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Long, Y. Wang, J. Chen, S. Jiang, A. Nordberg, Z. Most Popular By Country. View Statistics Show Statistical Information. Export xmlui. Abstract An expert assessment of both the beneficial and toxic effects to human health posed by the use of fluorine and fluorides. Conclusions and recommendations are based on a critical analysis of well over clinical and laboratory investigations. The introductory sections consider methods for the measurement of fluorides in inorganic and organic materials, sources and magnitude of exposure, and effects on health as determined through a large number of laboratory investigations.
The most extensive section is devoted to a critical review of data on beneficial and toxic effects in humans.
Beneficial effects of fluoride in drinking water, salt, milk, tablets, and topical applications are considered in terms of the preventive effects on dental caries and their use in the treatment of osteoporosis. Toxic effects reviewed include various forms of fluorosis, effects on renal function, hypersensitivity and dermatological reactions, and carcinogenic and teratogenic risks. On the basis of this review, the report confirms the beneficial effects of fluoride in the prevention of caries, while noting that long-term exposure to high quantities may damage enamel and bone; very high doses cause acute toxic effects and may be lethal.
World Health Organization.