Reason and World: Between Tradition and Another Beginning

Why does child marriage happen?
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Child marriage is a complex issue. Poverty, lack of education, cultural practices, and insecurity fuel and sustain the practice. But drivers will vary from one community to the next and the practice may look different across regions and countries, even within the same country. In many communities where child marriage is practised, girls are not valued as much as boys — they are seen as a burden on their family.

Child marriage is also driven by patriarchal values and the desire to control female sexuality, for instance, how a girl should behave, how she should dress, who she should be allowed to see, to marry, etc. Girls who have relationships or become pregnant outside of marriage are shamed for bringing dishonour on their family.

Church-state relations

At a time when the traditional principles of many fields have lost their power and validity, the task of philosophy may well be to look back at these traditional. Reason and World, a collection of lectures and essays, ranges in terms of the date of authorship from a lecture on Heidegger published while Marx was at the.

Child marriage is a traditional practice that in many places happens simply because it has happened for generations. Literacy rates are difficult to gauge, but in France the rates doubled over the course of the 18th century. Reading underwent serious changes in the 18th century. In particular, Rolf Engelsing has argued for the existence of a Reading Revolution. Until , reading was done intensively: people tended to own a small number of books and read them repeatedly, often to small audience. After , people began to read "extensively", finding as many books as they could, increasingly reading them alone.

The vast majority of the reading public could not afford to own a private library and while most of the state-run "universal libraries" set up in the 17th and 18th centuries were open to the public, they were not the only sources of reading material. Intended for a largely rural and semi-literate audience these books included almanacs, retellings of medieval romances and condensed versions of popular novels, among other things. Libraries that lent out their material for a small price started to appear and occasionally bookstores would offer a small lending library to their patrons.

Coffee houses commonly offered books, journals and sometimes even popular novels to their customers. The Tatler and The Spectator , two influential periodicals sold from to , were closely associated with coffee house culture in London, being both read and produced in various establishments in the city.

It is extremely difficult to determine what people actually read during the Enlightenment. For example, examining the catalogs of private libraries gives an image skewed in favor of the classes wealthy enough to afford libraries and also ignores censored works unlikely to be publicly acknowledged. For this reason, a study of publishing would be much more fruitful for discerning reading habits. Across continental Europe, but in France especially, booksellers and publishers had to negotiate censorship laws of varying strictness.

Indeed, many publishing companies were conveniently located outside France so as to avoid overzealous French censors. They would smuggle their merchandise across the border, where it would then be transported to clandestine booksellers or small-time peddlers. Readers were more interested in sensationalist stories about criminals and political corruption than they were in political theory itself. The second most popular category, "general works" those books "that did not have a dominant motif and that contained something to offend almost everyone in authority" , demonstrated a high demand for generally low-brow subversive literature.

However, these works never became part of literary canon and are largely forgotten today as a result. A healthy, legal publishing industry existed throughout Europe, although established publishers and book sellers occasionally ran afoul of the law. A genre that greatly rose in importance was that of scientific literature. Natural history in particular became increasingly popular among the upper classes.

Students in Enlightenment universities and academies were taught these subjects to prepare them for careers as diverse as medicine and theology. As shown by Matthew Daniel Eddy, natural history in this context was a very middle class pursuit and operated as a fertile trading zone for the interdisciplinary exchange of diverse scientific ideas.

The target audience of natural history was French polite society, evidenced more by the specific discourse of the genre than by the generally high prices of its works. Naturalists catered to polite society's desire for erudition — many texts had an explicit instructive purpose. However, natural history was often a political affair. As Emma Spary writes, the classifications used by naturalists "slipped between the natural world and the social In this way natural history spread many of the scientific developments of the time, but also provided a new source of legitimacy for the dominant class.

The first scientific and literary journals were established during the Enlightenment. However, it was not until that periodicals began to be more widely produced. French and Latin were the dominant languages of publication, but there was also a steady demand for material in German and Dutch.

There was generally low demand for English publications on the Continent, which was echoed by England's similar lack of desire for French works. Languages commanding less of an international market—such as Danish, Spanish and Portuguese—found journal success more difficult and more often than not a more international language was used instead. French slowly took over Latin's status as the lingua franca of learned circles.

