go In both ways, then, human behaviour is the result of behaviour. The experience of other people are impressed on one as he grows up, and also many of his traits and abilities have grown out of his own past behaviours. Culture includes Attitudes, Values Knowledge: 8. When there is agreement with other people it is largely unnoticed, but when there is a disagreement or difference one is usually conscious of it.
Your differences however, may also be cultural. For example, suppose you are a Catholic and the other person a Protestant. For example, the adolescent cultural behaviour can be generalized from regularities in dress, mannerism and conversation. Implicit culture exists in abstract forms which are not quite obvious. Men were behaving when they made these things. To make these objects required numerous and various skills which human beings gradually built up through the ages.
Man has invented something else and so on. Man merely modified their form, changed them from a state in which they were to the state in which he now uses them. The chair was first a tree which man surely did not 9. But the chair is more than trees and the jet airplane is more than iron ore and so forth. Culture is shared by the Members of Society: The patterns of learned behaviour and the results of behaviour are possessed not by one or a few person, but usually by a large proportion.
Thus, many millions of persons share such behaviour patterns as Christianity, the use of automobiles, or the English language. Persons may share some part of a culture unequally. For example, as Americans do the Christian religion. To some persons Christianity is the all important, predominating idea in life. Sometimes the people share different aspects of culture. For example, among the Christians, there are — Catholic and Protestant, liberal or conservation, as clergymen or as laymen. The point to our discussion is not that culture or any part of it is shred identically, but that it is shared by the members of society to a sufficient extent.
Culture is Super-organic: Culture is sometimes called super organic. The word super-organic is useful when it implies that what may be quite a different phenomenon from a cultural point of view. The same physical objects and physical characteristics, in other words, may constitute a variety of quite different cultural objects and cultural characteristics.
Culture is Pervasive: Culture is pervasive it touches every aspect of life. The pervasiveness of culture is manifest in two ways. First, culture provides an unquestioned context within which individual action and response take place. Not only emotional action but relational actions are governed by cultural norms. Second, culture pervades social activities and institutions. With each culture there come into being characteristic purposes not necessarily shared by other types of society.
There is an unconscious tendency to defy culture, to endow it with life and treat it as a thing. Culture, in short, is a human product; it is not independently endowed with life. Culture is Idealistic: Culture embodies the ideas and norms of a group. It is sum-total of the ideal patterns and norms of behaviour of a group. Culture consists of the intellectual, artistic and social ideals and institutions which the members of the society profess and to which they strive to confirm. Culture is transmitted among members of Society: The cultural ways are learned by persons from persons.
Some of the transmission of culture is among contemporaries. For example, the styles of dress, political views, and the use of recent labor saving devices. One does not acquire a behavior pattern spontaneously. He learns it. That means that someone teaches him and he learns. Much of the learning process both for the teacher and the learner is quite unconscious, unintentional, or accidental.
Some societies at sometimes change slowly, and hence in comparison to other societies seem not to be changing at all. But they are changing, even though not obviously so. Culture is Variable: Culture varies from society to society, group to group. Hence, we say culture of India or England. Further culture varies from group to group within the same society. There are subcultures within a culture. Cluster of patterns which are both related to general culture of the society and yet distinguishable from it are called subcultures. Culture is an integrated system: Culture possesses an order and system.
Its various parts are integrated with each other and any new element which is introduced is also integrated. Language is the Chief Vehicle of Culture: Man lives not only in the present but also in the past and future. He is able to do this because he possesses language which transmits to him what was learned in the past and enables him to transmit the accumulated wisdom to the next generation.
A specialized language pattern serves as a common bond to the members of a particular group or subculture. Although culture is transmitted in a variety of ways, language is one of the most important vehicles for perpetuating cultural patterns. It is culture that, in the wide focus of the world, distinguishes individual from individual, group from group and society. Culture Defines Situations: Each culture has many subtle cues which define each situation. It reveals whether one should prepare to fight, run, laugh or make love.
For example, suppose someone approaches you with right hand outstretched at waist level.
What does this mean? That he wishes to shake hands in friendly greeting is perfectly obvious — obvious, that is to anyone familiar with our culture.
Culture defines Attitudes, Values and Goals: Each person learns in his culture what is good, true, and beautiful. Attitudes, values and goals are defined by the culture. While the individual normally learns them as unconsciously as he learns the language. Attitude are tendencies to feel and act in certain ways.
