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Shop Textbooks. Read an excerpt of this book! Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Temporarily Out of Stock Online Please check back later for updated availability. Overview More science and less art leads to bigger fish and fewer tales Most anglers rely on advice from fishing buddies or books by well-known but unscientific anglers. About the Author Daniel Bagur is a marine and freshwater biologist, avid angler, and regular contributor to the international angling press.
Table of Contents 1. Putting it all together. Average Review. Write a Review. McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing. Thus, by defining both science and technology narrowly, and from a western worldview, all Indigenous innovations described in this paper would fall outside the realm of science because they are technologies that lack explanatory power utilizing physical causality. The argument for acknowledging the legitimacy of IS is best summarized by Cajete :.
Whether there exists an Indigenous science in western terms is largely an incestuous argument of semantic definitions. Using western science orientations to measure the credence of non-western ways of knowing and being in the world has been applied historically to deny the reality of Indigenous people. The fact is that Indigenous people are, they exist and do not need an external measure to validate their existence in the world. Attempts to define Indigenous science, which is by its nature alive, dynamic, and ever changing through generations, fall short, as this science is a high-context inclusive system of knowledge.
Central to the issue of the authenticity of IS is the controversial question of the existence of curiosity-driven inquiry among Indigenous peoples. One important point of difference between IS and WS is that Indigenous Knowledge systems include spiritual dimensions beliefs that may not make sense to scientists or fall outside the realm of WS.
Respect is the fundamental law of Indigenous peoples. Each Chief has an ancestor who encountered and acknowledged the life of the land.
From such encounters come power. The land, the plants, the animals and the people all have spirit—they must be shown respect. That is the basis of our law.
Tyler, , p. But for many people, spirituality means life with consciousness. Thus, the land, the plants and animals, and people all have their own spirit, integrity, and substance; they must be respected. By extension, spiritual stewardship of resources represents more than securing an economic commodity in order to earn a benefit. Spiritual stewardship represents a way of life, a vital process of socialization, moral education, respect for all forms of life, and responsibilities. Importantly, what many opponents of IK and TEK fail to recognize is that spiritual explanations contained in myths and stories often incorporate important ecology, conservation, and sustainable development strategies across the generations Atleo, ; Berkes, ; Johnson, Spiritual explanations often conceal functional ecological and conservation strategies.
It merely indicates that the system exists within an entirely different cultural experience and set of values, one that points no more and no less valid a picture of reality then the one that provides its own western frame of reference. Furthermore, the spiritual explanation of TEK is a fundamental component and must be promoted if the knowledge system is to survive Cruikshank, ; Johnson, ; Turner, Criticism of the validity and utility of IS and TEK misapprehend the structure of Indigenous oral information systems.
Indigenous peoples observe, interpret and orally report nature exhaustively. In these days of worldwide social, political, and environmental stress, we are all affected by problems associated with resource depletion, increasing human population, climate change, and environmental disaster. Only recently have Western scientists begun to wrestle with approaches that promise to improve our ability to mitigate the impact of human society upon the planet. Our challenge is not so much to seek ever more sophisticated technological solutions to environmental problems, as it is to re-establish a moral, emotional, and perhaps sacred, relationship with the biosphere.
The addition of IS examples into the science classroom allows it to be more widely recognized and respected for its validity and usefulness, adding interest and authenticity to the study of science. Indigenous Science not only existed in the past, but in numerous cases, it exists today. For many science educators the first step is simply recognition of the validity of IS within the realm of science, and its importance in the science classroom.
It is our hope that teachers will introduce both IS and WS as different but complementary ways of understanding the world to all students in the science classroom. Discussion should stress similarities rather than differences, and explore practical possibilities for combining the Indigenous and western frameworks in understanding nature and solving science, technology and environmentally related problems.
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Science Education , 79 5 , Peat, F. Lighting the seventh fire: The spiritual ways, healing, and science of the Native American. Piperno, D. The origins of plant cultivation and domestication in the new world tropics: Patterns, process, and new developments. Current Anthropology, 52 S4 , SS The earliest archaeological maize Zea mays L. Ross, A. Adventures of the first settlers on the Columbia River. Conservation and subsistence in small-scale societies. Annual Review of Anthropology , 29 1 , Snively, G. Discovering Indigenous science: Implications for science education.
Science Education , 85 1 , Turner, N. Ancient pathways, ancestral knowledge: Ethnobotany and ecological wisdom of Indigenous peoples of northwestern North America, Volume 1: The history and practice of Indigenous plant knowledge. Ancient pathways, ancestral knowledge: Ethnobotany and ecological wisdom of Indigenous peoples of northwestern North America, Volume 2: The place and meaning of plants in Indigenous cultures and worldviews.
Traditional ecological knowledge and wisdom of Aboriginal peoples of British Columbia. Ecological Applications , 10 5 , Skip to content Increase Font Size. Understanding and Acknowledging Indigenous Science. TEK and IK can help locate rare and endangered species and provide cost effective shortcuts for investigating the local resource bases. Local knowledge makes it possible to survey and map in a few days what would otherwise take months, for example, soil types, plant and animal species, migration pathways, and aggregation sites Berkes, ; Usher, ; Warren, Provides time-tested in-depth knowledge of the local area past and present that can be triangulated with WS resulting in more accurate environmental assessment and impact statements.
People who depend on local resources for their livelihood are often able to assess the true costs and benefits of development better than any evaluator from outside Houde, ; Warren, et. Debate the proposition: Scientific theorizing began toward the end of the nineteenth century when scientists began to grapple with abstract theoretical propositions. In a small group, brainstorm the following: How the Indigenous peoples of Meso-America discovered medicinal uses of aloe vera and quinine.
How the Tainos of Meso-America developed corn. How Andean farmers invented the first freeze-dried potato. How Meso-American farmers developed 3, varieties of potato.