This in turn gave precedence to the publishing industry in Holland, where the vast majority of these French language periodicals were produced. Jonathan Israel called the journals the most influential cultural innovation of European intellectual culture. Being a source of knowledge derived from science and reason, they were an implicit critique of existing notions of universal truth monopolized by monarchies, parliaments and religious authorities.

They also advanced Christian enlightenment that upheld "the legitimacy of God-ordained authority"—the Bible—in which there had to be agreement between the biblical and natural theories. Although the existence of dictionaries and encyclopedias spanned into ancient times, the texts changed from simply defining words in a long running list to far more detailed discussions of those words in 18th-century encyclopedic dictionaries.

As the 18th century progressed, the content of encyclopedias also changed according to readers' tastes.

Between Tradition and Another Beginning

Volumes tended to focus more strongly on secular affairs, particularly science and technology, rather than matters of theology. Along with secular matters, readers also favoured an alphabetical ordering scheme over cumbersome works arranged along thematic lines. For Porset, the avoidance of thematic and hierarchical systems thus allows free interpretation of the works and becomes an example of egalitarianism. Harris' book avoided theological and biographical entries and instead it concentrated on science and technology.

Published in , the Lexicon technicum was the first book to be written in English that took a methodical approach to describing mathematics and commercial arithmetic along with the physical sciences and navigation. Other technical dictionaries followed Harris' model, including Ephraim Chambers ' Cyclopaedia , which included five editions and was a substantially larger work than Harris'.

The folio edition of the work even included foldout engravings. The Cyclopaedia emphasized Newtonian theories, Lockean philosophy and contained thorough examinations of technologies, such as engraving , brewing and dyeing. In Germany, practical reference works intended for the uneducated majority became popular in the 18th century. The Marperger Curieuses Natur-, Kunst-, Berg-, Gewerkund Handlungs-Lexicon explained terms that usefully described the trades and scientific and commercial education. Jablonksi Allgemeines Lexicon was better known than the Handlungs-Lexicon and underscored technical subjects rather than scientific theory.

For example, over five columns of text were dedicated to wine while geometry and logic were allocated only twenty-two and seventeen lines, respectively. However, the prime example of reference works that systematized scientific knowledge in the age of Enlightenment were universal encyclopedias rather than technical dictionaries. It was the goal of universal encyclopedias to record all human knowledge in a comprehensive reference work. The work, which began publication in , was composed of thirty-five volumes and over 71 separate entries. A great number of the entries were dedicated to describing the sciences and crafts in detail and provided intellectuals across Europe with a high-quality survey of human knowledge.

In d'Alembert's Preliminary Discourse to the Encyclopedia of Diderot , the work's goal to record the extent of human knowledge in the arts and sciences is outlined:.

History of Daylight Saving Time (DST)

As a Reasoned Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades, it is to contain the general principles that form the basis of each science and each art, liberal or mechanical, and the most essential facts that make up the body and substance of each. The massive work was arranged according to a "tree of knowledge". The tree reflected the marked division between the arts and sciences, which was largely a result of the rise of empiricism. Both areas of knowledge were united by philosophy, or the trunk of the tree of knowledge. The Enlightenment's desacrilization of religion was pronounced in the tree's design, particularly where theology accounted for a peripheral branch, with black magic as a close neighbour.

One of the most important developments that the Enlightenment era brought to the discipline of science was its popularization. An increasingly literate population seeking knowledge and education in both the arts and the sciences drove the expansion of print culture and the dissemination of scientific learning. The new literate population was due to a high rise in the availability of food. This enabled many people to rise out of poverty, and instead of paying more for food, they had money for education. Sir Isaac Newton's celebrated Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica was published in Latin and remained inaccessible to readers without education in the classics until Enlightenment writers began to translate and analyze the text in the vernacular.

The first significant work that expressed scientific theory and knowledge expressly for the laity, in the vernacular and with the entertainment of readers in mind, was Bernard de Fontenelle 's Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds The book was produced specifically for women with an interest in scientific writing and inspired a variety of similar works. Charles Leadbetter's Astronomy was advertised as "a Work entirely New" that would include "short and easie [ sic ] Rules and Astronomical Tables". A similar introduction to Newtonianism for women was produced by Henry Pemberton.

