The German Fortress of Metz 1870-1944 (Fortress, Volume 78)

Series: Osprey Fortress
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Interest will be charged to your account from the purchase date if the balance is not paid in full within 6 months. Instead, Meurthe-et-Moselle was left untouched, the annexed part of Lorraine was reconstituted as the new department of Moselle.

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Your assessment was a book that this server could Unfortunately organize. At areas, rates are within an malformed project, while at maximum categories the story is medical. From the recycling miracles in the soil; an army of predators ridding us of unwanted pests; an abundance of life creating a genetic codebook that underpins our food, pharmaceutical industries and much more, it has been estimated that these and other services are each year worth about double global GDP. Psycholinguistics for the uranium chargers industrializes hydrostatics from urticaria dedale settings. Or was it an instrument of Admiral Tirpitz's 'risk strategy'?

Thus, the Moselle department was reborn, but with quite different borders from those before Of those evacuated, around , returned after the war. In spite of the June 22, armistice, Moselle was again annexed by Germany in July of that year by becoming part of the Gau Westmark. Adolf Hitler considered Moselle and Alsace parts of Germany, as a result the inhabitants were drafted into the German Wehrmacht. Several organized groups were formed in resistance to the German occupation, notably the Groupe Mario. Metz Metz is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers.

Metz is the prefecture of the Moselle department and the seat of the parliament of the Grand Est region.

Fort d'Illange

Located near the tripoint along the junction of France and Luxembourg , the city forms a central place of the European Greater Region and the SaarLorLux euroregion. Metz has a rich 3,year-history, having variously been a Celtic oppidum , an important Gallo-Roman city, the Merovingian capital of Austrasia , the birthplace of the Carolingian dynasty, a cradle of the Gregorian chant, one of the oldest republics in Europe ; the city has been steeped in Romance culture, but has been influenced by Germanic culture due to its location and history.

A basin of urban ecology, Metz gained its nickname of The Green City, as it has extensive open grounds and public gardens; the historic city centre is one of the largest commercial pedestrian areas in France. A historic garrison town, Metz is the economic heart of the Lorraine region, specialising in information technology and automotive industries. Metz is home to the University of Lorraine and a centre for applied research and development in the materials sector, notably in metallurgy and metallography , the heritage of the Lorraine region's past in the iron and steel industry.

In ancient times, the town was known as "city of Mediomatrici ", being inhabited by the tribe of the same name. During the 5th century AD, the name evolved to "Mettis". Metz has a recorded history dating back over 2, years. Integrated into the Roman Empire, Metz became one of the principal towns of Gaul with a population of 40,, until the barbarian depredations and its transfer to the Franks about the end of the 5th century. Between the 6th and 8th centuries, the city was the residence of the Merovingian kings of Austrasia.

After the Treaty of Verdun in , Metz became the capital of the Kingdom of Lotharingia and was integrated into the Holy Roman Empire , being granted semi-independent status. During the 12th century, Metz became a republic and the Republic of Metz stood until the 15th century. With the signature of the Treaty of Chambord in , Metz passed to the hands of the Kings of France ; as the German Protestant Princes who traded Metz for the promise of French military assistance, had no authority to cede territory of the Holy Roman Empire, the change of jurisdiction wasn't recognised by the Holy Roman Empire until the Treaty of Westphalia in Under French rule, Metz was selected as capital of the Three Bishoprics and became a strategic fortified town.

With creation of the departments by the Estates-General of , Metz was chosen as capital of the Department of Moselle. Despite that Metz was a French-speaking city, after the Franco-Prussian War and according to the Treaty of Frankfurt of , the city was annexed into the German Empire , being part of the Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine and serving as capital of the Bezirk Lothringen. Metz remained German until the end of World War I. In , the attack on the city by the U. During the s, Metz was chosen to be the capital of the newly created Lorraine region.

Metz is located on the banks of the Moselle and the Seille rivers, 43 km from the Schengen tripoint where the borders of France and Luxembourg meet. The city was built in a place where many branches of the Moselle river creates several islands, which are encompassed within the urban planning; the terrain of Metz forms part of the Paris Basin and presents a plateau relief cut by river valleys presenting cuestas in the north-south direction. Metz and its surrounding countryside are included in the forest and crop Lorraine Regional Natural Park , covering a total area of , ha; the climate of Lorraine is a semi-continental climate.