Values are measures of goodness or desirability, for example, we value private property, representative Government and many other things and experience. By approving certain goals and ridiculing others, the culture channels individual ambitions. In these ways culture determines the goals of life. Culture defines Myths, Legends, and the Supernatural: Myths and legends are important part of every culture.
They may inspire, reinforce effort and sacrifice and bring comfort in bereavement. Whether they are true is sociologically unimportant. Ghosts are real to people who believe in them and who act upon this belief. We cannot understand the behavior of any group without knowing something of the myths, legends, and supernatural beliefs they hold. Culture also provides the individual with a ready-made view of the universe. The nature of divine power and the important moral issues are defined by the culture.
The individual does not have to select, but is trained in a Christian, Buddhist, Hindu, Muslim or some other religious tradition. Culture provides Behavior Patterns: The individual need not go through painful trial and error learning to know what foods can be eaten without poisoning himself , or how to live among people without fear.
He finds a ready-made set of patterns awaiting him which he needs only to learn and follow. The culture maps out the path to matrimony. The individual does not have to wonder how one secures a mate; he knows the procedure defined by his culture. A culture is an organized group of learned responses.
The individual is living organism capable of independent thought, feeling and action, but with his independence limited and all his resources profoundly modified by contact with the society and culture in which he develops. A society cannot exist apart from culture. A Society is always made of persons and their groupings.
People carry and transmit culture, but they are not culture. No culture can exists except as it is embodied in a society of man; no society can operate without, cultural directives. Like matter and energy, like mind and body, they are interdependent and interacting yet express different aspects of the human situation. One must always keep in mind the interdependence and the reciprocal relationship between culture and society. Each is distinguishable concept in which the patterning and organization of the whole is more important than any of the component parts.
As this definition suggests, there are two basic components of culture: The first type, called nonmaterial culture, includes the values, beliefs, symbols, and language that define a society. The second type, called material culture, includes all the society's physical objects, such as its tools and technology, clothing, eating utensils, and means of transportation. Symbols: The first element that exists in every culture is a variety of symbols. A symbol is anything that is used to stand for something else. People who share a culture often attach a specific meaning to an object, gesture, sound, or image.
For example, a cross is a significant symbol to Christians.
It is not simply two pieces of wood attached to each other, nor is it just an old object of torture and execution. To Christians, it represents the basis of their entire religion, and they have great reverence for the symbol. For examples Symbols in American culture. Emoticons are combinations of keyboard characters that many use to represent their feelings online or through texting. The American flag represents our entire country. A red light at a traffic intersection is used to relay the message that you need to stop your vehicle.
Language: The second element present in every culture is a language. Language is a system of words and symbols used to communicate with other people. This includes full languages as we usually think of them, such as English, Spanish, French, etc. But it also includes body language, slang, and common phrases that are unique to certain groups of people.
For example, even though English is spoken fluently in both America and Britain, we have slang and phrases that mean different things. American French fries are British chips, American cookies are British biscuits, and so on.
Values: Members of the culture use the shared system of values to decide what is good and what is bad. For example, in America, we are individualistic - we encourage competition and emphasize personal achievement. A person who accepts a promotion in our culture is praised for their individual hard work and talent. But our values are in stark contrast with the collectivistic values of other cultures, where collaboration is encouraged, and a person's success is only as good as their contributions to the group.
Norms: Every society has expectations about how its members should and should not behave. A norm is a guideline or an expectation for behavior. Each society makes up its own rules for behavior and decides when those rules have been violated and what to do about it. Norms change constantly. How Norms Differ?? Norms differ widely among societies, and they can even differ from group to group within the same society.
Different settings: Wherever we go, expectations are placed on our behavior. Even within the same society, these norms change from setting to setting. Example: The way we are expected to behave in church differs from the way we are expected to behave at a party, which also differs from the way we should behave in a classroom. Different countries: Norms are place-specific, and what is considered appropriate in one country may be considered highly inappropriate in another. In the United States, people are expected to sit quietly during a movie, and shouting would be unacceptable.
Different time periods: Appropriate and inappropriate behavior often changes dramatically from one generation to the next. Norms can and do shift over time. Example: In the United States in the s, a woman almost never asked a man out on a date, nor did she pay for the date. While some traditional norms for dating prevail, most women today feel comfortable asking men out on dates and paying for some or even all of the expenses. Norm Categories: Sociologists have separated norms into four categories: folkways, mores, laws, and taboos.
