Being the largest and one of the most influential cities of Poland, it enjoyed voting rights during the royal election period in Poland. In a Mennonite Church was founded here. It was the latter who eventually became monarch but the city, encouraged by the secret support of Denmark and Emperor Maximilian , shut its gates against Stephen. After the Siege of Danzig , lasting six months, the city's army of 5, mercenaries was utterly defeated in a field battle on 16 December The city recognised him as ruler of Poland and paid the enormous sum of , guldens in gold as payoff "apology".
Around , Johannes Hevelius established his astronomical observatory in the Old Town. Beside a majority of German-speakers,  whose elites sometimes distinguished their German dialect as Pomerelian ,  the city was home to a large number of Polish-speaking Poles, Jewish Poles, Latvian speaking Kursenieki , Flemings and Dutch. In addition, a number of Scots took refuge or migrated to and received citizenship in the city.
During the Protestant Reformation , most German-speaking inhabitants adopted Lutheranism. Due to the special status of the city and significance within the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth , the city inhabitants largely became bi-cultural sharing both Polish and German culture and were strongly attached to the traditions of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth. The city suffered a last great plague and a slow economic decline due to the wars of the 18th century. An attempted student uprising against Prussia led by Gottfried Benjamin Bartholdi was crushed quickly by the authorities in During the Napoleonic era the city became a free city from to In , after France 's defeat in the Napoleonic Wars , it again became part of Prussia  and became the capital of Regierungsbezirk Danzig within the province of West Prussia.
The city's longest serving president was Robert von Blumenthal, who held office from , through the revolutions of , until When Poland regained its independence after World War I with access to the sea as promised by the Allies on the basis of Woodrow Wilson 's " Fourteen Points " point 13 called for "an independent Polish state", "which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea" , the Poles hoped the city's harbour would also become part of Poland.
However, in the end — since Germans formed a majority in the city, with Poles being a minority in the census 7, people out of , gave Polish, Kashubian or Masurian as their native language  — the city was not placed under Polish sovereignty. Instead, in accordance with the terms of the Versailles Treaty , it became the Free City of Danzig German: Freie Stadt Danzig , an independent quasi-state under the auspices of the League of Nations with its external affairs largely under Polish control — without, however, any public vote to legitimize Germany's loss of the city.
Poland's rights also included free use of the harbour, a Polish post office, a Polish garrison in Westerplatte district, and customs union with Poland. This led to a considerable tension between the city and the Republic of Poland. The Free City had its own constitution, national anthem , parliament Volkstag , and government Senat. It issued its own stamps as well as its currency, the Danzig gulden. Thereafter, the Nazis under Gauleiter Albert Forster achieved dominance in the city government, which was still nominally overseen by the League of Nations' High Commissioner.
The German government officially demanded the return of Danzig to Germany along with an extraterritorial meaning under German jurisdiction highway through the area of the Polish Corridor for land-based access from the rest of Germany. Hitler used the issue of the status of the city as a pretext for attacking Poland and on May , during a high level meeting of German military officials explained to them: "It is not Danzig that is at stake.
For us it is a matter of expanding our Lebensraum in the east", adding that there will be no repeat of the Czech situation, and Germany will attack Poland at first opportunity, after isolating the country from its Western Allies. Germany attacked Poland on 1 September after having signed a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union this includes the Secret Part with the upcoming treatment of the Baltic States in late August and after postponing the attack three times due to needed time for diplomatic, peaceful solutions.
The German attack began in Danzig, with a bombardment of Polish positions at Westerplatte by the German battleship Schleswig-Holstein , and the landing of German infantry on the peninsula. Outnumbered Polish defenders at Westerplatte resisted for seven days before running out of ammunition. Meanwhile, after a fierce day-long fight 1 September , defenders of the Polish Post office were tried and executed then buried on the spot in the Danzig quarter of Zaspa in October In a German court overturned their conviction and sentence. About 50 percent of members of the Jewish Community of Danzig had left the city within a year after a Pogrom in October ,  after the Kristallnacht riots in November the community decided to organize its emigration  and in March a first transport to Palestine started.
In early , just Jews were still living in Danzig, most of whom were later murdered in the Holocaust. On the first day of the war, approximately 1, ethnic Poles were arrested, some because of their participation in social and economic life, others because they were activists and members of various Polish organisations. In , Hitler ordered the invasion of the Soviet Union , eventually causing the fortunes of war to turn against Germany. As the Soviet Army advanced in , German populations in Central and Eastern Europe took flight, resulting in the beginning of a great population shift.
After the final Soviet offensives began in January , hundreds of thousands of German refugees converged on Danzig, many of whom had fled on foot from East Prussia , some tried to escape through the city's port in a large-scale evacuation involving hundreds of German cargo and passenger ships. Some of the ships were sunk by the Soviets, including the Wilhelm Gustloff after an evacuation was attempted at neighbouring Gdynia. In the process, tens of thousands of refugees were killed.
The city also endured heavy Allied and Soviet air raids. Those who survived and could not escape had to face the Soviet Army, which captured the heavily damaged city on 30 March ,  followed by large-scale rape  and looting. The remaining German residents of the city who had survived the war fled or were forcibly expelled from their home city to postwar Germany, and the city was repopulated by ethnic Poles; up to 18 percent of them had been deported by the Soviets in two major waves from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union , i.