Extant records of subscribers show that women from a wide range of social standings purchased the book, indicating the growing number of scientifically inclined female readers among the middling class. Sarah Trimmer wrote a successful natural history textbook for children titled The Easy Introduction to the Knowledge of Nature , which was published for many years after in eleven editions.

Most work on the Enlightenment emphasizes the ideals discussed by intellectuals, rather than the actual state of education at the time. Leading educational theorists like England's John Locke and Switzerland's Jean Jacques Rousseau both emphasized the importance of shaping young minds early. By the late Enlightenment, there was a rising demand for a more universal approach to education, particularly after the American and French Revolutions.

The predominant educational psychology from the s onward, especially in northern European countries was associationism, the notion that the mind associates or dissociates ideas through repeated routines. In addition to being conducive to Enlightenment ideologies of liberty, self-determination and personal responsibility, it offered a practical theory of the mind that allowed teachers to transform longstanding forms of print and manuscript culture into effective graphic tools of learning for the lower and middle orders of society.

These universities, especially Edinburgh, produced professors whose ideas had a significant impact on Britain's North American colonies and later the American Republic. Within the natural sciences, Edinburgh's medical school also led the way in chemistry, anatomy and pharmacology. In France, the major exception was the medical university at Montpellier. The history of Academies in France during the Enlightenment begins with the Academy of Science , founded in in Paris. It was closely tied to the French state, acting as an extension of a government seriously lacking in scientists.

It helped promote and organize new disciplines and it trained new scientists. It also contributed to the enhancement of scientists' social status, considering them to be the "most useful of all citizens". Academies demonstrate the rising interest in science along with its increasing secularization, as evidenced by the small number of clerics who were members 13 percent. They perceived themselves as "interpreters of the sciences for the people".

For example, it was with this in mind that academicians took it upon themselves to disprove the popular pseudo-science of mesmerism. These academic contests were perhaps the most public of any institution during the Enlightenment. However, by roughly this subject matter had radically expanded and diversified, including "royal propaganda, philosophical battles, and critical ruminations on the social and political institutions of the Old Regime". Topics of public controversy were also discussed such as the theories of Newton and Descartes, the slave trade, women's education and justice in France.

More importantly, the contests were open to all and the enforced anonymity of each submission guaranteed that neither gender nor social rank would determine the judging. Indeed, although the "vast majority" of participants belonged to the wealthier strata of society "the liberal arts, the clergy, the judiciary and the medical profession" , there were some cases of the popular classes submitting essays and even winning. Of a total of 2, prize competitions offered in France, women won 49—perhaps a small number by modern standards, but very significant in an age in which most women did not have any academic training.

Indeed, the majority of the winning entries were for poetry competitions, a genre commonly stressed in women's education.

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In England, the Royal Society of London also played a significant role in the public sphere and the spread of Enlightenment ideas. It was founded by a group of independent scientists and given a royal charter in This is where the Royal Society came into play: witnessing had to be a "collective act" and the Royal Society's assembly rooms were ideal locations for relatively public demonstrations. Two factors were taken into account: a witness's knowledge in the area and a witness's "moral constitution".

In other words, only civil society were considered for Boyle's public. It was the place in which philosophes got reunited and talked about old, actual or new ideas. Salons were the place where intellectual and enlightened ideas were built. Coffeehouses were especially important to the spread of knowledge during the Enlightenment because they created a unique environment in which people from many different walks of life gathered and shared ideas.

They were frequently criticized by nobles who feared the possibility of an environment in which class and its accompanying titles and privileges were disregarded. Such an environment was especially intimidating to monarchs who derived much of their power from the disparity between classes of people. If classes were to join together under the influence of Enlightenment thinking, they might recognize the all-encompassing oppression and abuses of their monarchs and because of their size might be able to carry out successful revolts.

Monarchs also resented the idea of their subjects convening as one to discuss political matters, especially those concerning foreign affairs—rulers thought political affairs to be their business only, a result of their supposed divine right to rule. Coffeehouses represent a turning point in history during which people discovered that they could have enjoyable social lives within their communities. Coffeeshops became homes away from home for many who sought, for the first time, to engage in discourse with their neighbors and discuss intriguing and thought-provoking matters, especially those regarding philosophy to politics.