Folkways: A folkway is a norm for everyday behavior that people follow for the sake of convenience or tradition. People practice folkways simply because they have done things that way for a long time. Violating a folkway does not usually have serious consequences. Example: Holding the door open for a person right behind you is a folkway. Since mores have moral significance, people feel strongly about them, and violating a more usually results in disapproval.
Example: Parents who believe in the more that only married people should live together will disapprove of their son living with his girlfriend. Culture Lag: In , the sociologist William Osborn coined the term culture lag. Cultural differences worldwide are very different. For example, in the US, we promote individuality, freedom, competition, directness, and openness yet in Japan, the opposite can be said.
They promote belonging, group harmony, group consensus, indirectness, and go-betweens. These values are individual to each country and culture and it is what defines them as a culture. What are the four dimensions of culture studied by Geert Hofstede? Identify and describe each. What is the cultural profile of the United States? Of Asian countries? Of Latin American Countries? Based on your comparisons of these profiles, what conclusions can you draw.
ANS:- Geert Hofstede - Dutch researcher Geert Hofstede found that there is four dimensions of culture that help explain how and why people from various cultures behave as they do. These dimensions are; 1 power distance; 2 uncertainty avoidance, 3 individualism, and 4 masculinity. Power Distance - The extent to which less powerful members of institutions and organizations accept that power is distributed unequally.
Collectivism - Individualism is the tendency of people to look after themselves and their immediate family only. Collectivism is the tendency of people to belong to groups or collectives and to look after each other in exchange for loyalty. Femininity - A culture in which the dominant values in society are success, money, and things scores high on masculinity. A culture in which the dominant values in society are caring for others and quality of life scores high on femininity.
African cultures involve many aspects of music, dance, art, and storytelling. With more than 1, languages spoken and many different religions and tribes, Africa is rich in cultural diversity. African American homes also have remarkable diversity, with notable differences across regions of the U. Families often include immediate and extended relatives, with a collectivistic worldview and sense of shard community. For this and other cultures that value a collective lifestyle, tactile learning and cooperative grouping instructional activities may be better as they parallel the context for learning found in their cultures.
American Asians make up about 55 of the United states' population and are one of the fastest growing groups in North America. Asian Americans are highly diverse, with dozens of ethnic backgrounds and languages, including individuals from Chinese, Japanses, Korean, Indonesian, Laotion, Philippine, Thai, and Vietnamese ancestry. Asian Americans commonly face challenges in establishing cultural identity. This is expecially true of second-generation immigrants who struggle with the balance of traditional cultural ideas and the pressure of assimilating into the very different American cultural society.
When working with individuals of Asian ancestry it is important to understand three of the main Eastern phiilosophies and their impact upon Asian culture: Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism. Within these philosophies families are highly structure, hierarchical, and paternally oriented. Family systems are also taught not to bring shame to one's family and that the welfare and integrity of the family are very important. The philosophies also teach principles of peace, balance, and harmony.
This is one reason why some Asians may tend to avoid confrontation or appear passive, indifferent, or indecisive. Using indirect methods of communication may be appropriate for some Asians with strong ties to their ancestral culture. What are the characteristics of each of the following pairs of cultural characteristics derived from Trompenaars research: universalism vs. Compare and contrast each pair. ANS:1 Universalism vs. Particularism a Universalism - The belief that ideas and practices can be applied everywhere in the world without modification.
Communitarianism a Individualism - Refers to people regarding themselves as individuals. Emotional a Neutral Culture - A culture in which emotions are held in check. Diffuse a Specific Culture - A culture in which individuals have a large public space they readily share with others and a small private space they guard closely and share with only close friends and associates. Ascription a Achievement Culture - A culture in which people are accorded status based on how well they perform their functions.
Howard V. Perlmutter is a world authority on globalisation and pioneer on the internationalisation of firms, cities and other institutions. Trained as a mechanical engineer and as a social psychologist, Perlmutter joined Wharton's faculty in He specialised in the evolution of multinational corporations MNCs making predictions to how their viability and legitimacy would change. Perlmutter is the first academic who identified distinctive managerial orientations of international companies.
