Companies are proposing a number of satellite constellations, some with thousands of spacecraft, intended to provide broadband communications. Adam Kimbrough notes that such systems also create new headaches for radio astronomers. It was suggested galactic aliens were nested in the tail, heading our way. A patient pass-by with all ears, lens, and sniffers observant — followed by a messaging period later, at a distance. Imagine if you will a lightning-fast vehicle, as near to C as one can get, contracting spacetime in the direction of travel.
Unoccupied instruments sent ahead at an even faster rate, designed to slow into eventual orbits, to nest and observe for decades if not centuries, messaging when appropriate. The birthing ship would time-scoop the information, months-worth compressed to minutes. Learning, learning, deciding if and when to decelerate into gamma-one dimensionality for a proper visit. A looped track might foster a return visit every few hundred or thousand planetary years. Surfing stars might not be that difficult, when they are distance-contracted to only a few light-hours away.
My guess? The ETI we seek to engage are not from distant galaxies, but multiverse neighbors, close by — once you have the hang of it. Perhaps they can observe without going anywhere. Ours is a space-ship glowing in the night. Previous post: Working with the Unexpected at Asteroid Bennu. And from another view: Image : Plan showing possible orbits along gravitational contours. Image : Three types of co-orbital orbits. Planetary radar also comes into play, and with an interesting consequence. From the paper: These objects have not been pinged or imaged by any planetary radar as yet.
Here the Bracewell idea comes into full view: If there is an ET probe there, it might sense that it had been noticed by us. David March 22, , Reply Link. Alex Tolley March 22, , James Franklin March 26, , Jason Wentworth March 27, , Anton M. March 22, ,