The reconstruction was not tied to the city's pre-war appearance, but instead was politically motivated as a means of culturally cleansing and destroying all traces of German influence from the city. In September , in order to deter Solidarity, Soviet Union launched Exercise Zapad , the largest military exercise in history, during which amphibious landings were conducted near Gdansk. Meanwhile, the Solidarity held its first national congress in Hala Olivia , Gdansk when more than deputies participated. Its opposition to the Communist regime led to the end of Communist Party rule in , and sparked a series of protests that overthrew the Communist regimes of the former Soviet bloc.
Though Adamowicz was able to undergo a multi-hour surgery to try to treat his wounds, he died the next day. According to some categorizations, it has an oceanic climate Cfb  , while others classify it as belonging to the continental climate zone Dfb . However seasonal extremes are less pronounced than those in inland Poland. In general, it is damp, variable, and mild. The seasons are clearly differentiated. Spring starts in March and is initially cold and windy, later becoming pleasantly warm and often very sunny.
July and August are the warmest months. Autumn comes in September and is at first warm and usually sunny, turning cold, damp, and foggy in November. Winter lasts from December to March and includes periods of snow. The share of high-tech sectors such as electronics, telecommunications, IT engineering, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals is on the rise. The city has some buildings surviving from the time of the Hanseatic League. This part of the city is sometimes referred to as the Royal Route, since it was once the former path of processions for visiting Kings of Poland. Catherine's Church and St.
Mary's Church Bazylika Mariacka. This latter is a municipal church built during the 15th century, and is the largest brick church in the world.
The city's 17th-century fortifications represent one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments Pomnik historii , as designated on 16 September and tracked by the National Heritage Board of Poland. Fast Urban Rail train. Founded in , they play in the Ekstraklasa , Poland's top division. The city's Hala Olivia was a venue for the official EuroBasket.
The Place of Pomerania in the Medieval Kingdom of Poland Paul Milliman's The Slippery Memory of Men is the first monograph on the role. The Place of Pomerania in the Medieval Kingdom of Poland | Paul Milliman's The Slippery Memory of Men is the first monograph on the role played by the early.
Many important agencies of the state and local government levels have their main offices here: the Provincial Administration Office, the Provincial Government, the Ministerial Agency of the State Treasury, the Agency for Consumer and Competition Protection, the National Insurance regional office, the Court of Appeals, and the High Administrative Court. By , Tricity constituted an absolute majority of the population; almost half of the inhabitants of the new region live in the centre.
Council members are elected directly every four years. Like most legislative bodies, the City Council divides itself into committees which have the oversight of various functions of the city government.
There are 15 higher schools including 3 universities. In there were 60, students, including 10, graduates. Monument to the Fallen Shipyard Workers. Jan Heweliusz Monument.
Port of Gdansk seen from Fryderyk Chopin. European Solidarity Centre. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
From the Publisher via CrossRef no proxy journals. Migration of merchants to the town resumed in City in Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland. A supporter of democracy, both radical and sincere, or a conservative at heart who readily found Madgearu A. Ash marked it as to-read Sep 02, However, in the end — since Germans formed a majority in the city, with Poles being a minority in the census 7, people out of , gave Polish, Kashubian or Masurian as their native language  — the city was not placed under Polish sovereignty.
City in Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland. This article is about the city in Poland. For other uses, see Danzig disambiguation. Place in Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland. Coat of arms. Nec Temere, Nec Timide Neither rashly, nor timidly. Main article: Free City of Danzig. This section contains embedded lists that may be poorly defined, unverified or indiscriminate. Please help to clean it up to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.
Where appropriate, incorporate items into the main body of the article. April See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland. Oliwa Cathedral. Poland portal. Statistics Poland. Retrieved 1 June Data for territorial unit World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on December 26, Retrieved Dominic's Fair". Article copied to polska. Archived from the original on 3 July Retrieved 16 April Pluto Press. Handbuch der polnischen Siegelkunde in German. Biographie einer Stadt, Munich , p. Retrieved 18 March Chapter 1 describes its emergence and politics, as a duchy, as polity deliberately, and for a time successfully, independent of Poland and the Order.
The reflections of that legacy, above all in the testimonies of and , comprise the raw material for the examination of political discourse. This content downloaded from This is the centerpiece of the book. With a remarkable sophistication and sense of texture, the chapter examines the recollections, interpretations, and evaluations—above all by the witnesses, but also where possible by their contemporaries—of that entire history, in particular the question of succession to Pomerania, and especially the moments of trauma.
It is difficult to do justice to the richness and complexity of this book. For one thing, it works on several levels. It can be read as a political history—an excellent resource for the histories of Poland, Pomerania, and the Order, at a crucial period of their interaction and mutual impact. It concerns one instance of late medieval crusading and conversion and their long-term, entirely unintended consequences. And there is much else, here, to engage the student of Poland, the Order, and East Central Europe, during this crucial, transformative period.
This method allows the author to sort out, with unusual care, changes in the relevant discourse. He pitches his arguments at the strong, and still today pertinent, elements of those legacies. The result is a model of collegiality in print. We have a sophisticated colleague engaging with his peers, past and present, across a distance of scholarship and academic cultures. With this book, the understanding of medieval Poland in the thought and language of this journal, and in the part of the academic world where that language is used, has come of age. Related Papers. By Darius von Guttner. Review of: S.
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