Pennsylvanias Civil War: Making and Remaking

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source site For example, General George Meade, the commander of the Army of the Potomac, only has a few lines throughout the entire movie. Key figures such as General A. Hill and General Warren are omitted. Another complaint is that, although the viewers are learning about the key commanders of the battle, they do not get to learn about the perspective of the enlisted soldiers who carried out the fighting. Confederates after the war defended their actions and their failure through what is known as the Lost Cause. One main point of this was that if the South had secured a victory at Gettysburg, the war would have ended there.

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The biggest issue with this film is that everything is presented from a perspective of hindsight. The idea that this battle would decide the entire war, for both the North and the South, was emphasized over and over. Gettysburg was important to the course of the war. However, following the battle both armies ended up right back in Virginia as they had been before, fighting for another two years. The Liberty Bell was displayed on that pedestal for the next quarter-century, surmounted by an eagle originally sculpted, later stuffed.

Due to time constraints, only a small fraction of those wishing to pass by the coffin were able to; the lines to see the coffin were never less than 3 miles 4. In , city officials discussed what role the bell should play in the nation's Centennial festivities. Some wanted to repair it so it could sound at the Centennial Exposition being held in Philadelphia, but the idea was not adopted; the bell's custodians concluded that it was unlikely that the metal could be made into a bell that would have a pleasant sound, and that the crack had become part of the bell's character.

The metal used for what was dubbed "the Centennial Bell" included four melted-down cannons: one used by each side in the American Revolutionary War, and one used by each side in the Civil War. That bell was sounded at the Exposition grounds on July 4, , was later recast to improve the sound, and today is the bell attached to the clock in the steeple of Independence Hall.

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Between and , the Liberty Bell made seven trips to various expositions and celebrations. Each time, the bell traveled by rail, making a large number of stops along the way so that local people could view it. Large crowds mobbed the bell at each stop. Davis delivered a speech paying homage to it, and urging national unity. The city placed the bell in a glass-fronted oak case. A guard was posted to discourage souvenir hunters who might otherwise chip at it. By , the bell had made six trips, and not only had the cracking become worse, but souvenir hunters had deprived it of over one percent of its weight.

When, in , the organizers of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition requested the bell for the fair in San Francisco, the city was reluctant to let it travel again. The city finally decided to let it go as the bell had never been west of St. Louis, and it was a chance to bring it to millions who might never see it otherwise. The bell was taken on a different route on its way home; again, five million saw it on the return journey. Chicago tried again, with a petition signed by 3.

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Both efforts failed. In , one of Independence Hall's exterior doors was replaced by glass, allowing some view of the bell even when the building was closed. Once the war started, the bell was again a symbol, used to sell war bonds. The idea provoked a storm of protest from around the nation, and was abandoned. Officials then considered building an underground steel vault above which it would be displayed, and into which it could be lowered if necessary. The project was dropped when studies found that the digging might undermine the foundations of Independence Hall. After World War II , and following considerable controversy, the City of Philadelphia agreed that it would transfer custody of the bell and Independence Hall, while retaining ownership, to the federal government.

The city would also transfer various colonial-era buildings it owned. In the postwar period, the bell became a symbol of freedom used in the Cold War. The bell was chosen for the symbol of a savings bond campaign in The purpose of this campaign, as Vice President Alben Barkley put it, was to make the country "so strong that no one can impose ruthless, godless ideologies on us". Almost from the start of its stewardship, the Park Service sought to move the bell from Independence Hall to a structure where it would be easier to care for the bell and accommodate visitors.

The first such proposal was withdrawn in , after considerable public protest. The Independence National Historical Park Advisory Committee proposed in that the bell be moved out of Independence Hall, as the building could not accommodate the millions expected to visit Philadelphia for the Bicentennial.

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Instead, in , the Park Service proposed to build a smaller glass pavilion for the bell at the north end of Independence Mall, between Arch and Race Streets. Philadelphia Mayor Frank Rizzo agreed with the pavilion idea, but proposed that the pavilion be built across Chestnut Street from Independence Hall, which the state feared would destroy the view of the historic building from the mall area.