These organisational world views are shaped by a number or factors such as the circumstances during which the company was formed, the CEO's leadership style, its administrative processes, the organisational myths and traditions. Perlmutter stated that these cultural orientations determine the way strategic decisions are made and how the relationship between headquarters and its subsidiaries is shaped. In he bundled his insights by publishing the EPG model.
Perlmutter's EPG model states that senior management at an international organisation holds one of three primary orientations when. The practices and policies of headquarters and of the operating company in the home country become the default standard to which all subsidiaries need to comply. This mind set has as advantages that it overcomes a potential shortage of qualified managers in host nations by expatriating managers from the home country, creates a unified corporate culture and helps transfer core competences more easily by deploying nationals throughout the organisation.
The main disadvantages are that an ethnocentric mindset can lead to cultural short-sightedness and to not promoting the best and brightest in a firm. Local people know what is best for their operation and should b given maximum freedom to run their affairs as they see fit. This view alleviates the chance of cultural myopia and is often less expensive to implement than ethnocentricity because it needs less expatriate managers to be send out and centralised policies to be maintained.
The drawbacks of this attitude are that it can limit career mobility for both local and foreign nationals, isolate headquarters from foreign subsidiaries and reduces opportunities to achieve synergy. Within legal and political limits, executives try to seek the best men, regardless of nationality, to solve the company's problems wherever in the world they occur.
This attitude uses human resources efficiently and furthermore helps to build a strong culture and informal management networks. Drawbacks are that national immigration policies may put limits to its implementation and it might be a bit expensive compared to polycentrism. It attempts to balance both global integration and local responsiveness. Perlmutter's observation was that most MNCs start out with an ethnocentric view, slowly evolve to polycentrism and finally adopt geocentrism as the organisation familiarises itself more and more with conducting business on a global playing field. In Perlmutter and his collague David A.
Heenan added a fourth orientation to create the EPRG model: the R stands for a regiocentric approach falling in between a polycentric and geocentric orientation. Regiocentric or regional orientation is defined as a functional rationalization on a more-than-one country basis. Subsidiaries get grouped into larger regional entities. Regions are consistent with some natural boundaries, such as the Europe, America and Asia-Pacific. Both polycentric and regiocentric approaches allow for more local responsiveness, with less corporate integration. Elucidate the reasons for success and failure of joint ventures worldwide.
Give five suitable examples in each case? ANS:- Joint ventures are the most common means of getting goods into foreign countries. In a joint venture, a multinational teams up with a company in a host country to share risks and complementary capabilities. Although contractual agreements are similar to joint ventures, the latter differ in the amount of input and control the companies share. The company in the host country may provide important access to local channels of distribution, government contracts, and supply sources.
Or, it may bring technological or marketing skills to the table, or serve as a source of capital. Often times, a joint venture allows the multinational to bypass trade restrictions and overcome nationalistic barriers to success in the foreign country. The primary risk inherent to joint ventures, in additional to normal market risk, is that the interests of both parties might conflict.
This usually occurs because the local company is viewing the operation within a local context, while the multinational is looking at the venture as just one element of an overall global program. Discrepancies often arise over how much profit to plow back into the operation, how to handle transfer pricing issues how much affiliated companies should charge each other for various goods and services , and product and market decisions.
In a worst-case scenario, the partnership deteriorates to the point where one or both partners fail to benefit. For this reason, most successful joint ventures have a definite leader that maintains more control, and assumes more risk, in the venture. Businesses of any size can use joint ventures to strengthen long-term relationships or to collaborate on short-term projects. A joint venture can help your business grow faster, increase productivity and generate greater profits. A successful joint venture can offer:.
Joint ventures often enable growth without having to borrow funds or look for outside investors. You may be able to use your joint venture partner's customer database to market your product, or offer your partner's services and products to your existing customers. Joint venture partners also benefit from being able to join forces in purchasing, research and development. A joint venture can also be very flexible.
For example, a joint venture can have a limited life span and only cover part of what you do, thus limiting the commitment for both parties and the business' exposure. Joint ventures are especially popular with businesses in the transport and travel industries that operate in different countries. An example of a successful joint venture that later soured involved Xerox Corp. In an effort to broaden its global presence, Xerox entered into a joint venture in the s with Rank Organization of the United Kingdom.
Xerox signed an agreement that essentially gave Rank-Xerox the exclusive rights to manufacture and sell Xerographic machines outside of North America. As time progressed, Xerox outgrew its markets in North America and wanted to sell its machines in other countries.