SME mining engineering handbook

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Find here online price details of companies selling Acid Slurry. Adequate muck removal rates are critical to optimum face of a rotating cutting head. Advanced ma- The orientation of the TBM is controlled by the grippers, in chines are available on which the tool type can be changed and conjunction with a laser beam and microprocessor-controlled tool spacing varied.

These developments have arisen from the guidance system. These allow precise positioning of the machine, need for machines that can cope with a variety of poor ground but problems may still be encountered in weak or soft ground in conditions. The cutting head may be an open structure with which the effectiveness of the grippers is greatly reduced. In spoke-like cutting arms, or it may completely conceal the face these situations, 3-dimensional orientation control is facilitated except for muck-removal openings and access ways for tool by TBMs, that steer while boring.

The trailing gear fol- and tools, and can be used with a forepoling arrangement. Components, and their configura- the tunnel face. Reaction to this thrust is provided by grippers tion, are primarily a function of tunnel size and may include: mounted on the TBM body, which in turn react against the 1. Bridge conveyor required to transport muck from the tunnel sidewalls. Mucking is performed by buckets mounted on TBM to the muck cars.

Dual-track rail system with remote muck car loading and handling for larger diameter tunnels. Hydraulic power unit, transformer s , and trailing cable. Supply hoist for unloading and moving supplies. Rock drill for bolt installation , rock drill power unit, and rock bolt supplies storage. Mechanical shop and cutter and supply storage area. System components are briefly described below; more de- tailed descriptions and specifications are contained in the refer- ences cited at the end of this chapter. Various types of muck cars and trailing gear are available that facilitate continuous loading.

Additional details, regarding conventional muck haulage sys- tems, are presented in Chapter 9. Alternate muck removal systems, incorporating pneumatic or hydraulic transport of crushed muck, have been used in a small nUITlber of civil tunnel- ing projects. Ventilation System-The ventilation system typically con- sists of to in.

The system is designed and deployed to max- imize the cross-sectional area available for mucking equipment and is normally configured to exhaust air to the portal Chapter Electrical System-The electrical system typically consists of a high-voltage feeder cable with stepdown transformers mounted on the trailing gear and at strategic locations along the tunnel to service ventilation fans, lighting, pumps, etc. Chapter Total installed power requirements can be roughly approx- imated at twice the predicted TBM consumption.

Rock support requirements Chapter Hard-rock TBMs are commonly equipped with a partial or slotted shield, and when support is required, conventional rock support methods are used. Both soft-rock and hard-rock TBMs can be equipped with a full shield and segmental linings installed. As noted in These simplified formulas are consistent with the conceptual level planning approach incorpo- rated herein. However, the owner is well advised to maximize geotechnical data collection and interaction with the TBM man- ufacturer so that uncertainties in performance prediction.

System Utilization-TBM utilization is defined as the ratio of the productive TBM operating time to the total time available for tunnel drivage. An estimate of the machine cutting rate, derated for downtime using the system utilization factor, can therefore be used to provide an estimate of the project schedule. TBM system downtime has been analyzed extensively by Fig. Sequential reaming sequence after Nelson et al. Risks can be offset by requiring manufacturers to bid cutter cost on a per foot meter basis. The following data apply to the construc- tion of a ft 7.

Farmer Fe X 0. Raise costs as a function of diameter and torque modi- fied from Engineering and Mining Journal, Anon. Conversion 0. Graham Fe X 0. Major collapses and large inrushes of mud and water, heavily squeezing 0. Case studies involving TBM excavation under 1. No labor required in ing in a controlled envi- ment. Considered to be shields. No operation of the shaft prior to shaft ronment. Considered the most dangerous of large moving equipment lining. Shaft size Depth is limited by skip- Limited by required depth, Nominally limited by avail- Limited by available equip- Required to be larger than hoist rope capacity.

Drilled shaft di- Short ft shafts diameter. Shaft depth Depth is limited by skip- Limited by required diame- Raise depths up to ft hoist rope capacity. See Table Shaft verticality Verticality can be con- Deviation can be esti- Shaft verticality is con- Shaft verticality is con- Verticality can be con- trolled within extremely mated from geological trolled by pilot borehole.

Equal data. Difficult to main- Pilot hole accuracy con- However, offset reaming tight tolerances. The to or better than conven- tain an absolutely verti- trolled by directional sur- can be controlled by the most accurate shaft con- tional. Suggested tol- practice. Design toler- tional control when fol- gard to verticality.

Ground disturbance Minimal mechanical distur- Provides minimal mechani- Provides minimal mechani- Provides minimal mechani- Conventional drill-and- bance of shaft wallrock. Advance rate conventional shaft con- fph 5 ft dia.