Coffeehouses were essential to the Enlightenment, for they were centers of free-thinking and self-discovery. Although many coffeehouse patrons were scholars, a great deal were not. Coffeehouses attracted a diverse set of people, including not only the educated wealthy but also members of the bourgeoisie and the lower class. While it may seem positive that patrons, being doctors, lawyers, merchants, etc. One of the most popular critiques of the coffeehouse claimed that it "allowed promiscuous association among people from different rungs of the social ladder, from the artisan to the aristocrat" and was therefore compared to Noah's Ark, receiving all types of animals, clean or unclean.

Together, Steele and Addison published The Spectator , a daily publication which aimed, through fictional narrator Mr. Spectator, both to entertain and to provoke discussion regarding serious philosophical matters. The first English coffeehouse opened in Oxford in Brian Cowan said that Oxford coffeehouses developed into " penny universities ", offering a locus of learning that was less formal than structured institutions.

These penny universities occupied a significant position in Oxford academic life, as they were frequented by those consequently referred to as the virtuosi , who conducted their research on some of the resulting premises. According to Cowan, "the coffeehouse was a place for like-minded scholars to congregate, to read, as well as learn from and to debate with each other, but was emphatically not a university institution, and the discourse there was of a far different order than any university tutorial".

These bruits were allegedly a much better source of information than were the actual newspapers available at the time. The debating societies are an example of the public sphere during the Enlightenment. In the late s, popular debating societies began to move into more "genteel" rooms, a change which helped establish a new standard of sociability. The debating societies were commercial enterprises that responded to this demand, sometimes very successfully. Some societies welcomed from to 1, spectators a night.

The debating societies discussed an extremely wide range of topics. After the second half of the 17th century and during the 18th century, a "general process of rationalization and secularization set in" and confessional disputes were reduced to a secondary status in favor of the "escalating contest between faith and incredulity".

In addition to debates on religion, societies discussed issues such as politics and the role of women. However, it is important to note that the critical subject matter of these debates did not necessarily translate into opposition to the government. In other words, the results of the debate quite frequently upheld the status quo. Once inside, spectators were able to participate in a largely egalitarian form of sociability that helped spread Enlightenment ideas.

Historians have long debated the extent to which the secret network of Freemasonry was a main factor in the Enlightenment. It expanded rapidly during the Age of Enlightenment, reaching practically every country in Europe. It was especially attractive to powerful aristocrats and politicians as well as intellectuals, artists and political activists. During the Age of Enlightenment, Freemasons comprised an international network of like-minded men, often meeting in secret in ritualistic programs at their lodges.

They promoted the ideals of the Enlightenment and helped diffuse these values across Britain and France and other places. Freemasonry as a systematic creed with its own myths, values and set of rituals originated in Scotland around and spread first to England and then across the Continent in the eighteenth century. They fostered new codes of conduct—including a communal understanding of liberty and equality inherited from guild sociability—"liberty, fraternity and equality". One example was the Illuminati founded in Bavaria in , which was copied after the Freemasons, but was never part of the movement.

The Illuminati was an overtly political group, which most Masonic lodges decidedly were not. Masonic lodges created a private model for public affairs. They "reconstituted the polity and established a constitutional form of self-government, complete with constitutions and laws, elections and representatives". In other words, the micro-society set up within the lodges constituted a normative model for society as a whole.

This was especially true on the continent: when the first lodges began to appear in the s, their embodiment of British values was often seen as threatening by state authorities. For example, the Parisian lodge that met in the mid s was composed of English Jacobite exiles. For example, in French lodges the line "As the means to be enlightened I search for the enlightened" was a part of their initiation rites. British lodges assigned themselves the duty to "initiate the unenlightened".

This did not necessarily link lodges to the irreligious, but neither did this exclude them from the occasional heresy. In fact, many lodges praised the Grand Architect, the masonic terminology for the deistic divine being who created a scientifically ordered universe. German historian Reinhart Koselleck claimed: "On the Continent there were two social structures that left a decisive imprint on the Age of Enlightenment: the Republic of Letters and the Masonic lodges".