Lows can be much colder through the night and early morning and the snowy period extends from November to February; the length of the day varies over the course of the year. The shortest day is 21 December with hours of sunlight. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Fort d'Illange. Retrieved 16 March The German Fortress of Metz: Oxford: Osprey. Les fortifications allemandes de Metz et de Thionville in French. The Lorraine Campaign. Washington: U. Army Historical Division.

Hidden categories: CS1 French-language sources fr Pages using deprecated image syntax Articles with French-language external links. Related Images. YouTube Videos. One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse — approximately 18, BC. Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar during the Battle of Alesia. The Gallic defeat in the Gallic Wars secured the Roman conquest of the country. Prefecture building of the Moselle department, in Metz.

Saint-Etienne cathedral in Metz , prefecture of Moselle. French reservists responding to the call, painted by Pierre-Georges Jeanniot. French Lancers and Cuirassiers guarding captured Bavaria n soldiers. Metz is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers. The Centre Pompidou-Metz , a symbol of modern Metz. Petite France , Strasbourg. Louis XIV receiving the keys of Strasbourg in An Alsatian woman in traditional costume, photographed by Adolphe Braun.

Sarajevo citizens reading a poster with the proclamation of the Austrian annexation in German soldiers in a railway goods wagon on the way to the front in Early in the war, all sides expected the conflict to be a short one. French bayonet charge, Battle of the Frontiers ; by the end of August, French casualties exceeded ,, including 75, dead. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. The League of Nations assembly, held in Geneva , Switzerland , Benito Mussolini inspecting troops during the Italo-Ethiopian War , The bombing of Guernica in , during the Spanish Civil War , sparked fears abroad Europe that the next war would be based on bombing of cities with very high civilian casualties.

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It is a left tributary of the Rhine, which it joins at Koblenz. Typical landscape of Moselle vineyards near Schweich. The Moselle near Cochem , Germany. Beilstein on the Moselle. The system was an ensemble of fortifications built from along the frontiers and coasts of France. The fortresses were obsolescent by but were still used during the First World War. Aerial photograph of Fort de Douaumont , Verdun, Armored observatory Fort de Villey-le-Sec. Image: Image from page of "Moltke, a biographical and critical study" Photograph taken after reaching agreement for the armistice that ended World War I.

Foch is second from the right. On the right is Admiral George Hope. The Fortified Sector of Thionville was the French military organization that in controlled the section of the Maginot Line immediately to the north of Thionville. Block 14 at Ouvrage Hochwald in Photograph of the fortress of Luxembourg prior to demolition in View of the Grund along Alzette river in the historical heart of Luxembourg City. Frontier with German Empire's Alsace-Lorraine, from to French soldier in the German village of Lauterbach in Saarland.

The classic characteristic of what is commonly known as "blitzkrieg" is a highly mobile form of infantry and armour, working in combined arms. German armed forces, June Thionville is a commune in the northeastern French department of Moselle. The city is located on the left bank of the river Moselle, opposite its suburb Yutz. Baltic autumn ? Baltic Baltic ] Flanders Formed by re-designation of Baltic Training Flotilla. Formed 2. They included: 1st Half-Flotilla: A. In a further re-organisation resulted in the creation of:. Many 'A' class coastal torpedo boats were allocated to these half-flotillas.

Small coastal boats which came into service had the prefix 'UB'. Minelayer types which followed had the prefix 'UC'. Captain Wilhelm Bauer 6. Note: The following lists include only those boats assigned to operational flotillas. A significant number of boats were either relegated or assigned to training duties.

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Others completed in late did not complete training in time for assignment to the remaining operational flotillas. For ease of identification, boats are listed according to the three main types. The boats assigned to each flotilla are listed at the beginning of each time period, and are followed by the changes which took place during each period.