SME Mining Enginering Handbook, Third Edition

See ft dia. In gen- Table Operational considerations Groundwater Same techniques as con- Method provides superior Groundwater controlled by Large projected inflows re- Large projected inflows re- ventional sinking. Final lining may be in- Final lining may be in- vation. May incor- tems available-see vation. Miscellaneous Requires existing under- Requires existing under- ground access. Other considerations Shaft outfitting If a final steel lining is in- Pilot hole deviation usually Outfitting in-line with exca- Outfitting in-line with exca- stalled, considerable prevents raises from be- vation and final lining if vation and final lining if time can be saved ing used for man or ma- required.

All furnish- ings can be aligned prior to welding to the down- hole liner assembly. Model Robbins hard-rock double shield Fig. This compares to a forecast rate of 55 fpd Isa mine, Australia. Con- 6. Improvements in cutterhead design Hurt et ft 3. Redesign of the aI. Roadheaders offer a number of advantages over full-face tunneling machines, chiefly related to flexibility. Roadheaders can cut a variety of cross sections, limited only by the basic They are thus usable, for example, in room and pillar many years, and are known under a variety of names including operations.

Sectional view of tunnel boring machine. In- sequence of mining and mucking is followed. Also they have line heads rotate co-axially with the boom, and arcing forces lower initial costs than full-face machines. One of the most important advantages of According to Pearse , these heads are best suited to cutting roadheaders is the avoidance of blast damage to the rock and rock with an unconfined compressive strength of 12, psi 80 the consequent savings in ground support costs.

In addition, MPa or less. In-line heads require less thrust when sumping, because mechanical excavation is a continuous process, shift and the head shape allows greater selectivity in cutting specific time is more effectively utilized. Navin et aI.

McFeat-Smith reported average utilization of usually required. An important advantage of this is. The main components of roadheader excava- Advances in cutter booms have resulted in machines tion systems are discussed in some detail in this segment. How- equipped with telescopic booms, or booms with extended length ever, because roadheader equipment is in a constant state of for cutting high backs or crowns. Telescopic booms are useful development, the reader is advised to consult manufacturers for cutting on steep gradients or on weak floor materials where with regard to specific machines, detailed specifications, and the thrust from the machine's travel system would not be ade- applications.

In such cases, the machine can be stelled, and the thrust Roadheader cutting assemblies consist of a cutting head on provided by the booms' telescoping hydraulics reacting against a movable, hydraulically powered boom, mounted on a rotatable the machine. Kogelmann and Schenck have described turret attached to a track-driven chassis. In addition to the cut- soft-rock cutter booms SRBs and hard-rock cutter booms ting head, the machine also incorporates either a gathering arm HRBs , and report that the trend is toward the development of or chain conveyor mucking system to remove broken rock from the latter.

HRBs are reportedly more stable in cutting, producing the face. The machine may be controlled by an-operator seated less vibration and, consequently, less damage to bearings and on the machine or located some distance away, perhaps inside a picks. In low-strength formations, however, SRBs perform satis- shield, or beneath a supported roof section. To improve machine factorily, and the increased cost of an HRB-equipped machine stability during cutting, many machines are equipped with hy- is not justified. MacAndrew, ; Hurt et aI. These lead to reduced vibration and bearing damage. Water-jet-assisted cutting heads are now available factures and are interchangeable on specific machines.

These as standard or optional features on many roadheaders. Cutting Max. Estimated Penetration Act. Mica schist, quartz Average Tensile Estd. Cutter- Cutting Cutting Act. This allows roadheaders to be used in conjunction with Major Category Individual Downtime Sources an existing mine haulage system, provided that adequate capacity exists. Without adequate capacity, the face will become muck TBM maintenance Cutterhead check and routine maintenance bound and excavation will be delayed.

In low-strength forma- and repair Lube oil system tions in which high cutting rates are possible, the mucking system Hydraulic system may become the limiting factor in controlling advance rates. Cutterhead motors Electrical system Roadheader cutting booms are generally mounted on a cus- TMB conveyor tom chassis with track propulsion.

Track dimensions control Backup system Tunnel power supply ground pressures and should be carefully assessed in conditions Utility lines air, water, fan line in which the invert rocks are weak or prone to slurrying.

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PDF | This third edition of the SME Mining Engineering Handbook reaffirms its international reputation as “the handbook of choice” for today's practicing mining . This third edition of the SME Mining Engineering Handbook reaffirms its international reputation as “the handbook of choice” for today's practicing mining .

Increas- Laser guidance and surveying ingly, booms are being mounted on a variety of other machines, Trailing floor conveyor such as hydraulic breakers, trucks, traveling gantries, and inside Tripper or car pass shields. Deviations of the roadheader from Equipment clearance its desired position and orientation are detected by the targets, Scaling loose material and corrections are automatically made.

In addition to guidance Muck jams in conveyor and hoppers Cutter changes control, automatic profile control is also available. These systems Other Scheduled downtime consist of a microprocessor programmed with the required exca- Probe hole drilling vation profile, and transducers that continually monitor the posi- Contractual downtime tion of the cutting boom. The boom hydraulics are controlled Moving TBM to new location electronically to ensure that the correct profile is cut. These Shift changes developments enable very accurate alignment and profile con- Source: Nelson et al.