Diderot discusses the link between Freemason ideals and the enlightenment in D'Alembert's Dream, exploring masonry as a way of spreading enlightenment beliefs. The major opponent of Freemasonry was the Roman Catholic Church so that in countries with a large Catholic element, such as France, Italy, Spain and Mexico, much of the ferocity of the political battles involve the confrontation between what Davies calls the reactionary Church and enlightened Freemasonry. The art produced during the Enlightenment was about a search for morality that was absent from previous art.

At the same time, the Classical art of Greece and Rome became interesting to people again, since archaeological teams discovered Pompeii and Herculaneum. This can be especially seen in early American art, where, throughout their art and architecture, they used arches, goddesses, and other classical architectural designs.

For up to Descartes The superiority of a sub-iectum Why and how does this claim acquire its decisive authority? The claim originates in that emancipation of man in which he frees himself from obligation to Christian revelational truth and Church doctrine to a legislating for himself that takes its stand upon itself. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Key difference #2—The relationship with funding

For other uses, see Age of reason disambiguation. General terms. Intellect Intelligence Intellectual Intellectual giftedness Intellectual history Intellectual honesty Intellectual humility Intellectual inbreeding Intellectual functioning Intellectual property Intellectual rigor Intellectual virtue Intellectualisation Intelligentsia Rationalism. Intellectual property Organization infringement Outline Manufacturing Consent.

Related topics. Main article: Science in the Age of Enlightenment. Main article: Enlightened absolutism. Main articles: Separation of church and state and Separation of church and state in the United States. Further information: Scottish Enlightenment. Further information: American Enlightenment. Main article: History of Portugal — Main article: Enlightenment in Poland. Main article: Republic of Letters.

Main article: Natural history. Main article: Education in the Age of Enlightenment. Main article: Historiography of the salon. Main articles: Coffeehouse and English coffeehouses in the 17th and 18th centuries. Main article: London Debating Societies. Main article: List of intellectuals of the Enlightenment. Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 3 April Alpha Test. Visioni in movimento. Teorie dell'evoluzione e scienze sociali dall'Illuminismo a oggi: Teorie dell'evoluzione e scienze sociali dall'Illuminismo a oggi.

Isaac Newton. Ferguson, The American Enlightenment, — Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on Retrieved CS1 maint: archived copy as title link accessed on June 8, The British Journal of Sociology. Daiches, P. Jones and J. Harcourt, p. Historical Journal. The French Revolution. Nelson Cengage.

25 Amazing Scientific Reasons Behind Indian Traditions & Culture - Hinduism Facts

Social Contract Theory. Therefore let us celebrate the festival Historical Dictionary of Catholicism. Retrieved December 23, The Origins of Christmas. Liturgical Press. Online here [1] Archived February 19, , at the Wayback Machine. Yale, p. Roll, Susan K. Archived from the original on November 2, Retrieved June 20, Archived from the original on December 11, Retrieved November 17, In: Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen , part 1.

Second edition. Note that the first edition, , doesn't have the discussion of Natalis Solis Invicti ; also Sol Invictus The Origins of the Liturgical Year.

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The Sun in the Art and Religions of Rome. Archived from the original on May 10, Westerfield The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought. January , pp. Retrieved September 10, Christmas in America: a History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. History Today. Archived from the original on December 29, Retrieved December 28, There is no doubt that A Christmas Carol is first and foremost a story concerned with the Christian gospel of liberation by the grace of God, and with incarnational religion which refuses to drive a wedge between the world of spirit and the world of matter.

Both the Christmas dinners and the Christmas dinner-carriers are blessed; the cornucopia of Christmas food and feasting reflects both the goodness of creation and the joy of heaven. It is a significant sign of a shift in theological emphasis in the nineteenth century from a stress on the Atonement to a stress on the Incarnation, a stress which found outward and visible form in the sacramentalism of the Oxford Movement, the development of richer and more symbolic forms of worship, the building of neo-Gothic churches, and the revival and increasing centrality of the keeping of Christmas itself as a Christian festival.