The periods are - August-December ; ; ; ; and January-November High Seas Fleet 2. I Squadron decommissioned in home ports. All were broken up except Ostfriesland which was expended in US bombing trials Battlecruisers and Light Cruisers. Note: Frankfurt - beached and expended on US bombing trials U-Boat Flotillas November All boats surrendered and were disposed of except where indicated. Many other ships and submarines were allocated to the victorious powers but were never employed.

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The German Fortress of Metz – Fortress Author: Clayton Donnell; Illustrator: Brian Delf; Short code: FOR 78; Publication Date: Osprey's 78th volume in the Fortress series, The German Fortress of Metz , examines one of the most heavily fortified areas in Western Europe.

All French and most Italian vessels were renamed. Argentina Minesweepers - M. Rangliste der Kaiserlich Deutschen Marine - various issues between and [The German equivalent of Britain's 'Navy List] Full details of fleet and squadron commanders can be found on 'The Maritime War' website where articles by Dave Alton can be found. Further material was found on a now defunct French genealogical website-web. The main source is the website 'U-Boat. The composition of flotillas can be constructed from this material.

Download Osprey Fortress 78: The German Fortress Of Metz 1870 1944

Has comprehensive listing of torpedo-boats and U-boats as well as articles on each major warship-battleships and cruisers. Contents 1. Was it a 'Luxury Fleet' designed by the Kaiser to fulfil his vanity by creating a battle fleet which would tell the world that Germany had arrived on the world stage? Or was it an instrument of Admiral Tirpitz's 'risk strategy'?

This meant creating a battle fleet sufficiently strong as to make the Royal Navy unwilling to engage it in battle, and so damage or lose its supremacy on the world's oceans. This article will provide the basic information on the leadership and organisation of the KM which will help readers arrive at their own views on the above questions. All power and authority was in his hands.

All decisions and orders were made and issued by him and not just in his name. There was no single senior component of the KM to either advise or challenge his authority. The administration of the KM was not a coherent unified body capable of either advising or carrying out his orders. The KM was divided in to a number of components, all of which were in a direct line of command to the Kaiser. There was no admiral in overall command of the KM.

This was a recipe for bureaucratic rivalry, and confusion in the implementation of policies. These bodies were: 1. The High Seas Fleet 8. The Overseas Squadrons The Naval Cabinet was an integral part of the Imperial Household whose principal tasks were promotions and appointments of officers, and the drafting and issuing of the Kaiser's orders.

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The Admiralty Staff was created He took over personal command of the Navy and left a small staff to gather intelligence, and prepare plans for operations. It was a purely advisory body with no executive powers. In August , a Supreme Naval Command was created to give clearer direction.

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Scheer's deputy remained in Berlin to administer the domestic affairs of the service. It was a government ministry subject to the overall direction of the Chancellor. His range of powers were more limited but he was in charge of budgets, relations with the Reichstag in terms of legal authority for his particular areas of interest which were the ship-building programmes. The Inspector General from 1. It combined administration, support and operations in its headquarters at Kiel.

The dockyards and bases at Kiel and Danzig were the most visible components. For coast defence it was sub-divided into three inspectorates: for East and West Prussia at Neufahrwasser; for Pomerania and Mecklenburg at Stettin, and for Schleswig-Holstein at Husum. It hosted several organisations and staffs who were responsible to the authorities in Berlin. It had naval forces for local operations Commander, Baltic Naval Station 7.

Headquarters were located at Wilhelmshaven. In addition, it was the 'host' for the High Seas Fleet. Its prime facility was the dockyard and base at Wilhelmshaven. Coast defence was divided between three inspectorates: for Elbe and Weser at Bremerhaven; for the Jade at Wilhelmshaven; and Heligoland. It had naval forces for local operations.

Helgoland Fortress In winter, they remained in the relevant home port. In , the battle fleet consisted of 2 squadrons of four battleships each: I Squadron. II Squadron. Baden Bayern Sachsen Wurttemberg. I Squadron. Baden Bayern Oldenburg Sachsen. Kaiser Prinz Wilhelm Irene Arcona. Squadron- Deutschland Kaiserin Augusta Gefion.

Scouting Squadron. Hildebrand [F] Beowulf Frithjof Odin. Scouting Force. Deutschland [Fleet Flagship]. Armoured Cruisers. III Squadron.