enter site Once a manuscript is completed, it is peer reviewed to ensure that chapters communicate accurately the essential ingredients of the science and technologies under discussion. It is my goal to maintain the style and quality of books in the series and to further expand the topic areas to include new emerging fields as they become of interest to our reading audience. James A.
What does a Fourier transform look like? What do derivatives look like? We can visualize the mathematical operations by applying them to images and interpreting the outcomes. It was then a short jump to investigate the mathematical operations that describe the physical process of forming an image.
As my interest in camera design grew, I wanted to learn how different design elements influenced the final image. More importantly, can we see how modifications to a camera design will affect the image before any hardware is built? Through the generous help of very intelligent professors, friends, and colleagues I was able to gain a better understanding of how to model the image formation process for digital cameras. Modeling the Imaging Chain of Digital Cameras is derived from a course that I teach to share my perspectives on this topic.
This book is written as a tutorial, so many details are left out and assumptions made in order to generalize some of the more difficult concepts. I urge the reader to pick up the references and other sources to gain a more in-depth understanding of modeling the different elements of the imaging chain. I hope that the reader finds many of the discussions and illustrations helpful, and I hope that others will find modeling the imaging chain as fascinating as I do.
Robert D. I would like to thank the incredibly talented people that I have the honor of working with at ITT, Kodak, and RIT, for their insightful discussions and support. Many people have mentored me over the years, but I would like to particularly thank Harry Barrett for teaching me how to mathematically model and simulate imaging systems, and Dave Nead for teaching me the fundamentals of the imaging chain.
Finally, I would like to acknowledge my furry friends Casan, Opal, Blaze, and Rory who make excellent subjects for illustrating the imaging chain. Thanks to the successful design of most digital cameras, ordinary photographers do not think about the chain of events that creates the image; they just push the button and the camera does the rest.
However, engineers and scientists labored over the design of the camera and placed a lot of thought into the process that creates the digital image. So what exactly is a digital image, and what is the physical chain of events called the imaging chain that creates it Fig. A digital image is simply an array of numbers with each number representing a brightness value, or gray-level value, for each picture element, or pixel Fig.
Three arrays of numbers representing red, green, and blue brightness values are combined to create a color image. When displayed, this array of numbers produces the image that we see. Figure 1. The array of numbers that makes up a digital image created by a camera is the result of a chain of physical events. For example, a digital image will not continue to display higher details in the scene as we view the image under higher and higher magnification Fig.
Most of us have seen a television show or movie where a digital image is discovered that might contain the critical information to catch the bad guy if they could only zoom in and see better detail. Along comes the brilliant scientist who, with a simple click of a button, magnifies the image to an amazing quality, revealing the information that leads straight to the culprit!
This is great stuff for a crime thriller, but we know that the real world is not so kind. The Importance of Modeling the Imaging Chain 3 Understanding the physical process that creates an image can help us to answer many questions about the image quality and understand the limitations. When designing a digital camera, how do we know what the pictures will look like after it is built?
What is the best possible picture that can be taken with the camera even after processing enhancements? How do the pictures vary for different lighting conditions?
How would a variation on the camera design change the way the picture looks? The modeling and assessment of the end-to-end image formation process from the radiometry of the scene to the display of the image is critical to understanding the requirements of the system necessary to deliver the desired image quality. ITT developed imaging chain models to assess the performance trades for different camera designs developed for commercial remote sensing systems.
The digital cameras on these systems are very complex, and changing the design after hardware has been built can be very costly. It is imperative to understand the camera design requirements early in the program that are necessary to deliver the desired image quality. Through the development and use of imaging chain models, the commercial remote sensing cameras have been successfully designed to deliver the anticipated image quality with no surprises Figs. When placing a camera in orbit, there are no second chances. The imaging chain models have been validated with operational images and showed no statistical difference between the image quality of the actual images and the predictions made from the imaging chain models.
The goal of this book is to teach the reader key elements of the end-to-end imaging chain for digital camera systems and describe how elements of the imaging chain are mathematically modeled. The basics of linear systems mathematics and Fourier transforms will be covered, as these are necessary to model the imaging chain. The imaging chain model for the optics and the sensor will be described using linear systems math.
A chapter is dedicated to the image quality relationship between the optics and the digital detector because this is a topic that can be very confusing and is often overlooked when modeling the imaging chain. This book will also discuss the use of imaging chain models to simulate images from different digital camera designs for image quality evaluations.
The emphasis will be on general digital cameras designed to image incoherent light in the visible imaging spectrum. Please note that a more detailed modeling approach may be necessary for specific camera designs than the models presented here, but the hope is that this book will provide the necessary background to develop the modeling approach for the desired imaging chain. Chapter 2 The Imaging Chain and Applications 2. The imaging chain begins with the radiometry of the electromagnetic energy that will create the image. This energy may originate from the sun, a light bulb, or the object itself.
The electromagnetic energy is then captured by the camera system with optics to form the image and a sensor to convert the captured electromagnetic radiation into a digital image. The image is then processed to enhance the quality and the utility of the image.
Finally, the image is displayed and interpreted by the viewer. Each link in the imaging chain and the interaction between the links play a vital role in the final quality of the image, which is only as good as the weakest link. The initial idea for the series was to make material presented in SPIE short courses available to those who could not attend and to provide a reference text for those who could.
Thus, many of the texts in this series are generated by augmenting course notes with descriptive text that further illuminates the subject. In this way, the TT becomes an excellent stand-alone reference that finds a much wider audience than only short course attendees. Tutorial Texts have grown in popularity and in the scope of material covered since They no longer necessarily stem from short courses; rather, they are often generated independently by experts in the field. They are popular because they provide a ready reference to those wishing to learn about emerging technologies or the latest information within their field.