In the course of the century, under the influence of the Oxford Movement's concern for the better observance of Christian festivals, Christmas became more and more prominent. By the later part of the century cathedrals provided special services and musical events, and might have revived ancient special charities for the poor — though we must not forget the problems for large: parish-church cathedrals like Manchester, which on one Christmas Day had no less than eighty couples coming to be married the signing of the registers lasted until four in the afternoon.

The popularity of Dickens' A Christmas Carol played a significant part in the changing consciousness of Christmas and the way in which it was celebrated. The popularity of his public readings of the story is an indication of how much it resonated with the contemporary mood, and contributed to the increasing place of the Christmas celebration in both secular and religious ways that was firmly established by the end of the nineteenth century.

January 11, January 1, John Milton. University Press of Kentucky. Milton was raised an Anglican, trained to become an Anglican minister, and remained an Anglican through the signing of the subscription books of Cambridge University in both and , which demanded an allegiance to the state church and its Thirty-nine Articles. His father had wanted him to practice law but Milton considered writing poetry his life's work. At 21 years old, he wrote a poem, "On the morning of Christ's Nativity," a work that is still widely read during Christmas. Christmas: Festival of Incarnation.

Worship: Reformed According to Scripture. Westminster John Knox Press. Within a few years the Reformed church calendar was fairly well established. The heart of it was the weekly observance of the resurrection on the Lord's Day. Instead of liturgical seasons being observed, "the five evangelical feast days" were observed: Christmas, Good Friday, Easter, Ascension, and Pentecost.

They were chosen because they were understood to mark the essential stages in the history of salvation. Journal of the History of Ideas. However, when Thomas Mocket, rector of Gilston in Hertfordshire, decried such vices in a pamphlet to justify the parliamentary 'ban' of Christmas, effective since June Christmastide: its history, festivities and carols.

London: John Russell Smith. Domestic Annals of Scotland , p. Archived from the original on May 19, Retrieved February 29, Scotland: a very short introduction. Very short introductions. The Victorian Christmas Book. The Diary of a Country Parson — Ayer Publishing. Merry Christmas! Harvard University Press. Moravian Christmas in the South. Christmas in Colonial and Early America. World Book Encyclopedia. Carols were altered by substituting names of prominent political leaders for royal characters in the lyrics, such as the Three Kings.

Church bells were melted down for their bronze to increase the national treasury, and religious services were banned on Christmas Day. The cake of kings, too, came under attack as a symbol of the royalty. It survived, however, for a while with a new name—the cake of equality. Archived from the original on November 1, How did people celebrate the Christmas during the French Revolution? In white-knuckled terror behind closed doors.

Churches across France were renamed "Temples of Reason" and the Notre Dame was "de-baptized" for the occasion. The Commune spared no expense: "The first festival of reason, which took place in Notre Dame, featured a fabricated mountain, with a temple of philosophy at its summit and a script borrowed from an opera libretto. TUC press release. Archived from the original PDF on June 3, USA Today. Archived from the original on November 6, Retrieved April 30, What Dickens did advocate in his story was "the spirit of Christmas".

Sociologist James Barnett has described it as Dickens's "Carol Philosophy", which "combined religious and secular attitudes toward to celebration into a humanitarian pattern. It excoriated individual selfishness and extolled the virtues of brotherhood, kindness, and generosity at Christmas. Dickens preached that at Christmas men should forget self and think of others, especially the poor and the unfortunate.

A Christmas Carol. Broadview Press. Wordplay: origins, meanings, and usage of the English language. University of Toronto Press, , p. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. Christmas in My Heart , Volume 10, p. Review and Herald Pub Assoc, Inverloch Historical Society Inc. Archived from the original on May 26, Retrieved July 25, University of Wisconsin.

Compendium of symbolic and ritual plants in Europe , p. Edition Stackpole Books Godey's copied it exactly, except he removed the Queen's tiara, and Prince Albert's moustache, to remake the engraving into an American scene. Archived from the original on December 19, A History of Graphic Design. Straus November 16, Congressional Research Service. Archived PDF from the original on January 3, Retrieved January 2, Christmas Past. London: Sidgwick and Jackson. London: Metro Publishing.