Electronic systems are also being used on roadheaders to monitor the condition of mechanical and to assist cutting has indicated substantial improvements in pick hydraulic components, enabling preventative maintenance to be life and dust suppression, and has reduced potential for frictional scheduled, reducing unplanned downtime. The excavation cycle commences with sump- jets can cut higher-strength formations than equivalent machines ing or forming a cavity in the rock face to the operating depth without water jets. During this operation, the cutter boom is kept Roadheader face mucking systems generally consist of an stationary while the cutting head rotates and the whole machine apron with either a scraper chain or gathering arm system Fig.

When the sump has Scraper chains generally extend around the perimeter been formed, it is enlarged by tracking the cutting head across of the machine, while gathering arms load muck onto a short the face to the outer perimeter of the excavation. Proceeding in this way, the opening is gradually methods including shuttle trains, conveyors, LHDs, trucks, and enlarged to the full dimensions of the face. When the full cross Table C Other includes downtime without explanation, shift changes, probe hole drilling, etc.

Source: Nelson et al. Average Triple button disks Operating considered weight Cut- gle disks may have such hard rock. Robbins mobile miner courtesy: Robbins Co. The pattern of sumping and arcing cuts, relative to the direction of cutterhead rotation and geologic structure, influences the efficiency of road- header excavation.

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In the vicinity of working roadheaders, high concentrations of airborne dust, generated during both cut- ting and transport of the muck, and high ambient temperatures commonly occur. In addition to exceeding statutory respirable dust limits, excessive dust may completely obscure the face, resulting in inefficient excavation and increased overbreak.

High temperatures and humidity result in labor inefficiency and over- heating of electrical motors. The use of waterjet-assisted cutting leads to a reduction in dust levels, but does not entirely eliminate b the problem, and may actually increase humidity at the face. Roadheader-type tunneling machines. One ofthe primary advantages of select- ing a roadheader excavation system over drill-and-blast methods for support may be eliminated entirely. All types of rock support is the elimination of blast damage and the consequent savings can be adopted for use in conjunction with roadheaders.

How- in rock support costs. Typical roadheader showing main components. Track Apron can be mounted inside shields Fig. The roadheader methods are presented below to further illustrate the process. This example is based on results reported of the shield. Excavation, mucking, and erection of a segmental by Sandbak for mine drift development in quartz monzo- lining can proceed concurrently.

The use of short shields allows nite and dacite porphyry. The roadheader is a Dosco SL-I tight turning circles to be maintained, although the system is less with an kW cutter motor. Several cutter Table Two are required. Meth- compared with observed OCR data given in the table. Overall system perform- 1.

Prediction Based on Method of Bilgin et al. Machine stoppages generally fall into one of the following categories: which is then used in the prediction equation to determine OCR: 1. Planned maintenance of roadheader and backup equipment. Unplanned maintenance of roadheader and backup equipment. Because the prediction equation given by Bilgin et aI. Mucking delays. Ground control. Rock support installation.

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Control of water inflows. Survey work. Guidance for typical roadheader utilization has been sug- These results are in remarkably good agreement with ob- gested by Kogelmann based on the type of ground support served OCR data. ABM 15 40 90 liT 3. RH25 ET liT 4. Dosco Overseas Eng. MK IIA TM Series: Approx. Mitsui Miil e Co. Typical Roadheader Specifications cont.

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Cut width Head Total Head Cut ht. GL20 8HR. E 44 I 2. STM 28 T 4. Serpukhovskaya UI. F-6A 12 T 3. Fuchs WF 9 37 70 T 3. Source: Pearse, Cone Indenter hardness and Shore hardness have been made to Eq. CTFs for bulk excavations with an experi- shown to be linear functions of unconfined compressive strength enced operator are estimated to have values in the range 0. Overall values terms of USC and CC: for bulk excavation and final profiling of a face may be in the range of 0. In this example, 0. When SE has been calculated, instantaneous cutting rate In this example the predicted values are low compared to ICR can then be calculated from Eq.

This example is based on results reported by Bilgin et al. Results are presented in Table Effective loading on steep slopes. Same as Star-Wheel Loader High loading rates at continuous flow. Low maintenance. Roadheader loading gathering systems after Kogelmann, Roadheader in horseshoe-shaped shield support sys- tem after Kogelmann, Results for both of the methods used are in good agreement with the observed results. Again, a CTF of 0. The Example This example is based on cutting trials in approach in this Handbook is considered to be applicable at a British Coal Measures reported by Fowell and McFeat-Smith conceptual level of project planning.

Although individual results Ta- and analysis should be undertaken using expert services available ble For reprint rights: Times Syndication Service. Get instant notifications from Economic Times Allow Not now You can switch off notifications anytime using browser settings. Politics and Nation. Defence Defence National International Industry. Company Corporate Trends Deals. International Business World News. Find this comment offensive?

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