The topics within the series have grown from the initial areas of geometrical optics, optical detectors, and image processing to include the emerging fields of nanotechnology, biomedical optics, fiber optics, and laser technologies. Authors contributing to the TT series are instructed to provide introductory material so that those new to the field may use the book as a starting point to get a basic grasp of the material.
It is hoped that some readers may develop sufficient interest to take a short course by the author or pursue further research in more advanced books to delve deeper into the subject. The books in this series are distinguished from other technical monographs and textbooks in the way in which the material is presented. In keeping with the tutorial nature of the series, there is an emphasis on the use of graphical and illustrative material to better elucidate basic and advanced concepts.
There is also heavy use of tabular reference data and numerous examples to further explain the concepts presented. The publishing time for the books is kept to a minimum so that the books will be as timely and up-to-date as possible. Furthermore, these introductory books are competitively priced compared to more traditional books on the same subject. When a proposal for a text is received, each proposal is evaluated to determine the relevance of the proposed topic.
This initial reviewing process has been very helpful to authors in identifying, early in the writing process, the need for additional material or other changes in approach that would serve to strengthen the text. Once a manuscript is completed, it is peer reviewed to ensure that chapters communicate accurately the essential ingredients of the science and technologies under discussion.
It is my goal to maintain the style and quality of books in the series and to further expand the topic areas to include new emerging fields as they become of interest to our reading audience. James A. Harrington Rutgers University v. Index It studies the interactions between electro- magnetic waves and matter at the nanoscale.
The prominent feature of plasmonic optics is the coupling of electromagnetic waves into collective electron oscillations. This peculiar feature enables the localization and enhancement of electromagnetic energy in a novel family of nanodevices, nanoelectronics, and nanosensors. Plasmonics involves many subjects, such as optics, physics, materials, and even chemistry. So far, it has favorable applications in chemical sensors, high-resolution microscopy, photovoltaic cells, biological detection, communication, and medical diagnosis.
Each achievement plays a significant role in improving the future. Many researchers have devoted themselves to it over the last few decades because it provides a compelling risk and promise. That is what makes science so attractive: we are eager to understand the unknown. In fact, we are attracted by the risk to find the next achievement around the corner.
To fulfill the promise offered by plasmonic optics, this book presents a brief introduction to the theory and applications. The first chapter introduces the optical properties of materials. An elementary description of electromagnetic theory is provided. Noble metals, dielectric materials, and semiconductors are frequently used in plasmonic optics; their optical properties are described in terms of the Drude and Lorentz theories.
Although the effective optical properties of nanostructures deviate from those of bulk materials, the penetration depths and skin depths play a crucial role in defining plasmonic properties. The end of the chapter discusses the effective medium theory for composite materials. Surface plasmon polariton SPP is a recurring term that requires a clear definition. In this book, SPPs refer to a collective electron oscillation and the associated wave fields that propagate along a metal—dielectric planar interface.
Surface plasmon modes are sometimes used to describe the resonance cases of SPPs. When the electron oscillations occur on the curved surface of nanoparticles, these phenomena are called local surface plasmon resonances LSPRs because, in most cases, only the resonance conditions of.
The higher sample rate shows whether any spatial details are lost in the propagator results. However, note that this angle is often defined relative to the y axis in traditional aberration treatments. Absorption solid and emission dotted display significant overlap. The magnitude results are nearly identical, but the FFT result has slightly higher values than the analytic curve at the edges. A confocal fluorescent microscope's optical system consists of an illumination source laser , a focusing lens, a collimating lens, a microscope. Bandwidth is commonly defined as a half-width measure and is illustrated here with a profile of G fX, fY , the Fourier transform magnitude of g x, y. The absolute magnification M of an objective lens with a finite tube length is fairly estimated by Eq.
The scattering and absorption properties of nanoparticles with various geometries are discussed in terms of the Mie theory. These chapters discuss nanostructures with various geometries for the purpose of achieving plasmonic sensors, including chemical sensors, biosensors, and surface-enhanced spectroscopy. Chapter 7 briefly introduces the nanofabrication techniques aiming at plasmonic devices.
Top-down material-removal methods for elaborate nanostructures, bottom-up synthesis for self-growing nanoparticles, and solution phase methods for assembly geometries are introduced. The optical characterizations of plasmonic nanostructures are briefly reviewed; charac- terization methods benefit from the significant progress of plasmonic optics and advance its progress in return. A vast number of applications and various geometries for SPP-enhanced sensing are referenced throughout the text.
There is extensive literature contributing to this field.
References were selected because of their descriptions of a particular effect or their suitability for a beginner. I would like to thank the authors of the literature cited in this book.
I had to omit a few topics associated with plasmonics due to the scope of this book. These topics include but are not limited to plasmonic cloaking and transformation optics, plasmonic lasers, electromagnetically induced transpar- ency, metamaterials, and metasurfaces; the latter two are huge areas that could be covered in their own texts. Numerical simulation methods are not provided in this book, but interested readers can find them in various available commercial and free software.
This Tutorial Text should provide a readable introduction to plasmonic optics with distinct concepts, typical applications, and comprehensive knowledge. A modest amount of primary background knowledge in electromagnetism is sufficient to understand the concepts discussed here. I very much hope that more graduate students and young researchers pursue careers in this fascinating area. Their participation would further enhance the field and help plasmonic optics improve our future life. Any comments and suggestions are very much appreciated.
China December B for their financial support. My thanks also go to my students Xiaolun Xu, Binbin Wang, and Weidong Song for their work on the drawings and calculations throughout the text. Of course, thanks to my wife, Xiaorong Qian, for her steady encouragement and lovely inspiration. Read Free For 30 Days. Description: Book introduction. Flag for inappropriate content.
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