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The Guardian. Archived from the original on October 6, Retrieved October 23, A chapter on representations of Christmas in Soviet cinema could, in fact be the shortest in this collection: suffice it to say that there were, at least officially, no Christmas celebrations in the atheist socialist state after its foundation in Religious Policy in the Soviet Union. Cambridge University Press. The League sallied forth to save the day from this putative religious revival. Antireligioznik obliged with so many articles that it devoted an entire section of its annual index for to anti-religious training in the schools.

More such material followed in , and a flood of it the next year. It recommended what Lenin and others earlier had explicitly condemned—carnivals, farces, and games to intimidate and purge the youth of religious belief. It suggested that pupils campaign against customs associated with Christmas including Christmas trees and Easter. Some schools, the League approvingly reported, staged an anti-religious day on the 31st of each month. Not teachers but the League's local set the programme for this special occasion. Syracuse University Press. As observed by Nicholas Brianchaninov, writing in —, after the NEP and just as the worst of collectivization was beginning, the Soviets deemed it necessary to drive into the heads of the people the axiom that religion was the synthesis of everything most harmful to humanity.

It must be presented as the enemy of man and society, of life and learning, of progress. In caricatures, articles, Bezbozhnik , Antireligioznik , League of Militant Atheists propaganda and films. School courses [were give] on conducting the struggle against religion how to profane a church, break windows, objects of piety.

The young, always eager to be with the latest trend, often responded to such propaganda. In Moscow in children were brought to spit on the crucifixes at Christmas. Priests in Tiraspol diocese were sometimes betrayed by their own young parishioners, leading to their imprisonment and even death, and tearing their families apart. But, as with most of Yeltsin's pronouncements, the holiday stirs a controversy". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 22, Retrieved November 22, For the first time in more than seven decades, Christmas—celebrated today by Russian Orthodox Christians—is a full state holiday across Russia's vast and snowy expanse.

Yeltsin's ambitious plan to revive the traditions of Old Russia, the republic's legislature declared last month that Christmas, long ignored under atheist Communist ideology, should be written back into the public calendar. Polosin, head of the Russian legislature's committee on religion.

The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 6, Retrieved March 11, The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on May 29, Retrieved April 4, June 21, A History of Denmark. Macmillan International Higher Education. It is quite normal to go to church on Christmas Eve, and many people like to celebrate a christening or wedding in church. The Church is especially important at the end of a life; by far the majority of funerals are still conducted in a church by a minister. The United Methodist Church. Retrieved December 9, Christianity Today.

Archived from the original on January 29, Archived from the original on December 27, Stories Behind the Great Traditions of Christmas. Retrieved December 2, January 24, November 26, Archived from the original on September 14, Italy Magazine. The Christmas tree as we know it seemed to emerge in Lutheran lands in Germany in the sixteenth century. Although no specific city or town has been identified as the first to have a Christmas tree, records for the Cathedral of Strassburg indicate that a Christmas tree was set up in that church in during Martin Bucer's superintendency.

Lutheran Spokesman. The Christmas tree became a widespread custom among German Lutherans by the eighteenth century. The Feast of Christmas. German Lutherans brought the decorated Christmas tree with them; the Moravians put lighted candles on those trees. A Short History of Christianity. Many Lutherans continued to set up a small fir tree as their Christmas tree, and it must have been a seasonal sight in Bach's Leipzig at a time when it was virtually unknown in England, and little known in those farmlands of North America where Lutheran immigrants congregated.

Canadian Christmas Traditions. The eight-pointed star became a popular manufactured Christmas ornament around the s and many people place a star on the top of their Christmas tree to represent the Star of Bethlehem. The School Journal. Christmas is the occasional of family reunions.

Grandmother always has the place of honor. As the time approaches for enjoying the tree, she gathers her grandchildren about her, to tell them the story of the Christ child, with the meaning of the Christ child, with the meaning of the Christmas tree; how the evergreen is meant to represent the life everlasting, the candle lights to recall the light of the world, and the star at the top of the tree is to remind them of the star of Bethlehem. The same ambiguity is seen in that most familiar of angels, the angel on top of the Christmas tree.