During the Bicentennial, members of the Procrastinators' Club of America jokingly picketed the Whitechapel Bell Foundry with signs "We got a lemon" and "What about the warranty? In , the Park Service began preliminary work on a redesign of Independence Mall. The first proposed a block-long visitors center on the south side of Market Street, that would also house the Liberty Bell. This would have interrupted the mall's three-block vista of Independence Hall, and made the bell visible only from the south, i.

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Chestnut Street. The second alternative placed a similar visitors center on the north side of Market Street, also interrupting the mall's vista, with the bell in a small pavilion on the south side. He created his own plan that included a domed bell pavilion built north of Market Street. The Olin Partnership was hired to create a new master plan for Independence Mall; its team included architect Bernard Cywinski , who ultimately won a limited design competition to design what was called the Liberty Bell Center LBC.

Cywinski's design was unveiled in early Inside the LBC, visitors pass through a number of exhibits about the bell before reaching the Liberty Bell itself.


Due to security concerns following an attack on the bell by a visitor with a hammer in , the bell is hung out of easy reach of visitors, who are no longer allowed to touch it, and all visitors undergo a security screening. It hangs from what is believed to be its original yoke, made from American elm.

The crack ends near the attachment with the yoke. Professor Constance M. It is not as beautiful as some other things that were in Independence Hall in those momentous days two hundred years ago, and it is irreparably damaged. Perhaps that is part of its almost mystical appeal. Like our democracy it is fragile and imperfect, but it has weathered threats, and it has endured. In addition to the replicas that are seen at Independence National Historical Park, early replicas of the Liberty Bell include the so-called Justice Bell or Women's Liberty Bell, commissioned in by suffragists to advocate for women's suffrage.

This bell had the same legend as the Liberty Bell, with two added words, "establish justice", words taken from the Preamble to the United States Constitution. It also had the clapper chained to the bell so it could not sound, symbolizing the inability of women, lacking the vote, to influence political events. The Justice Bell toured extensively to publicize the cause.

After the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment granting women the vote , the Justice Bell was brought to the front of Independence Hall on August 26, , to finally sound. It remained on a platform before Independence Hall for several months before city officials required that it be taken away, and today is at the Washington Memorial Chapel at Valley Forge. The bells were to be displayed and rung on patriotic occasions. The replica was cast from the mold of the actual Liberty Bell in The Liberty Bell appeared on a commemorative coin in to mark the sesquicentennial of American independence.

On the th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence in the U. Post Office issued a commemorative stamp depicting the Liberty Bell for the Sesquicentennial Exposition in Philadelphia in , [] though this stamp actually depicts the replica bell erected at the entrance to the exposition grounds. The image shifts in color, depending on the angle at which it is held.

The name "Liberty Bell" or "Liberty Belle" is commonly used for commercial purposes, and has denoted brands and business names ranging from a life insurance company to a Montana escort service. The bell, the ads related, would henceforth spend half the year at Taco Bell corporate headquarters in Irvine, California. Outraged calls flooded Independence National Historical Park, and Park Service officials hastily called a press conference to deny that the bell had been sold. Despite the protests, company sales of tacos, enchiladas, and burritos rose by more than a half million dollars that week.

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For other uses, see Liberty Bell disambiguation. Philadelphia portal. Archived from the original on March 5, Retrieved August 26, Baltimore: R. Retrieved August 17, Whitechapel Bell Foundry. Retrieved August 9, Summer Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association. Archived from the original on May 25, Retrieved August 10, Abraham Lincoln and the Forge of National Memory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The New York Times. New York. September 4, January 1, Archived from the original on April 19, Retrieved March 16, Retrieved March 17, Archived from the original on October 7, New Haven, Ct.

National Park Service ". Retrieved August 5, National Park Service. Retrieved August 11, Liberty Bell Museum. Archived from the original on May 30, Archived from the original on June 18, Retrieved March 15, Disney Parks Blog. Walt Disney Company. Retrieved May 14, Washington, DC: U. Government Printing Office. Smithsonian National Postal Museum. Retrieved June 29,