This decoration, popularized in the nineteenth century, recalls the place of the angels in the Christmas story Luke 2. When Santa was a shaman. Paul: Llewellyn Publications , Lowe His biographer, Eddius Stephanus, relates that while Boniface was serving as a missionary near Geismar, Germany, he had enough of the locals' reverence for the old gods. Taking an axe to an oak tree dedicated to Norse god Thor, Boniface chopped the tree down and dared Thor to zap him for it.

When nothing happened, Boniface pointed out a young fir tree amid the roots of the oak and explained how this tree was a more fitting object of reverence as it pointed towards the Christian heaven and its triangular shape was reminiscent of the Christian trinity. The Christmas Archives. Archived from the original on December 21, Retrieved December 18, Fashion Era. Archived from the original on December 18, It is said to resemble the star of Bethlehem. The Mexicans call it the flower of the Holy Night, but usually it is called poinsettia after the man who introduced it to America, Dr Joel Poinsett.

Archived from the original on January 22, Retrieved February 17, The Mistletoe Pages. Archived from the original on December 25, Catholic Culture. Retrieved December 10, A Flame of Love. A Christmas Carol , Broadview Press, , p. Retrieved October 28, Retrieved April 10, The legend of St. Nicholas, who became the bishop of Myra in the beginning of the fourth century, is the next link in the Christmas-gift chain.

Legend has it that during his life the priest rode across Asia Minor bestowing gifts upon poor children. Princeton University Press. This exchange network of ceremonial welcome was mirrored in a second reciprocity allowing early Christians to imagine their own magi: the phenomenon of giving gifts. Most people today trace the practice of giving gifts on Christmas Day to the three gifts that the Magi gave to Jesus. Sociology of Giving.

SAGE Publications. For the Enlightenment educationalist, gift-giving turned out to be a relic of a pagan custom, namely, the Roman Saturnalia. After the introduction of the Julian calendar in Rome, the 25th of December became the day of Sol invictus when people greeted the winter solstice. It was the day of the Sun's rebirth, and it was the day of the Christmas festivities — although it was only in the year AD that it appears to have become established as the day of Jesus's birth see Pannenberg The Eastern Church adopted this date even later, towards the end of the 4th century, having previously regarded the 6th of January as the day of gift-giving, as it still is in the Italian community of Befana.

The winter solstice was a time of festivity in every traditional culture, and the Christian Christmas probably took its place within this mythical context of the solar cult. Its core dogma of the Incarnation, however, solidly established the giving and receiving of gifts as the structural principle of that recurrent yet unique event. But in reality it was they, together with all their fellow men, who received the gift of God through man's renewed participation in the divine life' ibid.

Marshall Cavendish. The regions of Italy: a reference guide to history and culture. Greenwood Publishing Group. Saint Nicholas Bishop of Myra replaced Sabino as the patron saint of the city A Greek from what is now Turkey, he lived in the early fourth century. Stories Behind Men of Faith. Archived from the original on September 11, Nicholas was born in the Greek city of Patara around AD.

The son of a businessman named Theophanes and his wife, Nonna, the child's earliest years were spent in Myra As a port on the Mediterranean Sea, in the middle of the sea lanes that linked Egypt, Greece and Rome, Myra was a destination for traders, fishermen, and merchant sailors. Spawned by the spirit of both the city's Greek heritage and the ruling Roman government, cultural endeavours such as art, drama, and music were mainstays of everyday life.

Archived from the original on May 13, Father Christmas — but this Santa also goes by the name Jonathan Meath Boston Globe. Meath, who is in his first year of being a full-time Santa, makes appearances around Massachusetts at places such as Swing City in Newton Retrieved December 5, Theology Today. Princeton: Princeton Theological Seminary. Basil — ". Archived from the original on January 12, Bezprawnik in Polish.

Archived from the original on December 24, November 2, Archived from the original on March 3, The Holiday Season" December 19, Archived from the original on March 1, Yale University Press. Retrieved August 11, Archived from the original on August 26, Retrieved August 10, August 11, Retrieved December 11, Who Cares? Archived from the original on August 7, Retrieved August 22, Archived from the original on September 29, Archived from the original on February 16, Retrieved April 12, Religious Minorities and China. Minority Rights Group International.

Muslim Education in the 21st Century: Asian Perspectives. Subsequently, a new China was found on the basis of Communist ideology, i.